Hacksaw for metal where the teeth are
Types of hacksaws for metal
Even in the conditions of widespread use of angle grinders and other types of metal-cutting hand tools, traditional hacksaws for metal have not sunk into oblivion. Sometimes it is much easier, faster and safer to cut the metal by hand, using an ordinary saw blade.
The main difference between saws for metal and wood is the height of the teeth. In hacksaws for cutting metal, the gear has a height of 1-1.5 (mm). Higher teeth are used for cutting wood, from 2 to 5-7 (mm) and even more.
Hacksaw for metal. a saw designed for cutting metal workpieces. This tool consists of a frame and a saw blade. Unlike the overwhelming majority of saws for wood, in saws for metal, the blade is rigidly attached. The only exceptions are hand saws for metal with one-sided mounting.
Of course, today the position of hacksaws for metal has strongly pressed against angle grinders and band saws. When doing voluminous work, that is, cutting a large number of workpieces, it makes sense to use the same angle grinder. When you need to make only 1-3 cuts, then very often craftsmen prefer a manual hacksaw for metal.
What are the hacksaws for metal
Today, you can count a dozen or two modifications of hacksaws for metal cutting. First of all, this type of saw can be classified according to the length of the blade:
- Classic (300 mm)
- Shortened (150 mm)
In addition, the industry offers canvases in lengths of 200 and 400 (mm). They did not receive wide distribution, but they are still produced in small batches.
- Saws with a blade length of 150 (mm) are considered short. Additionally, there are canvases and 200 (mm), they can also be classified as short. Hacksaws with a short blade have a rather narrow specialization. These saws are usually used in confined spaces.
- Saws with a 300 (mm) blade are considered the standard. This blade length is sufficient for high performance sawing while observing safety precautions.
Experts note that good blades made of high-quality tool steel are practically not produced for short saws today. Their place was taken by cheap analogs based on ordinary carbon steel. A gear made of such a metal “goes bald before our eyes” if you process workpieces made of durable steel grades.
The shortage of high-quality blades for short saws is due to the fact that hacksaws of short length are confidently out of use today. Short hacksaws are supplanted by jigsaws, small grinders and reciprocating saws.
Varieties of hacksaws with a tension blade
Hacksaws with a blade tensioning mechanism differ primarily in the type of the holder itself:
- Cast holder
- Hollow holder
- The all-metal die-cast holder is the hallmark of a professional tool. The main advantage of this type of holder is the highest strength. The molded saw body will not spring and deform during operation, which positively affects both the quality of the cut and the durability of the saw blade.
- The hollow holder is a characteristic feature of budget saws. Such hacksaws are made from rolled metal products of rectangular or round cross-section. Of course, there are also very robust solutions among hollow-holder saws. But at high cutting forces, the hollow profile of the holder will certainly spring, due to which the tension of the blade decreases with all the ensuing consequences.
Hacksaws for metal with a one-piece cast holder are quite expensive. Many buyers are perplexed when two hacksaws that are almost identical in appearance have a price difference of 2-3 times, and maybe even more. And illiterate sellers explain the pricing policy by “brand awareness”.
In such cases, you need to pay attention to the holder itself. If it is cast, then the saw can be safely used for cutting high-strength steel grades and alloys. Saws with a cast holder do not spring, providing the blade with a stable tension at all stages of cutting. In such saws, the blades rarely burst and dull less.
If the holder is hollow, then the hacksaw is suitable only for cutting workpieces made of non-ferrous metals or alloys (copper, aluminum, bronze, brass, etc.). In some cases, a hollow-blade saw can be used to cut plain carbon steel workpieces.
How to choose a hacksaw for metal, if you go from the type of handle.
Hacksaw classification by handle type
Metal saws can be equipped with different types of handle:
- Pistol type
The type of grip on the handle determines both the convenience of working with the saw and the ease of manipulation of the saw blade. It is generally accepted that the pistol grip provides a comfortable grip. And the straight-type handle allows you to more accurately guide the saw blade.
