Features of the chamfering process
To cut the edge on the metal product special units are used. chamfering machines, which are distinguished by the method of cutting into three types (air-flame, mechanical and gas-oxygen equipment).
- Using clamps the chamfering tool is fixed on the edge of a sheet or on the inner side of a metal pipe.
- Then the necessary beveling angle is set.
- The cutter head is moved onto the workpiece when the machine is switched on and the chamfering process is carried out.
- The cutter is returned to its starting position when work is complete.
- After chamfering, the work surface of the product is considered ready for further welding work.
The chamfering process produces a weldpool (bath) that collects hot welding consumables. The chamfered edge has a certain amount of bluntness of about 3-5 mm. When the vessel is filled with welding compound, the dulling area will melt through itself. Thanks to this, the necessary joint tightness is achieved and additional reliability is created.
Choosing the right cutter tip geometry for the chamfer
Chamfering cutters can be found in any machine shop, assembly shop or garage for hobbyists. These cutters are simple tools that are used to bevel any part in a wide variety of materials. There are many reasons to chamfer a part, from fluid flow and safety to the aesthetics of the part. Because of the variety of needs, tooling manufacturers offer bevel cutters with different angles and sizes, as well as different types of cutter tip geometries. The most common ones, for example, have 21 angles on each side, from 15° to 80°, the number of grooves from 2 to 6 and the shank diameter from 1/8 to 1 inch.
By finding a tool with the exact angle they are looking for, the customer may have to choose a specific chamfering cutting edge that is best suited for their job. Common types of bevel cutters include pointed, flat and end cutters. The following three types of chamfer cutting edges, are the most common and unique.
Type I: pointed
This type of bevel cutter is the only tool option that produces a sharp point. The sharpened tip allows the cutter to work with smaller grooves, grooves and holes than the other two types. This style also makes programming and zeroing SC easier because the point can be easily detected. Because of the tip, this version of the bevel cutter has the longest cutting length (when the tool approaches the end point) compared to the flat end of other bevel cutter types. With only a two-tooth option, this is the simplest version of the bevel cutter.
Type II: Flat-edged, no cutting edge
Type II bevel cutters are very similar to type I, but have the end ground to a flat, non-cutting edge. This flat “tip” removes the pointed part of the bevel, which is the weakest part of the tool. Because of this change in tool geometry, this tool is given an additional parameter of how much longer the tool would have been if it had come to a point. This is known as the “distance to theoretical acute angle” which is helpful when programming the tool. The advantage of a flat cutter tip allows multiple grooves on a tapered cutter profile for chamfering. With more grooves this chamfer has increased tool life and improved machining quality. The flat cutter tip with no face does not limit its use in narrow grooves, but another advantage is the smaller profile angle and better angular velocity at the tip.
Type III: Flat tip, cutting edge
Type III chamfer cutters are an improved and more advanced version of type II. Type III boasts a flat end with 2 grooves meeting in the center, creating a center-cut version of the Type II cutter. The center-cutting geometry of this cutter allows it to be cut with a flat end. This cut allows the bevel cutter to lightly cut through the top of the part to the bottom, instead of leaving material behind after cutting the bevel. There are many situations where a tapered wall and floor need to be aligned, and that’s where these bevel cutters excel the most. The tip diameter is also held to a tight tolerance, which greatly helps with its programming.
I will say that there can be many suitable cutters for one job, and there are many questions you should ask before choosing the perfect tool. Choosing the right angle comes down to making sure the angle on the bevel cutter matches the angle on the part. You also need to be careful about what the angles are called. Angle is an “included angle” or “angle per side.”? The angle deviates from the vertical or horizontal? Further, the larger the diameter of the shank, the greater the bevel and the longer the cut length, but here you need to consider collision with walls or tooling. Number of teeth depends on material and finish. Softer materials tend to require fewer grooves for better chip evacuation, while more grooves help with finishing. After considering each of these considerations, the right type of bevel for your job should be very clear.
Classification of machining tools
All tools designed for high-quality edging can be classified into several categories.
