Do-it-yourself vibrating screed for concrete from a channel
How to make pens?
DIY vibrating screed diagram
The engine frame is ready, the engine is rigidly fixed to it. The concrete compaction strip can be considered ready for use. But working with it will not be very convenient for now: you need control knobs. First, you need to weld (or screw) two square pieces of steel in a vertical position at a distance of 15 cm from the engine.
The dimensions of the squares must correspond to the width of the channel. In the lower corner of the square we drill a hole, after which we draw an arc along the reverse side of the square from the hole, as from the center of the circle. Holes must also be made on this arc at the same distance from each other. The handles for controlling the rail in the lower part are fixed permanently.
The handles are fastened along the arc, depending on the user, with a rail. Do not forget to place pressed rubber gaskets between the metal squares and the fasteners when fastening. They will remove vibration from the rail to the control knobs. When working in a large area, this is very important: vibration can make the operator feel unwell or even mentally disturbed.
Additional settings and improvements
The basic model of the vibrating screed cannot be considered ideal. Problems may arise with ensuring the center of gravity, respectively, the rail will not provide the horizontal surface. The issue can be resolved due to the fact that bolts are welded vertically along the edges of the rail, on which body kits can be placed. So you can accurately adjust not only the center of gravity of the entire device, but also the degree of pressing the staff on the surface.
over, a significant plus will be the fact that for different types of surfaces you will need a different weight of the rail. Please note that trade organizations are precisely due to this and have such a wide range. Different screeds are designed for different types of materials and for different thicknesses of the compacted layer. By using counterweights, you practically create a multi-purpose machine.
A small addition will only concern the engine power. A sufficiently heavy rail under the influence of a weak motor will not create the vibration you need. There is only one way out: to supply a more powerful engine and provide it with a control system. For an electric motor, this will be a rheostat brought to the control knob. For internal combustion engines. a fuel supply system (throttle valve), the control of which is also the most convenient for the user.
When placing concrete, you will have to acquire certain skills: you need to learn how to combine the weight of the screed and the engine power.
This is a simple matter: just a few minutes of training, and you will begin to feel the work of the device you have created. Do not forget that it is impossible to get a perfectly flat and dense surface only with the help of a vibrating screed. First, the surface is leveled using a rule, then its horizontalness is checked using a building level. Only then we turn on the vibrating screed.
Making a vibrating screed for concrete with your own hands can differ in many ways, so consider one of the simplest options. We mark the central part of the channel and retreat from it in both directions to such a distance that the motor can be placed inside.
In short, you have to weld the engine mount base. Usually, craftsmen do not suffer in choosing an engine, so they use any one from deteriorated household appliances. Very often these are motors from vacuum cleaners or washing machines. Their power is sometimes too small, the weight is also not very large. This means that the generated vibration will not be able to sufficiently compact the concrete or the base under it. But using a gasoline engine from an old chainsaw is quite a good solution. over, in this case, you do not have to purchase various extension cords, look for a convenient connection and take care of insulation. You can work anywhere and anytime.
How a vibrating screed for concrete is made?
How is paving slabs laid? A dry mixture of cement, sand and screening is applied, then a vibrating screed for concrete moves along this composition. The surface after passing through it remains perfectly flat and compacted to a certain strength.
It would be a mistake if you think that vibrating screeds are needed only for leveling the surface under the tiles. In reality, vibrating screeds are used very often during construction. Any concrete screed needs not so much alignment as it needs to be compacted. you have not forgotten what is the main defect in concrete? That’s right, these are small air bubbles that are present in concrete due to its careful mixing. Vibration helps to remove these bubbles and “squeeze” excess moisture out of the concrete. Due to vibration, concrete particles are compacted, squeezing out lighter elements (water and air) from the composition. For high-quality concrete placement, a vibrating screed is a must.
What you need to build a vibrating screed?
Should you buy a finished product? It’s up to you to decide, but it should be noted that the price for a finished vibrating screed may surprise you unpleasantly. This is a simple unit, but it can be quite expensive, and the price, like the type of rail, can be different. Such an assortment can confuse a potential buyer.
