Drilling holes for hinges in furniture
Drills for the furniture industry
Drilling in is one of the important phases of furniture making that requires precision and extreme care. In the production, to facilitate the process of marking, use adding machines and special furniture templates (reducers). At home you will be satisfied with a tape measure, an angle piece and a marker for marking places of future openings for a certain type of fasteners. Each type of fastener requires a specific drill bit for making furniture. In some cases, you can be limited to a minimal set. For example, if your goal. to make a simple shelf-shelf with their own hands, you can get by with a set of two conventional drill bits diameter 5mm and 8mm, which probably find any “home” masters. in a combination they completely replace the specific drill under the terminations. But if the purpose is to realize a more ambitious project, you will need other drills for furniture making.
Usually a marker and an awl are used for marking the place of the pilot hole. And it is possible to use a thin drill bit with a diameter of 2,3 mm. You will also need it when installing hardware such as runners, hinges, gaslifts, legs, etc.д. This will allow you to more accurately and accurately perform all operations, and thus avoid problems with adjustment in place because of the crooked fittings.
Screw drill bits (Euro screws)
Specific shape of pilot drill bit, with characteristic extension from diameter of 5 mm to diameter of 8 mm allows to make two holes in one trip, for narrow and wide part of eurocord with countersinking for a flat. “Work” with this type of drill bit on both frontal and horizontal parts, drilling into the end of furniture boards and front details. It is important not to mix up the “face” with the “underside” in the process, otherwise it will be difficult to hide unattractive chips instead of neat countersinks into which the top of the bullet will be sunk.
The most “popular” after the armature screwdriver drill bits. They are used for through and countersinking in installation of handles, shelf supports, eccentric pins with self-tapping heads, dampers and other accessories. Some masters for zasplovki ends of the front parts of the wood particle board for the connection with screws prefer to use exactly a drill with a diameter of 5 mm.
How to choose the right one?
Equipping the drill with the right drill bit for the chosen hinge is the main task when working with cabinet doors. To ensure that the hole is precisely adjusted in radius and depth, you need to take a cutter of the required diameter.
The hole is perfectly clean, so that the hinge cup fits very snugly.
The product must be from an official supplier and a warranty.
Choose milling elements should be in specialized stores. There you can find both standard and non-standard drill bits with a quality certificate and warranty from reputable manufacturers. Too cheap elements are an indicator of a low-quality product, so you should consider variants with a price above the average market price. Such cutters are reliable and will last a long time.
Depending on the type of panel, the cutter can get very hot, burning the edges and the material selected from the recess.
Marking drill positions
In order to perfectly fasten the two parts, it is necessary to mark the fixing points as accurately as possible.
On a detail which will be imposed on the end (the one on which there will be a through hole), it is necessary to make two measurements. along the length (usually 5-10 cm) and from the edge. exactly 8 mm (if the thickness of the plate is 16 mm).
Mark the point of drilling on a part that is perpendicular to the first one. Here it is necessary to maintain the same distance in length (5-10 cm from the beginning), and in width. strictly in the center (8 mm from the edge).
The marking should be made as precisely as possible, especially along the length, i.e.к. If the markings are not correct, your parts may have excessive gaps or protrusions when joining them.
It is better to make a through hole in the first part, place it on the second part. and immediately use a drill bit to mark the place of drilling in the end of the second part. And then, separately already. drilled hole.
How to make a fastening with euro screws
The use of the terminations requires a certain skill in working with these fasteners, as well as knowledge of the characteristics of the material of which the products to be joined are made. Drilling for a screwdriver is performed with a tool, the diameter of which is 4.5-5 mm. It is best to use drill bits that have a stepped cutter attached to them, which allows you to immediately chamfer the location of the screw head. when using such a tool, it is possible to get a finished hole in one pass. Cutter in this case forms an ideal surface under the head of the screw, which can not be said about the drill, which when extracted may leave chipping on the edges of the hole (but they will later be covered with a screw cap).
Euro screw installation sequence
Euro screws, if you compare them to fasteners of other types, provide a more reliable fixation of the parts connected. It is explained by a wider arrangement of threaded elements, which are reliably cut into the material. Install mortars by hand, as well as with an electric drill with the appropriate attachments or an electric screwdriver. Those who have no experience with such fasteners, it is better to install them manually, so that in case of excessive resistance of the screw to be able at any time to extract it from the connected furniture elements.