- Fixtures used for edging of sheets and pipe ends. They are referred to as gravel cutters and chamfer cutters.
- Tools designed to adjust the size of pipes or holes to given diameters. They are so-called calibrators.
- Some chamfering machines have a countersinking function that makes it possible to prepare holes for bolted connections.
By type of use
- Hand-held tools that make it possible to work with the force of one hand. These are the most simple and inexpensive devices.
- Tools that have shanks or sockets designed to work with cordless or corded equipment. They can be fixed in the jaws of screwdrivers, drills or electric pliers. Their price is higher, but also the performance is much higher than manual models.
According to the material they are to be machined
- Universal chamfering machines are usually able to process copper, aluminum, steel, brass, plastic products.
- Some models are only used for plastic pipes.
- Shapers are designed for beveling of reinforced polypropylene pipes.
Overview of techniques for beveling plates and pipes
When welding sheets or pipes with a wall thickness of more than 6 mm, GOST 16037-80 requires a bevel.
The bevels can be straight or broken, and curved, one-sided or two-sided.
An example of a one-sided straight cut looks like this:
Bilateral cutting is as follows:
Accordingly, the curvilinear cutting will be approximately as follows:
And one of the forms of broken chamfer corresponds to this sketch:
As prescribed by GOST, double-sided and broken beveling are used on workpieces with a thickness greater than 15 mm.
There are several ways to form a weld bevel. Each has its own advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Consider in order the most common. Let’s start by classifying all methods into two types: fire and non-fire.
Fire types. these are gas, plasma and laser cutting. With the current level of technology, laser cutting at an angle to the metal surface. is exotic. But, certainly, it is a productive way, though it requires significant investments. In addition, there is a limitation. the formation of a broken chamfer is difficult, that is theoretically possible, but in practice it is hardly achievable, and curved is not possible in principle. As a disadvantage, in addition to the initial cost of the equipment, the organization of a powerful ventilation is also required. After all all these laser complexes are quite bulky and are installed only indoors. Lack of field installations. is another disadvantage. At the time of writing the industry offers three-axis laser systems capable of cutting metal up to 25 mm thick at a right angle, and at an angle of. up to 15 mm. The torch has a maximum angle of 45 degrees to the surface.
- precisely and smoothly
- only straight bevels
- Stationary design only
- Significant amounts of harmful gases are emitted during operation
- high capital costs
Plasma cutting is inferior to laser cutting in terms of accuracy and roughness. Uneven chamfers cannot be made, and curved chamfers sometimes occur by themselves, due to bad settings, equipment defects or errors. The capital cost of purchasing a plasma cutter is significantly less than that of a laser. Most of the hazards associated with laser cutting are also common with plasma cutting: eye-damaging ultraviolet light, toxic gases, and fine dust from scale. At the moment, the industry has mastered the production of power sources for plasma cutting, capable of side cutting into steel sheet of 100 mm thickness, while it is possible to cut material up to 50 mm thick at an angle of up to 45 degrees By its weight the equipment is lighter and can theoretically be used for mobile units, although the power supply and compressor are still very heavy and bulky components.
Advantages, limitations and disadvantages of plasma cutting:
- only straight bevels
- predominantly stationary design
- considerable exhaust emissions of harmful gases
- poor cutting accuracy, irregularities and overlaps
- Thermal alteration of the metal in the cutting zone
Finally, gas cutting, which among the fire methods, is the most inexpensive. As a rule, gas cutting is used for cutting thick metal, starting from 30-40 mm. Cutting at an angle to the surface, to form a bevel, makes sense on even thicker materials, because the irregularities that arise on the edge of the metal cut by gas, reach a height of 4-5 mm. A large amount of stationary and mobile equipment is designed for gas cutting, so this technology can easily be applied in the field. The maximum capabilities achievable at the current level of technology reach up to eighty millimeters for units capable of cutting metal up to 150 mm thick with a maximum bevel angle of 60 degrees. With two consecutive cutters, it is not difficult to bevel X-shaped bevels in one step. But it is on the flat sheet. For the pipe, this technology requires the use of two independent, digitally controlled rotary joints. As far as field installations are concerned, these are usually manually adjustable.