If the master is faced with the task of processing workpieces with increased accuracy, then it is best, of course, to take a saw with a straight handle. If any special requirements are imposed on the accuracy of the workpiece, then it is best to take a saw with a traditional pistol grip.
Saws classification by holder type
Hacksaws for metal use several types of holder:
- Tension (2 points of support)
- Without blade tension
The tension on the saw blade makes the gear stiffer, which in turn provides the saw with high reliability and durability. Of course, there are some locksmith operations that do not require tension on the saw.
- Tension blade hacksaws are the vast majority of metal saws. In these hacksaws, the blade is attached between the ends of the staple holder. Saws of this type are equipped with a mechanism for fine adjustment of the saw blade tension.
- Hacksaws with a blade without tension have a noticeably limited area of application. In such saws, the blade is simply inserted into the handle, and a thrust roller or support bracket is provided approximately in the center of the blade.
In saws without blade tension, the cutting part from the center to the end opposite to the handle simply dangles freely. This is done so that the thin gear can easily pass into hard-to-reach places. Yes, the reliability of such saws is low, but instead of a hacksaw without tension, the blades provide the ability to cut in slots and gaps.
What else you need to know about the types of hacksaws for metal.
Types of saw blades
When working with a hacksaw for metal, special attention should be paid to the choice of the saw blade. Canvases can differ in the following parameters:
- Canvas size
- Tooth height
- Tooth shape
- Number of saw edges
- Material making
- The length of the canvases has been written above. The most widespread are hacksaws for metal with a blade of 300 (mm). The thickness of the hacksaw blade can range from 0.67 to 1.25 (mm). With an increase in the thickness of the blade, the strength characteristics of the saw part increase, but the price of the product will also increase.
The width of the web is usually 12.5 to 20-25 (mm). As with thickness, the width of the saw head also affects the strength of the blade. For wide blades, the use of teeth of an increased height, 1.5 (mm), is characteristic. Narrow and thin blades usually use a 1 (mm) high gear.
Wide and thick canvases are most often used for roughing workpieces. Such blades give not the best cleanliness cut.
- Regarding the shape of the teeth, the blades can use both an isosceles and an oblique triangle teeth. If the gear is straight (teeth in the form of an isosceles triangle), then you can saw both forward and backward. With an oblique, that is, an oblique gear, you can cut only in one direction, in the direction of the slope.
Slant-toothed saw blades are typically sawed towards themselves. But if the saw is turned around, then it will be possible to cut from oneself.
There are various cutting techniques, both from oneself and to oneself.
- Canvases can be either one-sided or double-sided. In double-sided saw blades, the saw tooth is located on both edges of the blade.
Saw blades for metal with double-sided gear are more durable, but they also cost almost twice as much as single-sided counterparts.
- Good saw blades are made from high speed tool steel. With such a blade, it is permissible to cut steel and alloys of almost any strength. In this case, the gear will not quickly dull and lick off.
Of course, the cost of a good saw blade is always high. To reduce the price of a gear, manufacturers have to go to various tricks. The most successful in terms of quality and price are bimetallic blades. Such products are made from dissimilar steel. In blades of this type, the gear, that is, the edge of the cutting edge, is made on the basis of high-speed tool steel. The rest of the blade is cheap carbon steel, the only advantage of which is its good spring properties.
Hacksaw for metal in which direction of the teeth
A hacksaw for metal is a type of saw for cutting metal workpieces. Consists of a hacksaw frame  and a hacksaw blade .
Hacksaw Basics: How to buy and use a hacksaw.