Vibrating screed operation scheme: 1. vibrating screed; 2 — shoe; 3. compacted concrete; 4. pin; 5. beams of side formwork; 6. handle.
But you do not need a vibrating screed so often, especially since you will only use it to perform certain tasks. So why do you need all the additions from the manufacturer, if a simple vibrating screed for placing concrete can be made by hand without large material costs and in a short period of time? You will need:
- channel (at least 3 m);
- metal corners (2 pieces of 25 cm);
- any engine (with a power of about 0.5 kW);
- electric drill;
- electric welding;
- bolts and nuts;
- dense rubber;
- two tubes (for handles, so the length of the tubes depends on the height of the user).
The difference between a vibrating screed and a vibrating platform
There are many designs of vibrating units. And this is not yet the limit to technical creativity in this direction. So, vibrating platforms began to appear. There are very few differences here: instead of a rail, a wide home-made container with low sides is used. The engine is located in the central part of it. The advantage of such a “pad” is that it allows you to better control the horizontality of the compacted surface: we draw the pad over the surface and observe the result. Sagging places need to be filled with concrete and re-compacted. Everything is simple and fast.
The results of vibrating devices for leveling and compacting concrete are not ideal. All irregularities have to be sanded with a special machine. And only after that you can start laying tiles or other finishing flooring material.
When compacting concrete under a foundation or paving slabs using a vibrating screed, there is no need to perform any additional work.
We remind you that concrete belongs to an aggressive environment (alkaline), therefore, for the manufacture of a vibrating screed, it is necessary to use a material that has good resistance to alkali. The ideal option is the aluminum surface of the vibrating screed.
How to make a vibrating screed with your own hands?
Those who have poured even a small area with a concrete mixture with their own hands know how important it is not only to make it right, to select high-quality building materials, but also to pour it. The concrete mass turns out to be more homogeneous, even and dense, if it is properly tamped, acting with vibration. To achieve the aforementioned qualities of concrete, builders use a variety of vibration techniques, but a vibrating screed is considered the most effective.
Concrete mixture evacuation scheme.
Its use in pouring concrete helps to obtain a high quality coating and, therefore, more durable.
The advantages of using a vibrating screed include:
- convenience of design;
- high quality of work;
- ease of use and care of the product, as well as the ability to replace the profile;
- possibility of use for large areas.
The principle of operation of the vibrating screed
The tool is an aluminum beam installed on the platform where the vibrator is located. Brackets, attached on both sides to the profile, fix the vibrating screed and facilitate its movement. When the device is turned on, vibrations occur, which are transmitted to the working profiles, and then to the concrete surface.
Vibrating screed device diagram.
Homemade vibrating screed
Having a little understanding of how this unit works, it becomes clear that the vibrating screed for concrete is simple. Many craftsmen are able to make it with their own hands. Depending on the materials you have, you can make an electric or gasoline vibrating screed for concrete, floating or double, sliding or sectional. But if you decide to make it yourself for periodic work in private construction, then it makes sense to make the simplest unit, which will take very little time, effort and material. The only difficulty may be the lack of a welding machine. If you do not have the skills of welding and there is no one to ask, then you can replace welding with a bolted connection.
- corner 4 × 4. 2 pcs. 20-25 cm each;
- channel of the required length. from 2 m and more;
- armature or pipe for the handle. 2 pieces of estimated length;
- electric motor;
- welding machine.
- Weld 2 corners in the center of the channel, calculate the distance between them depending on the size of the electric motor.
- Bend the armature or pipe that will serve as a handle and weld it to the channel at a convenient distance.
- We drill holes for the electric motor.
- We attach the engine to the frame.
- Homemade vibrating screed is ready, let’s get to work.
Instead of a channel, you can use a square tube, then the structure will become heavier. In the industry, many more types are made, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. After studying them, you can build a tool with your own hands that will meet your requirements. For example, taking an aluminum profile for the frame, you will lighten the structure and eliminate the possibility of corrosion. And by making a frame from 2 profiles located parallel to each other and attaching an engine to them, you will get a double vibrating screed. It all depends on your goals and capabilities.
How to make a vibrating screed with your own hands
A tool made independently from available devices and materials allows you to solve the necessary tasks and at the same time save on the purchase of expensive equipment.