To summarize the characteristics of gas cutting:
- ability to work in the shop or in the field
- only straight bevels
- mostly suitable for thick metal
- considerable quantity of harmful gases is emitted at work
- poor cutting accuracy, irregularities and overlaps
- Thermal alteration of the metal in the cutting zone
Now let’s look at the available options for flameless edge cutting. This includes turning, grinding, milling and shearing technologies.
One of the most popular types of pipe chamfering equipment for oil and gas workers is the orbital split pipe cutter. This is a fairly accurate device, which has a relatively large mass, and thus a high price. Regarding its performance it can be said that it is inferior to fire methods and even manual grinding with bolt cutters, but that is not the main thing. The main thing is that the orbital pipe cutter allows you to get almost a perfect edge, almost any shape. Turning with cutters, according to the turning principle, gives an edge, which fully meets the requirements of GOST and coincides in roughness level with the factory finish. However, this equipment has its disadvantages. Perfectly round shape of guides not always coincides with a slightly oval cross-section of real pipes, and the jagged edge that remains after gas cutting in the field quickly puts the cutters out of operation. Besides, split tube cutters, despite their modest price, have a very limited range of diameters of the cut tubes. For example the lineup of split pipe cutters includes the standard sizes, capable of cutting pipes, which differ in diameter by no more than 200-250 mm. Rather limited versatility, agree.
So, the following information can be gathered on the split pipe cutter:
- high accuracy and low roughness
- Ability to work in the shop or in the field
- no harmful emissions, low noise level
- any profile, undercuts, etc.п.
- high consumption of cutters on pipes cut by gas
- high cost of equipment
- average performance
- It is impossible to process flat sheets by turning
A variant that allows the use of cutters for chamfering and on sheets is planing on longitudinal planing machines. such machines are not only very massive but also very expensive. Therefore, we add these two unpleasant factors to the list relating to the split tube cutter.
As for the above-mentioned method of chamfering with an angle grinder, it is one of the most popular methods. This is due, first of all, to the fact that the angle grinder. it is extremely cheap and widely available. angle grinder allows you to chamfer thin and thick workpieces, but its performance can be considered satisfactory only for thicknesses up to 20 mm. with sufficient skill, you can form and broken chamfer, but its profile will be uneven.
- Extremely cheap and accessible equipment
- lightweight and mobile
- the ability to effectively chamfer medium size (plate thickness up to 10-12 mm)
- high consumption of abrasive wheels
- considerable emission of harmful dust
- the angle grinder itself often breaks down because of this
- low productivity on bevels wider than 10 mm
- low dimensional and shape accuracy
- rapid operator fatigue can cause injuries
Another more productive, cleaner and nearly silent method. chipping of edges with a special machine. The work is done with a high-speed steel tool that looks like a cutter and a can opener. Due to the shear of the metal between the stationary cutting edge and the rotating cutting edge, an edge that has a triangular cross-section is cut. Due to the rolling action of the blade. of the cutter blade on the metal, this shear sometimes turns into a spiral and occasionally breaks off when it has reached a large size; sometimes the chips fall into the tray separately. Thanks to the low speed, the whole process is almost silent.
The disadvantage of this technology let’s say the high cost of knives. because they are made entirely of expensive high-speed steel, in addition, only a flat bevel can be cut, and although powerful self-propelled machines can cut quite thick sheets, this only applies to mild steel. when processing stainless steel, which is four to five times more ductile and tear-resistant, the capabilities of these machines drop drastically.