Hacksaw blades are made thin and narrow. The length of hand saws is characterized by the distance between the holes at the ends. from 6 “to 14” (from 150 to 400 mm). For hand sawing, blades of 250 mm and 300 mm, 12.5 and 25 mm wide and 0.63. 1.25 mm thick are used. The blades of machine hacksaws are somewhat wider. 25 55 mm. and with a thickness of 1.25 to 2.0 mm (with a large tooth. 2.5 mm). There are two types of hacksaw blades:
- A. with the location of the teeth on one side of the canvas;
- B. with the location of the teeth on both sides of the canvas.
Hacksaw blades are made of high-speed steel and H6VF steel. To prevent the blade from breaking, only heat treatment of the blade teeth is used.
GOST R 53411-2009 Hacksaw blades for metal. Technical conditions
It should be borne in mind that a saw blade for cutting metal consists of many cutters that consistently remove thin layers of metal, these cutters must be very strong, so their design provides strength in only one direction. Such cutters wear less when cutting metals, and retain their ability to cut metal for a long time. Roughly speaking, a metal saw can be compared to the chisel of a lathe or a plane, which removes layers of wood. A wood saw simply breaks the grain of wood, which is much softer than metal, so the saw blades may have less strength and cut wood when moving forward and backward.
I personally know how and know a few secrets, but recently I met a person who is engaged in plumbing, and so he does not use an angle grinder at all, he cuts all pipes, rods, corners and even rails and channels with a hacksaw for metal and and so quickly, who knows what secrets or ways to speed up cutting metal with a hacksaw. everything is interesting, to the smallest detail and assumptions!
To be honest, I don’t know any special secrets, but there are some nuances that should be observed.
About 30 years ago, when there was not much about fortunes and grinders, whoever heard the father did all the work with metal with an ordinary hacksaw for metal. And with a hand drill.
Firstly, I would suggest choosing a hacksaw like in the second photo. This option is more convenient to work with. It’s just more comfortable to hold in your hands and the grip won’t slip in your hand.
When installing the blade, you should pay attention to the correct position of the teeth. As shown in the photo, they should go away from the cutter. When cutting, you need to apply force when the saw goes away from you. When returning the saw back, you need to slightly raise the handle and release the pressure on the saw itself. This way the teeth will stay in “working” condition longer.
It is also worth paying attention to the tension of the blade when installing it in the saw. If the blade is too loose or too tight, then at the slightest hesitation of the saw it will simply break.
Well, so that the canvas does not get too hot, you can drop a couple of drops of oil into the area of the cut.
Well, do not forget that the metal that is cut can simply be “broken.” That is, sometimes it is enough to cut off half of, for example, a pipe or corner, and simply break the rest, by bending to one side or the other.
I would also like to draw your attention to the fact that the part that is supposed to be cut is desirable (if possible) to be securely fastened, for example, in a vice.
Hacksaw for metal
Often, professional craftsmen use a special carpentry hacksaw for metal, which has the following varieties:
- A classic model with a special frame. It is often supplied with a rubberized handle for easy handling. With this model, you can make cuts in sheet metal at angles of 90º and 55º.
- A hacksaw handle. It consists of a special handle, to which the rig is attached only from one side. The special shape of the bracket assumes work in difficult conditions and the creation of internal cuts.
How does a hacksaw differ from a saw?
One of the main and commonly used types of saws is a hacksaw. It differs from other instruments in this group in that:
- This is a purely hand tool. The hacksaw saw is set in motion only by the reciprocating movements of the hands of the master. Whereas other saws can be electric or gasoline.
- When using a hacksaw, only return movements are used, while other saws can be circular.
- In the usual configuration, such a tool has one handle for the work of the master alone.
- It has basically a straight cutting blade, while analogs can have a chain, tape or disc.
- A hacksaw has only teeth on the working edge, while other varieties may have an abrasive.
How to sharpen a hacksaw?
After carrying out a certain amount of work with a hacksaw, the saw teeth are simply dull. The first signs of the need for sharpening include:
- Heavy and uneven sawing.
- Uneven cut.
- The web often gets stuck.