As a rule, an electric vibrating screed is made by hand. However, in self-made units there are also gasoline engines (most often. from failed chainsaws).
To make a vibrating screed for concrete with your own hands, you will need:
- Basis for the working frame: aluminum or steel profile tubes of a square cross-section or a channel with a length of 2-3 m.
- Two corners with a section of 40 × 40 mm and a length of about 20 cm.
- Two pipes for handles (their length is determined by the height of the worker).
- Vibrating motor (for a surface seal 20 cm deep, 1.5 kW motor power is sufficient).
- Fastening bolts.
- Rubber for insulating handles.
- Three phase wire.
- Drill and screwdriver.
- Welding equipment.
- Starting device.
Note! It is allowed to perform work without a welding machine, since a vibrating screed can be made using bolted fasteners.
With minimal dexterity, a do-it-yourself vibrating screed is assembled quickly enough in a few steps:
Homemade vibrating screed
- The corners are welded in the center of the profile at a certain distance from each other (in accordance with the dimensions of the engine). In the process of welding, the ends of the profiles and corner joints of the structure are welded tightly, preventing the formation of gaps. Otherwise, during operation, the solution will fall into the holes, increasing the weight of the unit.
- Handles are formed from pipes or fittings, bending them at your discretion for convenience. They are welded to the profile (or bolted) on either side of the engine.
- The engine is mounted strictly in the center of the frame. With its minimum deviation from the central position, the structure, during operation, will be pulled to the side, which will make it difficult to move in the right direction. It is better to fasten the engine with bolts: this way it will be available for replacement or repair at any time.
- A starting device is mounted on the handle or engine.
- Connect the power cable. The engine is grounded, and the handles are wrapped with vibration and current insulating material.
Features of the operation of vibrating rails
Vibrating screeds are easy to use, but working with them has its own characteristics.
Rules for working with rack and pinion compactors:
- Before starting, the equipment is checked for proper functioning.To protect against possible electric shock, wear rubber boots and gloves.
- The floating screed should slide over the surface of the mortar. Heavier equipment, which works on guides, is mounted before the concrete mix is supplied and should be slightly below its level.
- The guides for the vibrating screed are set strictly horizontally at the zero mark, which corresponds to the final level of the finished floor covering.
- After the solution is supplied, the vibro-installation is started and, with the help of cables, it is pulled along the guides. Areas of subsidence of the mixture below a predetermined level are filled with small portions of the solution until leveling at the desired mark.
- After completing the work, thoroughly clean the frame from the solution. At the same time, special attention is paid to the bolted fastenings of the frame, which have been in contact with the wet concrete mixture.
- Minor defects on the hardened surface can be easily removed with a grinder.
What is a rack and pinion compactor
In fact, a vibrating screed for concrete is a standard rule on which a three-phase asynchronous motor with eccentrics is fixed. When the shaft rotates, the shifted center of gravity of the eccentrics causes mechanical vibrations, which are transmitted to the rule in the form of vibrations of different frequencies. As a rule, a metal frame is used from interconnected hollow sections. For control of the structure, handles with a vibration-proof coating are provided, and for carrying. transport handles.
Vibration treatment of the concrete mixture prevents the formation of voids in the solidified solution and cracks on its surface, thereby improving its operational properties.
Rack seals are also used when working with dry screeds (at a moisture level of 20%). With the help of vibrating rails, you can quickly and efficiently lay paving slabs.
Differences by engine type
Rack vibrating compactors are distinguished by the type of drive, which can be gasoline or electric.
A gasoline screed is more efficient than an electric one. Independence from the mains makes the device completely autonomous and indispensable for working over large areas.
In closed or residential premises, an electric vibrating screed is used, which does not emit exhaust gases and has a low noise level when the engine is running.
The electric motor is much lighter than the gasoline one, which has a positive effect on the maneuverability of the installation. In addition, the electric vibrating screed is economical in operation.
Varieties of vibrating rails
Vibrating tools differ in several ways.
Classification by construction type
The configuration of the units determines their functionality and cost. Taking into account the design features, the following types of rack and pinion vibration equipment are distinguished:
- Floating screed (finishing). lightweight structures for thin-layer (up to 15-20 cm deep) finishing leveling. Work without guides.
