Drilling Holes In Concrete Diameters
The user needs to know how to properly drill a concrete wall. The tool with the installed drill or drill is installed against the previously marked wall. The equipment is held by the main handle with the right hand, the left hand is holding the drill body.
The drill rests against the surface of the wall, then the motor turns on at low speed. If the speed controller is not provided, the operator gives several switching impulses for 1-2 seconds, ensuring the deepening of the cutting edge of the drill into the concrete surface.
At the same time, the perpendicularity of the tool axes and the concrete wall is checked. Then drilling is performed with the hammer mode turned on, the cutting speed is determined by the force of pressing the drill and the rotational speed of the drill or drill.
When drilling deep holes, it is recommended to remove the drill from the channel to remove dust and debris. When meeting with metal reinforcement, it is allowed to use a drill for metal, in most cases the impact force of a drill in a perforator is enough to destroy a bar made of mild structural steel.
Electrically powered tools are used for surface treatment of concrete surfaces.
If the user needs to make single channels, but an electric tool is not available, then he needs to know how to make a hole in a concrete wall without a hammer drill. For drilling, a steel bar or a piece of pipe of a suitable diameter with teeth at the end is used.
The rod is struck with a hammer, and then the improvised instrument is rotated 1/3 of a turn. Time-consuming procedure and poor edge quality.
Conventional drill or screwdriver
Punching a hole in a concrete wall with a hand or standard electric tool is almost impossible. The equipment allows you to make channels of small diameter in soft material, when trying to drill a concrete base, the drill becomes blunt or breaks.
The surface of the wall is marked, crosses are applied in the place of the intended holes with a soft pencil. Some users use a core that makes holes. If drilling is carried out in a residential area, then a plastic wrap is laid on the floor. Collected concrete chips are disposed of together with household waste.
The main mistakes when operating an electric drill:
- Do not hold the equipment by the chuck when working. Protective gloves and clothing must not sag or have loose parts as there is a risk of material being wrapped around the rotating drill.
- Avoid pointing the tool at an angle or using excessive force as the worker may fall off a ladder or ladder and cause injury.
Preparation for work
Before starting work, the drill is installed in the tool. The centralized electrical supply is turned off in the room. Extension cords are used to supply current, which are connected to the junction box. The operator wears protective goggles and a mask to protect eyes and respiratory system from dust.
To cut holes in concrete reinforced with metal reinforcement, a diamond core bit is used, installed in special equipment. The tool supplies water to the work area, which cools the bit and flushes out dust. The installation allows you to make a hole with a large diameter, there are no damages and chips on the edge of the channel.
Drilling (cutting, punching) holes in concrete: with a drill, perforator. step by step plan
When carrying out repair work indoors, the owner is faced with the need to drill a hole in a wall made of in-situ concrete. Drilling is carried out with an electric tool, the use of hand tools is allowed.
To perform the work, a drill or concrete drill is used. Many users who want to save money have a question whether it is possible to drill a concrete wall with a metal drill. When trying to start drilling, the working edge is worn out, the tool becomes unsuitable for further operation.
Drilling holes in concrete: applied tools and drilling technology
Concrete (and even more so reinforced concrete) is a durable material, and it is not easy to drill. It’s all about its structure and the fillers used. The tool used for drilling, as a rule, has to deal with a dissimilar material. crushed stone and metal fittings. They are the main obstacle in the way of a drill or drill, which can only overcome one of them. It is for this reason that drilling holes in concrete is performed with three different tools, and the use of one of them is due to the type of hole required. With these tools capable of overpowering concrete or reinforced concrete, we will understand this article from the site stroisovety.Org, in which we will study the purpose and methods of using a tool designed for drilling concrete.
Drilling holes in concrete photo
Carbide drill bit for concrete hammer drill and its features
The bit for drilling concrete is designed to produce holes with a diameter of 50mm to 450mm. Again, on a low-power hammer drill, you can install a crown with a diameter of no more than 250mm. In the case of larger tools, a powerful hammer drill should be used. Even the shanks are different for such crowns.
Perforator with a crown for concrete photo
Of course, our industry has provided adapters that make both tools equal in use, but using it for other purposes is fraught with consequences.
- Firstly, the installation of a crown on the perforator that is larger than the permissible size leads to its failure.