- It is difficult to keep the given trajectory.
When the above “symptoms” appear, each master must understand how to sharpen a hacksaw while maintaining the working profile of the teeth:
- Clamp the tool securely in a vise or clamp.
- Carry out the setting of the teeth. This procedure involves alternately bending each tooth in different directions by the same amount by about 1.5-2 mm with a special tool.
- A triangular file with a fine cut is selected.
- The angle of sharpening of the teeth is determined by eye, which is approximately equal to 15-30º.
- Carry out the same number of file strokes in the selected direction on one side. Repeat the process for the other side.
- The teeth are aligned in height.
Like any other carpentry and metalwork tool, a hacksaw has a certain structure that affects its performance. It consists of:
- Working, hacksaw or saw blade. It is made of metal of various alloys, which, together with the size, affect the purpose of the tool. Another important parameter of the working blade is the number, shape and size of teeth. Thanks to them, the surface is divided into parts using the reciprocating movements of the master.
- The working blade is attached and securely fixed to the handle or special frame. It performs the functions of fixation, protection and ease of use. When choosing a saw, it is imperative to take into account its ergonomics.
How to use a hacksaw?
The principles of working with basic locksmith tools, which include a hand saw, are simple, but non-observance can lead to saw breakage or poor-quality sawing. The main rules for handling the tool:
- The master occupies a comfortable standing position with a firm emphasis on the legs. The arms at the elbow should be bent at an angle of 90º.
- Reliable fixation of the sawn surface. If possible, it is better to fix the material in a vice.
- The hacksaw blade is firmly positioned strictly perpendicular to the surface. It is important to exclude all vibrations of the instrument to prevent damage to it.
- Tools for metal are held with two hands, while for wood or aerated concrete. with one.
A special type of tool that has appeared relatively recently is a cordless reciprocating saw, which is also called an electric hacksaw. Such a device will come in handy when performing a large number of construction or garden work. The compact size allows the electric hacker to be used in confined spaces that would be difficult to handle with a conventional saw. Such a hacksaw should be selected, guided by the following characteristics:
- Battery capacity, which directly affects battery life. Professional models can last about 5 hours before changing the battery.
- Voltage affecting the power and the number of movements made by the saw per unit of time.
- Possibility of connecting additional batteries to increase performance.
What is a hacksaw?
In joinery, a hacksaw is a special type of hand saw designed for sawing wood, metal, aerated concrete, plastic and other materials. Scientists find mentions of the first such instruments in ancient times in the civilizations of Egypt, Greece and Rome. During the centuries-old history, the hacksaw has undergone significant changes, but has not lost its relevance and is always stored in the set of basic tools of the home craftsman.
Hacksaw blade for metal. how to distinguish quality?
The blade for a hacksaw for metal refers to those parts that quickly deteriorate and require frequent replacement. However, knowing the intricacies of choosing a product, you can ensure long and high-quality work.!
Choosing a hacksaw for metal. don’t overpay!
Even the choice of such a simple tool as a hacksaw for metal should be approached knowledgeable. Remember that the seller’s task is to sell the most expensive instrument, the capabilities of which you will use by hardly 10%. Use the rule of the golden mean. avoid completely budget models and do not buy the most expensive ones. The tool should be practical, provide for the ability to work at different angles and with different blades.
The popularity of some models is due to the ability to work with canvases of any length, and this is indeed a very successful move. Pay attention also to the possibility to change the blade angle in the frame itself. this function allows you to work with metals even in hard-to-reach places. Take the tool in your hands, grasp the handle with your palm. The palm should completely encircle the handle, while the fingers should not interfere with each other and should not rest on the details. Avoid hollow handles. crushing a little will break the tool. The product should not be loose, all parts are fitted and create a feeling of reliability.
Hacksaw for metal. we cut steel in slippers!