- The aluminum profile provides a low weight of the unit and better sliding on the surface, which is why the floating vibrating screed is also called a vibrating mop.
- Surface reversible. Equipped with a forward reversing mechanism and a profile with rounded edges. The installation can move in the forward and reverse direction. Rotation of the profile in the opposite direction is carried out by rotating the handle.
- Vibrating screeds with fixed length. Run on guides and provide compaction depths of up to 30 cm.
- Double telescopic (sliding). The telescopic vibrating screed is compact when folded, which is important when transporting equipment to a construction site. The length of the tool is increased due to the retractable design and can be from 2.5 to 4.5 m. The sliding vibrating screed is made from steel or aluminum profiles. The telescopic vibrating screed is very heavy and works only along the guides.
- Sectional. They are assembled from separate fragments and can reach a length of 20-30 m. The increase in the length of the slats allows you to process a large area in one pass. By making the structure heavier, the effective compaction depth is increased. These are universal fixtures for large-scale construction.
Varieties and principle of operation of vibrating bars for concrete placement
High-quality pouring of concrete structures implies compulsory compaction and leveling of the working mixture. For these purposes, vibrating screeds are used for placing concrete. Given the simplicity of their design, many developers consider the of industrial equipment too high. Therefore, for a one-time use or if you want to save money, a vibrating screed for placing concrete with your own hands is most suitable.
In the conditions of private construction, a do-it-yourself vibrating screed for placing concrete is practically not inferior to industrial counterparts in terms of the quality of compaction. If desired, you can use a steel or aluminum profile, increasing or decreasing the weight of the unit. By connecting two profiles in parallel, you can design a double vibrating screed. Only the telescopic screed, due to its complex configuration, is difficult to “lend itself” to self-production.
Manufacturing options for basic elements
The design of the vibrating plate is quite simple. It consists of four main nodes:
Homemade vibrating plate and vibrating screed
Very often, during the construction of various objects, it is necessary to compact the base of bulk materials under them, and after pouring. concrete mortar. For these purposes, in practice, the vibration compaction method is widely used. It consists in the fact that vibrations from the operating equipment are transmitted to the compacted layer. As a result of the process, the particles of the compacted material move as close as possible to each other, and air is squeezed out of the concrete, due to which, after it solidifies into a monolith, it acquires its design strength due to the absence of voids.
To effectively compact loose soil, crushed stone, gravel or sand, vibrating plates are used. The poured concrete solution is leveled, while compacting it with the help of a vibrating screed. But it makes sense to buy such equipment only with regular and large volumes of construction work. For rare household use, it is quite easy to make a vibrating plate with your own hands, and to make a vibrating screed is even easier. To independently implement the project, you should first familiarize yourself with the designs of the units.
As a drive for a homemade vibrating tool, you can use:
- electric motor;
- gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine (ICE).
The electric motor for the vibrating plate, which is planned to be assembled, is recommended to be selected with a capacity of 1.5 to 2 kW. In this case, the rotation speed should be from 4000 to 5000 rpm. If the power of the electric motor is less than the specified value, then this will affect the performance of the created unit in the direction of its decrease.
The electric motor is the most expensive part of a DIY installation. For home use, it is better to buy single-phase modifications of electric motors, for example, as part of IV-99E or IV-98E vibrators, operating from a voltage of 220 V. The electric motor can also be removed from old unused equipment, for example, from a drilling machine. It is only necessary that it matches the power and speed.
If you equip homemade equipment with an electric motor, then to increase the safety of work, it is recommended to install separately protection, for example, a differential circuit breaker or a residual current device (RCD).
Difautomat, in addition to preventing the operator from electric shock, also turns off the equipment in case of overload or short circuit in the circuit.
A homemade vibrating plate can also be equipped with an internal combustion engine. If you buy it, it is recommended to give preference to one-cylinder three-stroke engines from Honda. ICE from a chainsaw or a tiller will also work.
A vibrator for a vibrating plate can be purchased factory-made or made independently in various ways. One of the options for a homemade vibration unit will be considered in the next paragraph.