- Secondly, such drilling is by no means a safe occupation.
If we talk about the disadvantages of a victorious bit for concrete, then there are only two of them. they are significant and significantly limit the capabilities of this tool.
- The first drawback is the fittings. Bumping into it, the teeth of such a crown can break and chip. If a thin reinforcement is caught in the way of the bit, then it is cut through due to a large number of carbide taps. Concrete drill bit cannot cope with thick reinforcement.
- The second disadvantage is the drilling depth, which is usually limited by the crown cup. Many can argue with this statement, and they will be right in some way. with the help of such a crown, if desired, you can punch a through hole in a fairly thick wall. But this is too difficult and time-consuming. another tool is used for through holes, which we will familiarize ourselves with below.
Carbide drill bit for concrete hammer drill photo
The essence of drilling through holes with a crown for socket outlets on concrete is to alternately use the crown and peaks on the perforator. we went deeper into the crown, then knocked out the core of the hole with a lance for the perforator and so on until the very end of the hole. In such a case, the maximum depth that can be obtained by this method is limited by the length of the peak. An extension can be installed on the crown if necessary.
In addition, do not lose sight of the fact that drilling in concrete with carbide core bits is accompanied by a lot of dust.
Crown for a perforator for concrete photo
Drilling holes in concrete: a hammer drill and its purpose
Not every hole can be drilled with this tool. as a rule, the capabilities of the drill are limited by its maximum diameter, which cannot exceed 50mm. over, it should be noted that for most small hammer drills used in household and construction, the maximum diameter is limited to 30mm. In some cases this is sufficient, and in some it is not. For example, the question of how to drill a hole in concrete to release a ventilation pipe cannot be solved with their help.
Another nuance that occurs when drilling holes in concrete with a drill is reinforcement. As a rule, when the drill directly hits the metal, the cutting tool instantly burns out. If it passes tangentially to the reinforcement, then it is simply clamped, and drilling becomes impossible. The armature is a rather serious obstacle on the way of this tool, which it is unable to overcome.
In all other respects, the hammer drill is an excellent tool with which you can successfully drill holes in concrete.
How to drill a hole in concrete photo
Features of the diamond core bit for drilling concrete
Today, diamond drilling of holes in concrete has gained immense popularity both in everyday life and on construction sites. There are many reasons for this.
Firstly, it is the tool itself. a diamond core bit easily copes with both concrete and reinforcement, which is an integral part of any concrete structures. As you know, diamond, even artificially grown, is practically the hardest mineral in nature.
Secondly, the tubular structure, which diamond core bits have for concrete, allows you to drill holes of almost any depth, as they say, in one pass without additional steps. As a result, a solid cut rod is removed from the wall.
Diamond core bits for concrete photo
Thirdly, the presence of water cooling of the diamond bit during operation makes it a dust-free tool.
Fourthly, drilling accuracy. if such a crown has a diameter of 150 mm, then the hole is exactly the same diameter. No runout deviation due to the tubular design of the tool.
Diamond drilling holes in concrete photo
The disadvantages of this method of drilling concrete can only be attributed to the cost of this tool. the crown itself has a considerable price, and the tool on which it is installed is also not cheap. We are not talking about small crowns, which are used to install socket boxes and drilling tiles. we are talking about a diamond drill, with which you can drill holes in concrete at any angle. In contrast to such a stationary diamond drill bit, which is installed on a conventional drill or hammer drill, work without water cooling. In addition, their drilling depth is limited by the body.
Well, and on this topic, I would like to note that diamond core bits, with the help of which holes are drilled in concrete, are also used for other materials. For example, they pass bricks like butter, they also do not notice the density of porcelain stoneware, granite and other similar materials, the hardness of which is too tough for other cutting tools.
Drilling holes in concrete. from pre-job to finishing
Quite often, it is necessary to make, during construction work and their completion, drilling holes in concrete. And doing it yourself is a convenient and useful skill. This will allow you to easily hang shelves on the wall, hang your favorite paintings, fix lamps and perform many other operations.
Drilling holes in concrete is not too difficult, but the correct selection of tools and adherence to several rules will save time and effort when performing work. This will be discussed in the article.
Features of hole drilling
Concrete is a heterogeneous mass, which consists of cement and sand with crushed stone kneading into it. To increase the strength of the material, metal rods are added to it.