With the advent of hacksaws for metal, it has become much easier to work with various metal products. even at home, in your garage or workshop, you can saw off the desired piece of reinforcement or thick wire. And even the appearance of mechanical analogues did not affect the popularity of hand tools: firstly, the cost is affordable for almost any craftsman, secondly, in the process of work, high accuracy is achieved, thirdly, the tool is almost impossible to break, and fourthly. the independence of the product from the mains makes it indispensable in the field of work.
Modern hacksaws differ not only in the “pistol grip”. manufacturers come up with and improve systems for fastening the blade. The threaded clamp, which is present in all old models, is gradually replaced by a lever mechanism, thanks to which the blade is installed many times faster. True, they are more expensive than hacksaws with a “lamb”.
However, the design features affect, by and large, only the ease of maintenance of the tool, the quality of the cut and the speed of work depend, first of all, on replaceable hacksaw blades. There are plenty of them on sale, you can find a product for any wallet and any purpose. The cost of blades depends on the alloy from which they are made and the number of teeth per inch. Basically, there are parts made of hardened steel and bimetallic products. The disadvantage of hardened steel lies in its fragility, therefore, although products are cheaper, they break more often, while bimetallic ones can boast good flexibility and hardness, and therefore they are more expensive.
Universal saw. hacksaws for all occasions
Even an ordinary, at first glance, hacksaw can cause confusion for the average consumer, he will find many different tools on the shelves! To simplify the choice, we list three main types of tools, into which, depending on the purpose, they are divided:
- Hacksaws for metal. a narrow saw with fine teeth. It has a characteristic recognizable appearance, basically it is a C-shaped or U-shaped frame, between the ends of which a canvas is attached tightly. Older hacksaw models often have a handle that runs parallel to the blade, modern products are equipped with a much more ergonomic pistol grip.
- A hacksaw for wood is a classic carpentry tool used for sawing wooden building materials, as well as plywood sheets. As a rule, carpentry hacksaws have a wide beveled working part, on the edge of which there are cutting teeth. The teeth are set alternately left and right to facilitate cutting. At the same time, straight teeth in some models help to remove chips from the mowing line of the cut.
- A concrete hacksaw looks like a carpentry saw, with the difference that the first tool has larger teeth. Quite often, they have soldered carbide metals, thanks to which this tool can be used to saw foam blocks and sand concrete structures.
The quality of the tool is determined by the following indicators:
- Blade length. depending on the size of the workpiece, the appropriate tool is also selected. On average, the length of the working part ranges from 300-700 mm.
- Tooth pitch. this measure determines the thickness and hardness of the materials that the tool is able to handle. For example, a pitch of 3.5 mm is suitable for sawing wood materials from soft wood, 5 mm hacksaws work with hard wood.
Metal hacksaw blade. knowledge driven choice!
When buying a canvas, pay attention, first of all, to its appearance. even the smallest flaws can affect its work. Avoid canvases with traces of corrosion, cracks, roughness. The ideal blade should be smooth, clean, with even teeth, and when folded, instantly restore its original shape. The more teeth per inch, the faster you can cut the part. So, there are canvases with 18 and 24 teeth per inch, most often, these are bought for the home, but 32 teeth per inch is the lot of professionals.
Avoid buying black products. these are enough for several passes, then the crumbling teeth make the work impossible. Although hardened products are not flexible, they are much more convenient to work with. In appearance, they look like a nickel-plated strip of stainless steel with dark teeth. it is by the color of the teeth that it is easiest to guess about their hardening. Bimetallic blades are usually painted in some colors, and although they are more expensive, they will last much longer. After choosing the right material, make sure that the length of the product and the length of the hacksaw match.
Using the tool. patience and work will grind everything!
A hacksaw for metal does not require any special operating skills. You just have to monitor the condition of the canvas and change it in a timely manner. By the way, due to its small teeth, the tool is suitable for working not only with metal, it will also show itself perfectly in cutting foam plastic, plastic, chipboard, PVC, laminate and even ceramics and plexiglass. In this case, the edges of the cut will turn out to be quite even.