Vibratory plate assembly algorithm
To make a vibrating plate for soil compaction yourself, you will need the following materials and parts:
- steel sheet measuring 50 by 80 cm with a thickness of at least 8 mm;
- platform vibrator with an electric motor, for example, IV-98E;
- 2 pieces of channel 45 cm long;
- fasteners: bolts М10 and М12 with nuts, washers;
- shock absorbers;
- 1.5 m metal pipe (20-25 mm diameter).
Of the tools you will need:
- welding machine;
- angle grinder with cut-off wheels;
- electric drill with a set of drills for metal;
- tape measure, marker or chalk.
It is recommended to carry out work on the assembly of home-made equipment, protecting your eyes with glasses, and your hands with gloves.
A homemade vibrating plate with an electric motor is assembled in the following sequence.
- The angle grinder cuts about 5 mm deep (so that the metal can be bent) at both ends of the steel sheet. 10 cm recede from the front edge, and 5 cm from the rear.
- At an angle of about 20-30 degrees, the edges are bent with a hammer, after which the fold is welded.
- Two channels are welded parallel to the bent edges at a distance of about 5-10 cm from the central mowing line of the made workpiece.
- A vibrator is installed in the center on them, along the legs of which marks are made for fasteners.
- Drill holes in channels with an electric drill.
- Mount the vibrator by bolting it with nuts and washers.
- Attaches cushion pads to the slab.
- Bend the tube into a U-shape to make a handle.
- Bolt holes are drilled at the edges.
- Attach the handle to the sole through metal corners and shock absorbers.
- Connect the power cable and install the starting protection equipment.
- Check the performance of the created unit.
The mass of the assembled vibrating plate will be approximately 60 kg. To make it convenient to transport it, a piece of pipe is welded to the plate, which will serve as an axis for the wheels.
A more complex option for creating a vibrating plate involves the use of a separate engine, for example, from a tiller. In this case, in order to assemble vibration equipment, you will need a homemade or factory vibrator. The rotation of the motor will be transmitted to it using a belt, put on pulleys.
The diameter of the latter must be selected so that the eccentric of the vibrator rotates at a frequency of approximately 180 rpm.
The whole process of assembling the vibrating plate is presented in the photo below.
After painting, the final mechanism will look like in the photo below.
If necessary, you can increase the weight of the homemade vibrating plate. This is done by additional welding of metal sheets or reinforcement rods. A do-it-yourself vibration tool is quite capable of competing with factory counterparts.
Vibrating screed assembly algorithm
For the implementation of the simplest options, drawings are not needed. Suitable as a drive unit:
- Angle Grinder;
- electric drill or screwdriver.
This power tool does not even need to be disassembled. Assembling a homemade unit will take little time.
You will also need the following working tools and materials:
- smooth, polished board 0.5 m long, about 3 cm thick, 25 cm wide;
- self-tapping screws;
- punched tape;
- bar 5 by 5 cm, length 1-1.5 (2 pcs), to make a handle.
A vibrating screed from an electric drill in the form of a mop is assembled in the following sequence:
- the surface of the board (if it is not sanded) is made smooth using a planer and sandpaper;
- to it from above exactly in the center, using punched tape and self-tapping screws, fix the electric drill laid along;
- on both sides of the drill, stepping back a few centimeters, attach the handle at an angle, cutting off the ends of the bars obliquely;
- fix in the chuck of the power tool a nozzle, the center of gravity of which is displaced, for example, a clamping wrench, a bent drill or a piece of reinforcement;
- connect the unit to the network and check its performance.
The drill chuck should rotate around an axis that coincides with the center longitudinal line of the board. Vibration occurs due to the use of a nozzle with a displaced center of gravity.
A vibrating screed from a grinder, angle grinder or screwdriver is made in a similar way. Only after compacting and leveling the concrete will the power tool need to be well cleaned of mortar so that it can be used in the future.
If you need to compact and level the concrete with a layer of up to 10 cm, then a vibrating screed from a deep vibrator will do. It is made as follows:
- a rectangular sheet is cut out of plywood (with a side length of about 70×50 cm);
- a mace is attached to it with punched tape or with the help of clamps, while the deep vibrator itself serves as a kind of handle.