How to drill a hole for the placement of a screwdriver
A mortar is screwed into a previously prepared hole, so the question of how to drill such a hole is quite relevant. The following tools and materials will be required:
- An electric screwdriver or an electric drill;
- bit of the appropriate size;
- A drill bit for the mortar;
- A measuring tool, which can be used as a ruler (or a construction tape measure);
- a pencil;
To make it easier to mark and maintain a strictly perpendicular position of the drill bit, a template for drilling holes for the faceplate is used
The dimensions of the hole for the euro screw
For assembling furniture you usually use euro screws with dimensions of 6.4×50 mm. To make the holes for such a screwdriver, the external diameter of the thread is 6.4 mm, and the size of the cross-section of the screw body. 4.4 mm, a drill with a diameter of 4.5-5 mm is used. Drilling of holes for this type of fork screws should be performed to a depth of not less than 50 mm. If the diameter of the hole will be larger than the specified value, the euro screw simply will not hold, if less. it can tear the furniture element into which it is screwed.
The step drill bit is selected on the basis of the size of the particular model of the euro screw
The drill with which you make the holes for the face plate must be equipped with a special working head. It, on the one hand, prepares an enlarged hole under the screw neck, on the other hand. conducts countersinking of the place where its cap will be placed. To place the mortar, you can also use a conventional drill, but in this case you need to prepare the places for the neck of the fastener and its head.
Marking of drilling points
The reliability and quality of the connection, executed with the help of intermediate screws largely depend on the accuracy of marking of future holes for them. On the element, which will be superimposed on the end face of the other element of the furniture construction, make two types of markings:
- drilling depth (5-10 cm);
- The center of the future hole (if the thickness of the docked part is 16 mm, it must be at a distance of 8 mm from the edge of the board).
Scheme of drilling holes for Euro screws
On the element to be joined, the marking of the drilling point is performed on its end, placing it strictly in the middle of the furniture board.
To perform marking places for drilling as accurately as possible, you can use the following simple method: in the superimposed part after preliminary marking perform a through hole through which, having attached the first part to the second, with a rotating drill mark the location of the second hole under the Euro screw.
To achieve the highest quality of execution of holes for the placement of screws, it is desirable to follow the recommendations below.
- Before drilling the part, put a piece of unnecessary chipboard under it: this will avoid the appearance of chips at the exit of the created hole.
- When holding the workpiece in the air, you can create the required places for the neck and head of the face-framing mortar in the existing hole.
- When drilling both in the plate and in the face of the workpiece, the drill bit must be perfectly perpendicular. This will help to obtain high quality results and not to damage the part.
- When drilling two parts at the same time, they must be securely clamped in the desired position, which can be done using clamps or other clamping devices. This is the most accurate and fastest way to create the holes for the faceplate.
- When drilling holes for dowels, it is desirable to equip the tool used with a depth limiter, which will prevent spoiling the processed parts by drilling through them.
How to make a hinge hole in chipboard: installing a furniture hinge
Often a situation arises when it is necessary to mount a furniture hinge in particleboard, such as when installing a particleboard door. This task involves drilling a hinge hole into the particleboard. In this article we will consider how to prepare such a hole and how to install a hinge in it.
So, in our case in the manufacture of cabinets made of particle board, a mistake was made. the groove for the hinge was drilled too low, as a result, after installing the hinge in the prepared place, the inner horizontal door can not fully open. As a result, it is necessary to shift the groove slightly upwards in order to eliminate this drawback.
The hinge groove mismatch
Tools and materials
We will need the following tools during the installation of a furniture hinge for particleboard:
Förstner drill bit with the diameter corresponding to the hinge (in our case, 35 mm). Drill bit is a cutter for hinge grooving. Sometimes these drill bits come with limiters (16, 22, 25 mm thick chipboard), so you don’t have to worry about how far you have to go;
For the materials we need the hinge itself and the screws to fix it.
Furniture hinge for mortise mounting, right angle
How to make a hole for a hinge in particle board?
First we put the Forstner drill bit on the drill.
If you have a drill bit without stop, then we take a piece of particleboard and drill out the hinge groove in several steps, trying each time how far the hinge goes. The essence of this action is to determine how deep the drill should go, so as not to drill through the hole and that the loop fit into the groove as a whole.
Now that we are getting the hang of it, it’s time to install the door. First we make a marking of the center of the hole. That’s where we are going to put the center of the drill bit.
If you have a hinge ripped out of a particle board and you don’t know what to do, the easiest way to repair a ripped hinge is to displace the hinge, i.e.е. Drill a new hole, because often the screws fixing the hinges turn to dust and no longer hold the door properly. The old hole we have left can be putty or taped over.
Installing the hinge on the chipboard door
The grooves are ready, now you just have to put the hinges in and screw them on.
This way we moved the hinge higher, the inner cabinet door now opens easily.
Installing various types of hinges
The methods for installing the hinges for doors, gates and furniture fronts are slightly different. Let’s consider each method in more detail.
Mounting the furniture hinge
Installation of internal hinges on furniture fronts is made according to the general scheme shown in the figure.