The biggest challenge that beginners face when cutting metal and other materials with a metal hacksaw is wobbling the blade from side to side. If this happens, check the condition of the fasteners. wobbling may mean that the wing is not tightened enough. By the way, do not rely on the effort of only your hands. use at least pliers to increase the pressure. Unlike a carpenter’s hacksaw, it will not work to sharpen the canvas after it is dull, you just have to replace it with a new one.
You need to fasten the blade with the teeth down and forward from the handle. It is necessary to stretch the canvas during its change in such a way that from the slightest blow it would ring like a string. See, don’t overdo it!
Choice of canvas
The quality of the blade is determined by its teeth. First selection criterion. this is the shape of the cutting elements, which can vary depending on the inclination of the edge piece.
The second criterion for choosing a canvas. this is the pitch of the teeth. By this parameter, you can determine which material is suitable for cutting in terms of hardness, and also select the maximum possible thickness of the product that can be cut. This indicator is measured by the number of teeth per one inch of the blade. It is also important to note that the thickness of the sheet metal plays an important role here. For example, on professional 300mm hacksaws, the thickness will be 0.63. 1.25 mm. Blade thickness for electric saws with a length of 150 mm. from 1.25 to 2.5 mm.
It should also be said that the number of teeth per inch of the blade depends on the thickness and material of the workpiece that will be cut. For example, when cutting an aluminum workpiece with a thickness of more than 5 mm, the number of teeth per inch must be 18. If the thickness is from 2 to 5 mm, then the number of teeth can vary from 18 to 24. For a workpiece thickness less than 2 mm, the number of teeth should be in the range from 24 to 32.
Hacksaw blade for metal: photo, GOST, thickness
Today there are a huge number of hacksaws for metal. They all differ in their appearance, characteristics, etc. Also, these tools are divided into professional and home. The most significant difference between these two types will be a sheet for metal.
By itself, the steel blade for metal, the photo of which is presented below, cannot cut other metal parts.
The implementation of this process becomes possible due to the application of small wedge-shaped teeth to the edge of the blade. It is very important to pay attention to the hardening of these teeth when choosing a tool. Correct selection will lead to the fact that the service life will increase significantly, as will the efficiency of cutting the necessary parts. Nowadays, it is customary to use small-toothed saw blades for cutting hard metal products, and large teeth are intended for working with soft parts. The canvases themselves can be made of different types of steel, but it is best to opt for bimetallic ones. If you could not find such, then you can pay attention to the hardened canvases. These saw elements are made of nickel-plated stainless steel with teeth. It is worth noting that the blade should be attached in such a way that the teeth go in the opposite direction from the handle.
Currently, the standard length for the blade is 300 mm. There are also hacksaws, in which this figure is 150 mm. Shorter options are used only in cases where a large hacksaw is not suitable precisely because of its size or the master needs to perform very delicate work.
If we talk about the teeth of the blade for metal, then they are very small. This choice is due to the fact that it is precisely the small teeth that best cope with the task of cutting metal products. Masters of working with this tool pay attention to the fact that the canvas. this is an essential element, but it is worth giving due consideration to the handle of the tool. For some types, it is very poorly made, and it will be inconvenient to work with such a device, even if the metal sheet meets all the qualities.
Differences between tools
As mentioned earlier, saws are conventionally divided into professional and home saws. The main advantage of a professional tool is that its design is more rigid, and also makes it possible to work at an angle of 90 and 55 degrees. Home appliances are often more flimsy, and during work they are constantly “stormy”. In this case, even a high-quality metal blade does not guarantee a high-quality cut. However, here it is necessary to build on the frequency of use of this tool. Household saws are much cheaper and should only be purchased if a hacksaw is rarely used. If you have to use this tool quite often, then you should not save.