When drilling concrete, it is common for a carbide drill bit attached to an electric drill to hit metal or a stone. When the tool hits the stone, the drill must be pulled out of the hole, and the stone must be crushed using a hand punch with a hammer. Drilling can then be continued.
Before drilling a hole in concrete, you need to choose the right tool. It depends on the:
- Concrete varieties;
- Required hole diameter;
- Drilling depth.
To drill holes in concrete, the following devices and tools can be used:
- Electric drill or hammer drill;
A few practical tips
For various types of artificial stone such as concrete, there are recommendations for drilling holes in it.
- If a perforator is used as the main equipment for drilling concrete, it should be borne in mind that this is only suitable for concrete with increased density. For cellular structures such as aerated concrete, it is better to use an electric drill with the hammer function turned off. Otherwise, there is a risk of cracks in the material;
- In order to prevent the breakage of an expensive tool during the drilling of the material, it is necessary to strictly observe the basic rule. the longitudinal axis of the equipment must be strictly perpendicular to the concrete surface;
- When drilling holes, the “punch” is an indispensable device. This is an elongated, high-hardness metal trihedron with a pointed end on one side and a handle on the other to help hold the tool in hand.
The need for a punch is as follows:
- When preparing the solution, a gravel or crushed stone aggregate is used. When drilling holes, the tool often rests against such fractions, slips, and does not move further. In this case, insert a punch into the channel made in the wall and beat it well with a hammer to crush the “pebble”, and then resume drilling.
- When applying significant efforts, which are necessary to split such an obstacle using the effect of a striker, there is a great risk of spoiling the tip of the tool. diamond dusting or will win.
- The cost of the punch is significantly lower than the drill. And when it is dull, you can easily give the working part of the part to its previous shape using an ordinary file.
To choose the right equipment for drilling holes in concrete, you should first get acquainted with the most popular ones for working at home.
Their photos and features:
It is better if it is percussion, drilling holes in concrete with a simple drill is quite difficult, and sometimes even impossible.
The table summarizes the pros and cons of the tool:
This is a more serious tool for drilling holes in reinforced concrete, with a variety of sizes and capacities. Usually it is used for drilling holes by professional builders and for laying utility lines.
The table summarizes the pros and cons of the tool:
This is modern technology. The equipment allows making holes not only in concrete, but also in reinforced concrete, which has reinforcement and granite crushed stone. A feature of this technology is the cooling of the diamond bit and the removal of sludge with water.
With diamond drilling, you can get a perfectly flat through hole without damage and chips at its entrance and exit.
The table summarizes the pros and cons of the tool:
Preparation for work
It’s easiest to drill holes in concrete with your own hands with a hammer drill or impact drill. Such tools will allow you to drill a concrete surface by reciprocating blows of the used drill, and the resulting crumb will be removed by rotation.
It is slower and more difficult to do this with a conventional drill in concrete than in wood or other soft materials.
- When purchasing a tool, it is better not to save money, but to give preference to a well-known brand;
- The adjustable speed of the tool must be taken into account;
- Determine the drilling depth of a possible hole;
- Find out the convenience of performing work with equipment;
- Safety measures must be observed. To do this, you should wear safety glasses to protect your eyes from concrete crumbs, use ear plugs so as not to damage your hearing, purchase work gloves to protect your hands from working with a drill. When carrying out long-term work, it is recommended to use a respirator;
- High quality concrete drills must be used for drilling. They should be carbide-tipped and designed specifically for impact drills that can withstand impact drilling into hard concrete;
Walls made of wood, drywall, foam concrete are successfully drilled with an ordinary drill. For walls made of brick, stone or concrete, you need a carbide drill. It differs from steel with carbide cutting edges welded onto a conventional drill, usually defeated. Less often artificial diamond.
The victorious insert is clearly visible at the end of the upper drill. It is enough to have 2 victory drills with a diameter of 6 and 8 mm on the farm.
With drills with victorious surfacing, you can drill a hole no more than 10-15 cm deep. For drilling to a greater depth, for example, to drill through a wall, a drill is used. Drills for drilling brick and concrete walls are up to one meter long and are designed to drill holes only with a hammer drill. In a drill, even the cutting edges are not sharp, but rounded to increase their wear resistance. A drill with a punch function can also be successfully drilled with a drill.