Layout of main hinge components
In the process of installation, it is recommended to proceed as follows:
The first step is to mark out the locations of the hinges. As the furniture hinge consists of two basic elements (a cup and a striker, which are respectively mounted on the front and the cabinet frame), the markings should be made on both surfaces;
To avoid making numerous measurements and calculating the location of the hinge parts, you can use the template for installation.
The next step is to drill holes for the hinge cup and fasteners. To perform the operation, a drill with various nozzles and drills of suitable diameter is used;
Aligning the door relative to the furniture body
Installing the door hinge
To install interior door hinges requires:
- Mark the hinge installation area on the door leaf sidewall and door frame. For convenience and speed of marking, you can use specialized templates;
The optimal place for installation of the hinge is considered to be the area located at a distance of 15-20 cm from the upper and lower edges of the door leaf and frame.
- Using a milling machine (if there is no device, use a hammer and chisel), a piece of wood is removed from the door leaf to make a recess. If the installation is carried out on a metal door, the hinge is placed between the door leaf and the panelling;
Preparing the holes for mounting the door hinge
Screws for adjusting the inside hinge
Additionally there is a video on how to install the inner door hinges correctly.
Installing a hinge on a door
To install the internal hinges with your own hands on the gate or wicket, you will need a welder, because the connection between the hinge and the metal surface of the gate (wicket, pillars, etc.) is considered unreliable.
Installation by welding is as follows:
- choose the places for mounting the hinges. The number and dimensions of hinges are calculated on the basis of door weight and dimensions. If you need two hinges, they are placed at the top and bottom 15-20 cm apart. The third and subsequent hinges are mounted evenly in the space between the two extreme ones;
For a door weighing no more than 30 kg, no additional hinges are required.
the area where the welds will be located is cleaned of dirt and rust. You can use a simple metal brush or a special nozzle on the drill for this purpose;
- Steel inner hinges consist of two parts connected by a pin. First, the part of the hinge to be installed on the gate or wicket is welded. The weld must be located along the entire length of the contact between the hinge and the front of the gate;
Recommended type of weld to be used
All hinges must be in line and in the same plane.
- The second part of the hinge is welded to the support post or metal door frame (depending on where the hinge is mounted);
- The two parts of the hinge are connected by simply hanging one part on the pin of the other component;
- the welds are smoothed and deburred before further processing.
The choice of the hinge to be installed is based on its intended use, since furniture hinges, door hinges, and gate hinges differ considerably from each other. The installation of the different types of hinges is done by your own hands with the simplest tools and acquired knowledge.
Hinges that do not require a mortise are fairly easy to install. This eliminates the need for milling.
- first a marking is made on the side of the door;
- It is better to indent at least 25 mm from the bottom and top;
- The hinge is applied to the leaf, in order to apply the points under the self-tapping screws;
- If everything is aligned evenly, holes are drilled for fasteners;
- The door leaf and the front of the furniture are joined together;
- A test check of the closing and opening is made;
- the adjustment is made;
- all self-tapping screws are finally screwed tight.
Based on all of the above, we can draw some conclusions.
Hinges that do not require mortise, are morally and technically obsolete solutions. Yes, they are sold in markets and stores. But the demand for them is getting lower day by day.
Such solutions are mostly relevant for the repair of old furniture or for restoration. They can also be used in the manufacture of furniture in the antique style. Although here, too, it is objectively better to replace the same piano hinges with modern analogs.
No self-respecting furniture maker would use them for their construction. Not to mention large factories and companies. The reliability of such fittings is questionable, the ability to adjust is insignificant, plus most products take up a lot of space.
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- Construction angle (angle piece).
- Kerner (optional).
- Metal drill 2 mm in diameter (optional).
- Fostner’s drill 35 mm in diameter (or 26 mm for smaller hinges).
- Electric drill.
Fostner bit is a very common tool, used for making blind (not through) holes in soft materials. When buying a drill Fostner, to fit furniture hinges, you need to pay attention to several points. First, the needle (center sharp tip) of the drill bit must be well centered (without noticeable runout). Secondly, the drill bit must have carbide (often called pobeditovye) cutters, otherwise blunt very quickly. Length of the centering needle. important parameter. If the length of the needle is too long, then there is a risk of drilling through the facade. If the length of the needle is not enough, then the drill (when drilling with a manual drill by hand) will be carried away to the side. As a rule, the needle length of a new drill bit has to be reduced (filed) by about 0.5 mm. Professional (machine tool) Fostner drills have a shorter needle length or no needle at all, as they are designed for special fitting machines or machining centers, where accuracy is ensured by other means. It is highly recommended that before you drill into a facade, you make a test drill in a similar material of the same thickness.
The surface of the workbench, where the fitting will be made, must be flat, clean, non-slip. You can put under the facade, for example, a sheet of thin rubber, a piece of polyethylene foam (a kind of insulation) or several layers of stretch wrap film. It is not superfluous to secure the facade with clamps. Do not forget about personal safety, wear safety glasses when drilling.