It should be said about a separate type of saw. hacksaw handle. The main difference between this tool and a conventional hacksaw is that it is designed to work with a broken hacksaw blade for metal.
A hacksaw blade for metal is a thin strip made of hard steel. Despite the fact that this is the only metal part in the construction of the saw, it is also the most vulnerable to breakage, since the thickness of the product is very small. For this reason, it is very important to monitor your actions when working with this tool. Careless and careless handling will lead to rapid breakdown of a fragile structural element.
The design of this tool is practically the same for all models. The saw is a C-shaped arc, between the lower edges of which the blade is fixed or stretched. The working and main part of this tool is the same hacksaw blade for metal, which has many small teeth.
Lever. one of the three main parts of the device, plays a significant role in terms of the ease of use of the tool during long-term work. The most successful in terms of performance and comfort of use are two-component compound handles with rubber inserts.
The frame of this tool. This is an element that is designed to attach a hacksaw blade for metal. Different materials can be used in the production of the frame, but they determine the type of work for which the saw will be used. For example, if it is necessary to saw high strength metals, it is best that the frame is made of composite materials that are also of high strength.
It is important to note that the design of the frame largely determines the working conditions. If it is necessary to cut in hard-to-reach places, then it is best to use a frame with an adjustable blade angle or simply purchase a shorter version of the device.
GOST canvases for metal
GOST 6645-86. this is a state standard that establishes requirements for the type, size, quality of metal sheets, etc.
This document sets out the rules for the technical production of this product. In particular, this GOST specifies the steel grades from which it is necessary to make the types of canvas. For example, type 1 should be made of steel tape that meets all the requirements of GOST 23522-79. Type 2 of a hacksaw blade must be made of high-speed steel, which is determined in accordance with GOST 19265-73. The document also states that the canvases must be heat treated. Acceptable web is considered when there are no cracks, captivity, scale or corrosion on the surface.
Locksmith chisel and its varieties
Chisels for metal come in different lengths and vary in width from 3 to 25 mm. It is customary to subdivide them into several main types, differing in shape depending on their tasks:
- locksmith chisels,
- grooves (for cutting grooves of various profiles),
- kreutzmeisel (a kind of ditch),
- blacksmith’s chisel (with a long wooden handle),
- nibbling chisel and undercutting (for cutting curly lines in sheet material),
- barbs / punches (for punching round holes in thin sheet material),
- center punch / mechanical self-centering center punch (for small recesses in which the drill is installed).
Chisels can be different depending on the type of work they perform
In the Russian Federation, the parameters of chisels are determined by GOSTs (for example, GOST 7212-74. crosscutters, GOST 7211-86. chisels, etc.).
When cutting metal, you will need 4 types of chisels: wide, pointed, cross-cutter and semicircular chisel-groove. Chisels for metal can be used not only for straight chopping or cutting, but also for shaping metal, as well as for cleaning edges and surfaces. Varieties of chisels for metal
- The most common type of chisel has a straight cutting edge with a wedge-shaped sharpening. It is used for shaping, shearing metal bars, shearing bolt heads or rivets.
- The cross cutter also has a wedge-shaped sharpening, but the cutting edge is much narrower; they make grooves or channels.
- The semicircular groove chisel is useful for rounding the inner corners of a groove or groove and for punching out semicircular grooves.
- The pointed chisel is sharpened to a point. Used for aligning corners and cutting narrow grooves in metal.
For safe and efficient work, the chisel must be sharp with a hardened cutting edge sharpened at an angle of 60-70 °.
Important! When using the chisel, be sure to protect your eyes with special glasses. Leather gloves provide some protection against burrs and jagged edges, but may reduce your maneuverability when working with thin sheets of metal.
For safety reasons, avoid excessive pressure, however hard the metal may be. Too much pressure can break the blade or knock it out of the cut; both options can be dangerous.