So, the edging machines, their advantages and disadvantages:
- high productivity for ferrous metal
- mobility and ability to work in the shop environment
- no noise and dust during operation
- There is no thermal change in the cutting zone
- high cost of replaceable tools
- metal thickness and chamfer width limitations up to 20 mm hypotenuse
- edger machines are more expensive in comparison with edge milling machines
- poor chamfering capability on stainless steel. no wider than 10 mm
- inability to chamfer broken and curved steel
As an alternative to this method, the chamfering technology by manual or self-propelled electric edge cutters can be cited. These machines use a prefabricated carbide cutter, less often a monolithic cutter. Depending on their design, edge-milling machines can be light. handheld, or rather heavy and productive. automatic mobile or stationary. Manual and stationary edgers can handle both sheet metal and pipes. Cutter in these machines can have rotation axis parallel to the plane of bevel or plate. machining the form, as well as perpendicular to the bevel plane. machining is performed by the end face. Besides small handheld machines with a monolithic cutter, all other machines of this type use different variants of cutters with interchangeable carbide inserts. The vast majority of samples are of the cylindrical or face milling type to form flat chamfers, but there are also face milling cutters equipped with round shaped inserts that can take both flat and curved chamfers, the so-called rutabaga type. Absolutely unique cutter is the prefabricated cutter for broken chamfering.
To summarize for beveling machines and machines:
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- productivity is 9 times higher than that of an angle grinder
- Costs are lower than with beveling units
- Possibility to work in the workshop or in the field
- no dust or harmful gases are emitted
- consumable tools are inexpensive and available
- no thermal change in the incision area
- High quality and accuracy of the bevel
- ability to produce broken edge and ruched chamfer
- the chips generated can be quite sharp
- lower productivity than gas cutting
- the chamfering process is accompanied by noise
Having gathered the information available to us, we believe that now it will be easier for you to make a choice of equipment and decide which technology is more suitable for your tasks.
according to the text the straight cut or straight chamfer is the cross-sectional profile of the edge. It does not refer to beveling along the edge.
Edging (chamfering). technological operation to prepare material surface for welding. The quality of this procedure directly affects the reliability and durability of the welded structure, such as bridge supports. No one likes to see bridges collapse.
To choose the right bevel cutter you need to have a clear idea of what you want to do: process a sheet metal, a pipe or a complex geometry, or all at once.
Automatic edgers are suitable for companies where edging is performed regularly and in high volumes. Their basic material is long straight sheets (UZ-50) and short flat parts (SBM-500). Some automatic edge cutters are also equipped with a pipe cutter. See an example of sheet metal processing with an automatic beveler.
Samples of chamfered bevels performed with automatic bevel cutters
Manual chamfering machines are used when maximum flexibility is required and the width of the chamfer does not exceed 22 mm. They can be used to process curved surfaces, round off edges for painting, countersink holes, process pipe ends, and much more. As a rule customers prefer manual machines because of their low price, compactness, multifunctionality and high reliability (there is nothing to break here).
Separately we should allocate machines for end treatment of pipes. They have a special design to ensure a rigid mounting on a curved surface. Their selection is based on the diameter range
In addition to the differences in the types of tasks performed, modern chamfering machines are also distinguished by machining methods.
Special solid cutters are used in edge-splitting machines, and milling heads with hard-alloy inserts are used in edge-splitting machines. Trimmers and pipe cutters use cutters made for a certain angle and type of treatment. As you see, assortment of equipment and consumables is wide enough. You can find all these items on our site in the accessories for edgers, and if you don’t find something or have a question you can always call us for advice.
Device for chamfering
This adapter allows you to use a small “angle grinder” to obtain a high-performance chamfering machine for 45̊ angles.
To get started, you need a universal grinding machine with a fitting diameter of 42.5. 43,0 mm. It should be noted that the vast majority of grinding grinders with a power of 700. 1100W, this diameter is 43mm. At the same time, it is 42.5 mm for some manufacturers, such as Makita. Accordingly, all these grinding machines can be installed on this adapter. To do this, you must perform the following simple manipulations:
Set everything you need on the table: the adapter with the crosshead removed, the universal grinding machine, as well as the appropriate tools.
Put the bevel gear removed on the gear housing collar of the grinding machine as shown on the picture. The beams do not need to be removed during the subsequent operation of the unit.