Drills are available with shank diameters of 10 and 18 mm, with special grooves of the SDS or SDS-max standard for fastening, but in a conventional chuck they also clamp well. The standard and diameter of the drill are knocked out on its shank.
If you need to drill through a thick wall, for example, half a meter, then the passage is performed in several stages with drills of the same diameter, but of different lengths. This is necessary for safety and faster drilling. First, they drill the wall with a 20 cm drill to a depth of 10-15 cm, then with a longer drill to a depth of 30-35 cm and finish drilling with a 50 cm drill. The drill must be powerful enough for such work. Of course, a drill for such a load is not designed and its use is permissible only in exceptional cases. Better to do this kind of work, rent a real hammer drill.
How to drill a wall
Before you start drilling a wall or ceiling, you need to make sure that no electrical wires or other cables pass under the intended place in the plaster. Otherwise, you can damage the wiring and get under voltage yourself.
To drill into tiles with a hard-alloyed drill not specially designed for tiles, it is necessary to remove the glaze after marking the drilling point.
This is done very simply, with a core, and if it is absent, you can use an ordinary self-tapping screw or even a thick nail with a sharp end to chop off the glaze in the place of the future hole with very light blows and then drill like a brick wall at low speeds.
Dust-free drilling jig
Due to the heterogeneity of the walls, especially made of bricks, the drill often “leads” away from the intended place and if there are more than one holes, then the suspended shelf does not hang horizontally, or even worse, it cannot be hung, since the installed dowels do not coincide with the fastening loops. You can use a jig in the form of a plywood sheet with a pre-drilled hole, but when drilling from vibration, it can also shift and again the result will not be what was expected. But there is a simple technology that allows you to drill two or more holes strictly in specified places.
Drilling large holes in the wall
When installing ventilation ducts and hoods, it becomes necessary to make a hole in the wall with a large diameter, for example 18 cm.It happens that you want to hide an electric meter in the wall, and then you need to make a niche in the wall.
At home, this problem can be solved using a carbide drill. With a pencil, the outline of the future hole is marked on the wall. On the outside of the mowing line of the marking, holes are drilled with a carbide drill with a diameter of 8-12 mm with a distance between the edges of the holes about 10 mm. For a hole in the wall with a diameter of 18 cm, you will need to perform about 30 drills with a drill diameter of 10 mm. Next, a sample of the wall material is made using a chisel and hammer. With a smaller drill diameter, the edges of the hole will be more accurate, but you will have to drill more holes.
If the wall is thick and the length of the drill is not enough to obtain through drilling, then you can drill in two stages.
If it is possible to drill the wall from two sides, then first, drilling is performed, as described above, on one side of the wall, then a hole is drilled in the wall in the geometric center of the obtained sample for an overhang, that is, a through hole. With respect to the resulting hole, marking is made from the opposite side of the wall and the operation is repeated.
If it is not possible to drill a thick wall from two sides, then you will have to do drilling and sampling in two stages. From the mowing line marking on the outside, another line is applied, at a distance sufficient so that after the first sample in the wall and further drilling, the drill can go deeper into the niche made without touching the edges of the wall.
To reduce the complexity of the work, it is better to immediately purchase a drill of sufficient length.
Precise hole drilling
The problem can be solved very simply by gluing a sheet of any sandpaper with glue or two-sided tape on the entire area of the conductor side, which is applied to the wall. In this case, the adhesion of the conductor to the wall surface increases many times over, and during drilling, the specified accuracy of the positioning of the roller is ensured. The hole will turn out exactly in the place of the marking.
Depending on the weight of the product and the density of the wall, you have to drill holes for dowels of different diameters, usually 6 or 8 mm. For the versatility of the jig, it is necessary to drill several holes of the desired diameters with an ordinary drill.
To top it off, attach a plate at a right angle to the end of the base of the jig. Thanks to this modification, most of the drilling products will remain on this shelf, which will prevent contamination of the wallpaper and reduce dust scattering in all directions.
The proposed device is indispensable for drilling holes for fixing skirting boards. Drill a hole in the jig at a given height from the shelf. When drilling, put the shelf on the floor and you will get all the holes strictly at the required height from the floor, which will guarantee a snug fit of the plinth to the floor surface.