In order for the rail to move freely, it is better to cover the working surface of the plywood rectangle with tin folded at the edges.
In the embodiments discussed, other fasteners may also be used to secure the power tool to the base. There is open space for engineering creativity.
Plate and frame
From the engine, the movement is transmitted to the vibrator by a belt. it is mounted on pulleys. By changing the dimensions of the latter (diameter), you can set the required speed of the vibrator. A car belt is suitable for a belt drive. The plate is made of steel or cast iron sheet with a thickness of 8-10 mm. The rest of the structure is located above it. To make the frame, use metal corners 5 x 5 cm or larger.
Types of vibrating rails
The concrete fixture is divided into 3 types:
- Floating and non-sliding type. the device is great for household use. The length of the vibrating screed does not exceed 300 cm, of course, the size of the rail can be selected according to your own preferences. The power of such devices does not go beyond 1.2 kW. Among the widespread domestic manufacturers, the following models are in the lead: “TCC” and “Krasny Mayak”.
- Telescopic and sliding type. this type of tool is quite versatile, it can cope with work in different areas, performs tamping and laying of concrete mortar. Sliding models have a working length of 10 m and are equipped with a double frame for leveling the concrete surface. Professional equipment is produced by such companies: Masalta and Euroscreed.
- Sectional type of vibrating screed. the principle consists in an additional nozzle, if necessary in the work. The sections resemble triangular frames, which are fixed with bolts. This model has a light control system and high functionality. They are more expensive than floating type rails. The tool is designed specifically for use in industrial environments. A sectional screed is made of chamber aluminum parts or a metal channel, the connection is made in pairs.
Double frame construction almost doubles the work process.
Vibrator for concrete with your own hands
This type of screed is designed for processing freshly laid concrete. Designed for private construction. Easy to operate due to their ease.
By the type of engine, gasoline and electric vibrating screeds are distinguished.
As noted above, the gasoline vibrating screed is more powerful and, accordingly, more expensive. Electric vibrating screeds have less power, but they are recommended for use in enclosed spaces.
Gasoline engines evaporate harmful substances during operation, which is significantly felt in confined spaces.
They have a large grip, which is ideal for industrial construction. They have a collapsible design, which is convenient for transportation from object to object. Equipped with a powerful engine.
DIY vibrating screed
Installing an electric motor
After assembling the metal frame and handle, you need to start installing the engine, it should be located in the center of the profile. Due to this technique, the vibration will spread evenly throughout the device. To fix the motor, it is allowed to use many methods and materials, but according to technology, it is recommended to use corners as fixing.
The clamps can be installed directly on the electric motor, and then on the assembled structure, at the end, apply bolts for twisting to the profile. In the second case, the corners are mounted to a metal beam, fixed, and the engine is installed at the last stage.
For strong and reliable fastening, it is recommended to use electric welding, and for additional strength, bolts are used, which are screwed into previously made holes with a drill. If there is no electric drill at hand, then the use of a screwdriver is allowed; in the latter case, you can use a welding machine to burn holes in the metal.
Vibrating screed with aluminum profile
It will be more difficult to make a vibrating screed with a metal rail with your own hands. In addition to money costs, you also need to have technical knowledge.
Instead of a board, in this version an aluminum profile will be used. This design will last you longer. The function of the handle will be performed by a pipe, and, of course, a vibration motor.
It is not recommended to use welding in this variant. For safety reasons, cover the handle of such equipment with insulating material.
DIY vibrating screed
For small work, you can use a homemade vibrating screed.
Examples of good vibrating rails
For professional use, the Spanish vibrating screed ENAR is perfect.
The features of this tool are:
- ease of use;
- compacts concrete with a depth of 15 centimeters;
- does not sink in concrete;
- the length of the profile reaches 4 meters;
- ideal for working on fresh concrete.
The price run for a vibrating screed with a 0.7 hp Honda gasoline engine starts from 44,000 to 51,000 rubles. Weight depends on the selected model and varies from 15 to 25 kg.
When buying a vibrating screed, remember that it must fully meet your requirements, fit your construction site.