To install a stone tool on this unit, proceed as follows
Hold the grinding machine in a comfortable position and mount the required tool on its spindle.
Install the grinding machine to the adapter itself by aligning the holes in the crosshead with the pins on its sliding part. Screw in the two oversized nuts securely. With this, enough hand effort.
Thus, assembly of the device and installation of the working tool is completed.
The design offered to you allows you to install different tools on the universal grinding machine, depending on specific tasks, namely:
Chamfering is performed with diamond cutting “turbo” discs with outside diameter not more than 125 mm and inside diameter of 22.2 mm or with hubs with M14 internal thread. In the first case, the tool is installed between the regular plates of the grinding machine, and in the second. directly on its spindle.
Grinding of bevel surfaces can be performed by FATs with an outside diameter not exceeding 125 mm. Thus, as in the first case it can be FATs with seating diameter of 22,2 mm or they can have hubs M 14.
Polishing of chamfered surfaces should be performed with flexible abrasive discs fixed on holders of “mushroom” type with hubs M 14.
Please note that the machining of the chamfer surfaces according to p. 2 and n. 3. it is possible to perform only with the use of grinding machines that allow to regulate the rotation speed of the working tool, while significantly reducing it.
It should be noted that the value of the chamfer obtained (its cathetus) depends on several factors:
the outside diameter of the tool fitted.
Removal of the end face of the installed tool in relation to the thrust seating face of the USHM spindle (Depends on the presence or absence of the hub M.14).
Removal of the very stop end of the UGSM spindle relative to the adapter’s crosshead. This parameter differs slightly between different models of the machine, thereby having little effect on the size of the bevel you get.
As an example, let’s look at the maximum values of the bevel’s cathetus when installed on the adapter of the Makita GA4530 and GA5030 models with the following tools:
Turbo cut-off disc Ø 125/22.2 mm without M 14 hub ̶ 21 mm
Same, with its outer diameter Ø 115 mm ̶ 18 mm
Turbo cut-off disc Ø 125 mm with M 14 hub ̶ 28 mm
Also, with an outside diameter of 115mm ̶ 25mm
Obviously, before starting the cutting, grinding or polishing operation, the required size of the chamfer to be machined must be set. This is done by rotating the handwheel of the machine’s horizontal movement mechanism, followed by locking the selected position with the locking screw. The chamfering itself is done by sliding the machine along the stone surface. It should be noted that the surfaces of the support platform and the adapter’s end stop have a particularly wear-resistant coating.
We wish you success in a long, high-performance and safe operation of your assembled device.
Chamfering cutters with bottom bearing
Wood chamfer cutter is a tool designed to create a chamfer. A chamfer is a recess in the surface of a workpiece or a surface with a beveled edge of a product. This item has a wide range of applications:
· Diagonal processing of elements of cabinet furniture;
· chamfering the edges of parts for subsequent joining;
· Decorative elements in furniture production;
· chamfered tooling is permitted for the production of laminated products;
Also, the tool is used as a mill for beveling the bar and in furniture production for processing the edges of tabletops.
Chamfer cutters are used for work on handheld cutters, machine tools and CNC.
The tool is built with lateral cutting edges and a support bearing on the bottom of the tool. Bottom bearing mill makes it much easier to machine the workpiece, because the bearing guides the tool precisely on the edge of the workpiece. Even in the event of inaccurate penetration, the fault can easily be repaired with an additional pass.
Cutting edges are soldered to the body with a copper-silver trimetal solder. This type of solder ensures that the body is firmly connected to the cutting elements and at the same time provides good cushioning when machining hard and knotted wood. This design feature protects the facing during milling and increases tool life.
The chamfer cutter offers different diameters and cutting edge angles to the axis of rotation. Cutting edge angles from 15 to 45. It enables the creation of multi-level profiles and polygonal composite parts.
ARDEN produces the tools using micro-grain carbide and stainless steel, which multiplies the tool life and productivity and allows to cut all types of wood, panels, foil and glue materials