Sometimes you have to hang a product on the wall, for which you need to drill several holes in the wall and maintain the distance between them with greater accuracy. If the wall is brick and plastered, then it is impossible to perform accurate drilling without a conductor.
For the manufacture of a conductor for precise drilling, a board, a sheet of plywood or metal is suitable. After marking, the required number of holes is drilled in the sheet with an ordinary drill. Consider the case for fixing the product with two screws. One hole is drilled with a diameter equal to the diameter of the drill with which the wall will be drilled, the second, with a diameter equal to the diameter of the self-tapping screw. After the jig is made, the first hole is drilled in the wall using the jig, for the precise drilling described earlier, and the dowel is driven into the hole.
The conductor is screwed into the hammered dowel with a self-tapping screw, the jig is screwed to the wall, leveled with a water level so that the drilled holes are on the same horizontal.
Thanks to the use of the simplest jig, which can be made in a few minutes from any material at hand, the holes turned out exactly at a given distance from each other.
Using the same technology, you can drill a number of holes at a greater distance from each other. In this case, the extreme holes are first drilled according to the above technology, the jig is screwed on with two extreme self-tapping screws, and then all other holes are checked.
The proposed options for conductors are convenient when renovating an apartment, when dirt is commonplace everywhere.
However, when the renovation is finished and the cleanliness is done, drilling becomes stressful. I do not want to dirty carpets and furniture with concrete or brick chips and dust.
Drilling holes in walls
When landscaping an apartment, it becomes necessary to mount all kinds of objects on the walls and ceiling. photographs, paintings, lamps, mirrors, curtains, shelves, TV, baseboards and much more.
In order to hang a photograph or a small painting, of course, you shouldn’t drill the wall. It is enough to hammer in a small nail. Not every carnation is suitable for this business. It is best to use a dowel. Nails from the brackets that secure computer network cables to walls. These studs are of sufficient length, thick and hardened. It turns out to hammer even into a concrete wall.
Performing the operation of drilling holes in walls with modern equipment with a power tool will not present more difficulty if you know how to properly drill. It will save you from unnecessary cleaning and keep your property intact if you use a dust-free drilling jig.
When buying an electric drill, you need to be guided by the following technical characteristics below.
The power of the drill must be at least 600 W. Revolutions up to 2500 per minute and the possibility of their smooth adjustment from zero to maximum. The presence of a reverse rotation (switch for the direction of rotation of the drill clockwise or counterclockwise). The chuck is best of all a keyless chuck, you will not have to waste time clamping the drills and finding a constantly lost key. Diameter of drills to be clamped in the chuck up to 12 mm.
Presence of the included hammer drilling function. Of course, when this function is turned on, a drill will not become a full-fledged puncher, but it will be much easier and faster to drill walls, and here’s why. Brick, cement and concrete can withstand static loads very well. pressure. But they are easily destroyed by dynamic influences. blow. Karate players, due to a strong blow, easily break a brick in two with the edge of the palm. When drilling with a drill without an impact function, there is a simple drill pressure and it is difficult for the cutting edge to catch on to the material, so drilling is slow and the drill gets very hot from friction. Drilling with a blow is quite different. The drill, upon impact, pokes out a part of the material with the cutting edge, and, hitting into the formed depression, breaks off a portion of the material particles. Something like chiselling with a chisel happens.
How not to get caught in the wire
It is necessary to inspect the wall for the presence of a switch, a socket. Usually, in a vertical direction, wires go up from them to the junction box. But verticality. An ideal case. This rule is rarely observed in practice by electricians, saving wire, often hidden wiring is laid diagonally. Here’s an example. When I made repairs and moved the counter to another place, after removing the old wallpaper, the following picture opened. You can clearly see how the wire was laid to the meter.
But still, the wire will run from the switch to the nearest box. The wire will also leave the chandelier to the nearest box.
Usually the wires are recessed to a depth of no more than 10 mm. To check it, it is enough to use a blunt tool, for example, a screwdriver, to dig out the wall to this depth. If no wires were found, then you can start drilling. And yet, just in case, to a depth of 20 mm, you should not press hard on the drill, and after deepening for every couple of millimeters, visually check whether the wire is caught.