Marking. critical operation. Its accuracy determines the accuracy of the hinge installation and its proper operation. The illustration below shows the dimensions for marking. Particular attention should be paid to the 21-22 mm space from the working (along which the hinges are mounted) side of the front. The other spacing (to the right/left in the figure) is not so important with regard to precision. The main thing is that the first and the last hinges of the façade must be at distances of between 70 mm and 150 mm from the façade sides adjacent to the work side. The total number of loops on the facade may be two or more, depending on the size and weight of the facade.
After tapping, everything is ready for drilling.
The tool needed:
- Construction angle (angle piece).
- Punch (optional).
- Metal drill 2 mm in diameter (optional).
- 35 mm diameter Fostner bit (or 26 mm for smaller loops).
- Electric drill.
Fostner drill, a very common tool, used for making blind (not through) holes in soft materials. When buying a Fostner drill bit, for fitting furniture hinges, you need to pay attention to several points. First, the needle (center sharp tip) of the drill bit must be well centered (no noticeable runout). Secondly, the drill must have carbide (often called pobeditovye) cutters, otherwise it will blunt very quickly. Length of centering needle. very important parameter. If the length of the needle is too long, there is a risk of drilling through the facade. If the length of the needle will be insufficient, then the drill (when drilling with a manual drill by hand) will be carried away to the side. As a rule, the needle length of a new drill bit has to be reduced (filleted) by around 0.5 mm. Professional (machine tool) drills of Fostner have reduced length of needle or do not have one at all, as they are designed for special fitting machines or machining centers, thereby ensuring accuracy by other means. It is strongly advised to first drill into a similar material of the same thickness before starting to drill into the facade.
The surface of the workbench on which you are going to drill must be flat, clean, nonslip. A sheet of thin rubber, a piece of polyethylene foam (a type of insulation) or several layers of stretch wrap, for example, can be placed under the facade. It will not be superfluous to fix the facade with clamps. Personal safety must be taken into account; wear safety glasses when drilling.
Marking. demanding operation. On its accuracy depends on the accuracy of installation loop and the correctness of its work. The figure below shows the dimensions for marking. Particular attention must be paid to the distance of 21-22 mm from the working (along which the hinges are mounted) side of the front. The other spacing (in the picture on the right/left) is not so important for precision. The main thing is that the first and the last hinges of the front are at a distance of 70 to 150 mm from the sides of the front, adjacent to the working side. The total number of hinges on the front may be two or more, depending on the size and weight of the front.
After marking, everything is ready for drilling.
In brief about dimensions
The holes in the furniture product are needed in order to plant the bowl of the furniture hinge inside, fix it and provide a secure connection between the leaf and the fittings.
The diameter of the special drill bit to be used is chosen based on the size of the purchased and used furniture hinge. Most often on sale you can find hinge bowls of 26 and 35 millimeters in diameter. And in the vast majority of cases, manufacturers of furniture fittings use a diameter of 35 mm. It is universal in size, optimal for most types of standard furniture on which you need to use hinges. But since there are also non-standard solutions, special hinges are also sold for them. And for these loops you can buy the appropriate cutters.
The mortise does not require any special skills. But the experience, at least the slightest, will not be superfluous.
In addition, I want to remind you of the furniture maker’s tool kit. Which are considered basic and most necessary. Include a furniture hinge cutter or a Forstner drill bit in this kit for sure.
Installation of the Forstner drill bit on the drill
How the holes are made
To install the hinge, you will first need to prepare the seating. A special drill will help you in this case.
But just having the tool is not enough. You still need to get it right. Otherwise, the price of a mistake is your furniture fronts, spoiled material. After reading the recommendations and instructions, practice on some pieces beforehand.
- tape measure or ruler;
- of an electric screwdriver;
- a drill;
- Good lighting;
- A pencil or pen;
- protective equipment, etc.
The set can vary depending on the specific situation.
The hinge bowl must be mortised into the façade. That means the marks are made on it beforehand. It is important to correctly choose the center of the future hole for the bowl.
The center of the hole is marked 21-22 mm from the edge of the material. This will leave 4-5 mm between the edge of the hinge cup and the edge of the facade. Drilling must be carried out strictly after the markings have been made.
Drilling the hole with a hinge cutter
It is highly recommended to use cutters with a stop so as not to accidentally drill a through hole or exceed the desired depth.
Drill at a slight, constantly variable inclination of the power tool.
Once the work is complete, remove all material residue, make a fitting and proceed to install the fittings.
It is a useful, fairly easy to use, and sometimes just a necessary tool for furniture production at home and in a full factory. Only in the second case already in course of use are special milling machines. And cutter Forstner will be perfect for those, who have decided with his own hands to mount the fittings, using for this purpose home electric screwdriver or regular drill.