There are special devices that allow you to determine the location of the passage of wires in the wall. Here are some of them not expensive, made in China, but, nevertheless, they work well. It also has a metal detector function, which allows you to identify the location of metal reinforcement in concrete walls. The device allows you to find copper wiring at a drowning depth of 10 mm. Electrical wiring made of aluminum wires is detected only in metal detector mode.
Detection of wiring is indicated by a flashing LED and an intermittent beep. In metal detector mode, the diode is constantly on when detected and the sound is continuous. There is a sensitivity regulator, the seeker is powered by a Krone-type element. Such a device is especially necessary for the installation of suspended and stretch ceilings, since the supporting structures are attached with self-tapping screws near the ceiling, just where electricians usually lay the wiring.
If, nevertheless, it happened to interrupt the electrical wiring, then the article of the site “Connecting the broken wires in the wall” will help you to repair it yourself.
When drilling in concrete, stone or brick, the electric motor generates a huge torque, so only small diameters are manually drilled. When working manually, you must be especially careful, since any jamming of the crown can lead to dislocation of the operator’s arm.
When receiving drilling of large and medium diameters, it is simply impossible to hold the drill in your hands and in such cases it is attached to a special bed, which allows you to move the tool along the axis of rotation of the crown, it is also possible to work at an angle from 0 0 to 45 0.
If it is necessary to drill in concrete with a diameter of more than 500 mm, then a hydraulic drill is used. Such a tool is small in size and weight, and the electro-hydraulic unit, which provides the necessary pressure, is on the ground.
Drill sharpening scheme.
In the process of performing diamond drilling, the crown itself and the tool are used, which drives it. the hump. If work is carried out in places where there is no power supply, then installations with gasoline engines are used. Making holes in concrete with these machines is quick and accurate.
Electrical installations that are used to drill holes in the wall are single-phase and three-phase. The most common are single-phase air-cooled rotors with a power of 3.0-3.3 kW.
Three-phase humps are water-cooled, have higher performance and allow larger diameters. Among the disadvantages of such equipment, it is worth noting a rather large weight and the need to connect to a 380 V network, which is not always available.
Making cylindrical holes in concrete using the specified tool is the most efficient and least labor-intensive. Among the advantages that such drilling has, we note the following:
- High speed of work, depending on the diameter, it is necessary to spend 10-20 minutes;
- Low vibration and, accordingly, low noise;
- High dimensional accuracy of the holes obtained;
- Virtually no dust.
This technology is used during various construction works, when drilling of ceilings, laying of communications is carried out. Diamond drilling of stone, brick and reinforced concrete allows obtaining different diameters for carrying out such types of communications:
- Power supply networks, as well as optical transmission channels;
- Heating, water supply, sewerage, air conditioning system;
- If necessary, taking samples of rocks or concrete samples in integral structures.
Also, diamond drilling is widely used to make niches of holes in concrete or brick walls, to make openings in floor slabs or main walls.
The tool required for drilling:
- Diamond core bit;
- A special drill that is used to rotate a diamond bit. a drill (it can be electric or hydraulic);
- Stand for attachment of the brake motor.
If it is necessary to drill holes in concrete with a diameter of up to 500 mm, then an electric drill is used. It is similar to conventional drills, but has a number of differences:
Concrete wall drilling pattern.
- Higher power and lower revs;
- The spindle is hollow inside, which allows water to be supplied through it to the cutting zone;
- There are oil seals on the shaft of the electric brake, this prevents water from getting into the motor or gearbox;
- Electronic speed control is not used, for this there is usually a 3-stage adjustment.
Hole drilling technology in concrete
Drilling diagram for concrete base.
To date, this technology for making holes is the most convenient, fast, safe and profitable. Holes can be drilled in concrete, brick, stone or reinforced concrete if required.
- There is practically no dust, so this technology is more environmentally friendly;
- We get almost perfect holes in concrete that do not require additional processing;
- High accuracy of the obtained dimensions;
- The ability to drill not only in a horizontal or vertical plane, but also at an angle;
- The work is carried out at a high speed. 1-2 cm / min, the possibility of making holes in concrete up to 3 meters deep;
- During operation, microcracks do not appear, which reduce the strength of the structure.
Such drilling allows to obtain large diameters with high dimensional accuracy, practically without noise and dust. This allows the use of the specified technology in residential buildings and premises. For high-quality performance of work, it is better to contact specialists.