Tools for cold cutting metal to size
It seems paradoxical that a material that is prized primarily for its resistance to cut, breakage and bending can be easily handled. Nevertheless, with well-sharpened tools and the appropriate methods, the metal can be processed surprisingly well. For projects involving common materials such as cast iron or mild steel, sawing, chopping and filing are basic machining operations.
The metal lends itself surprisingly well to processing. The main thing is skill and a well-sharpened tool
Some power tools may be used to cut metal. Jigsaws, hacksaws and band saws can be equipped with special blades and saws. There are also special mechanical hacksaws for metal. They are excellent at straight cuts, but are expensive and cannot make curved cuts.
Cold cutting metal: how to work with a hacksaw and chisel
In all applications. be it a veranda fence, a door hinge, or a hoe. metal is prized for its toughness and strength. It can withstand loads and conditions that will quickly destroy (or slowly deteriorate) most other materials. But sometimes it becomes necessary to change its size and shape, and it is quite possible to do this in a summer cottage. over, some manipulations can be performed without heating. with the help of special scissors, chisels, a hacksaw or a jigsaw. However, one cannot do without knowing at least basic techniques of working with metal. You can find a step-by-step description of them in John Keelsey’s encyclopedia “Metalworking”. We bring to your attention excerpts from this book, published by the publishing house “AST” in the series “Craftsmanship and Hobby”.
Techniques for working with a metal chisel
Metal cutting with a chisel
- Clamp the metal workpiece in a vice so that the cut line is parallel to the jaws and slightly above them.
- Put on your safety goggles, then place the chisel against the cut line at one end of the workpiece, tilting the chisel 30 °.
- Hit the chisel firmly with the hammer. On subsequent blows, slightly tilt the cutting edge of the chisel towards the previous cut, so that it “opens” the cut with a wedge.
- Continue striking, gradually moving up the top of the vise.
Straight cuts with a hacksaw
Cut across a narrow strip
Cut across a narrow strip
- Clamp the workpiece in a vice so that the line marking the cut is located vertically and next to the jaws of the vice.
- Place the bar against the cut-off side of the cut-off line and pull lightly over the metal so that the teeth begin to cut into the edge.
- Then, using both hands, cut along the line. Push the tool forward with slight, even pressure, and reverse without pressure. Let the canvas do the work itself; do not try to cut deeper with each hacksaw stroke.
- When approaching the end of the cut, hold the waste metal with your hand to prevent vibration and galling.
- Make the last moves before separating the waste short.
Long edge cutting
Long edge cutting
- Clamp the workpiece in a vise in the same way as for the cross cut, so that the cut line runs vertically.
- Turn the blade of the hacksaw perpendicular to its frame and hold the frame horizontally; in this position, the frame will not interfere with the movement of the blade along the workpiece.
- Start cutting in the same way as for a cross cut, and also support the retreat with one hand until the cut is complete.
Marking lines at an angle
Marking lines at an angle
Use the combined goniometer and scribe to mark the cut lines.
How to use a hacksaw
- To position the lines correctly, first mark the top of the cutout with a center punch and hammer.
- Then set the protractor head of the protractor to the desired angle and press it against the edge of the workpiece, which should hang slightly from the edge of the workbench.
- Move the protractor along the edge until the ruler is at the center mark and draw the first line to mark the cut.
- Then, if you need to readjust the protractor, adjust the head to the angle you want for the second cut line mowing line and repeat the marking process.
- Clamp the workpiece in a vise so that one line of the cutout is vertical and as close to the vise jaws as possible.
- To start the cut, support the blade with your free thumb; otherwise, the blade may slip along the slanted edge of the workpiece. When the teeth cut into the metal, cut lightly forward until you reach the intersection point. If necessary, slide the workpiece in a vise to keep the cutting line close to the jaws.
- Then turn the workpiece over so that the second line of the line becomes vertical, and continue in the same order, holding the blade again until the teeth cut into the metal.
- When approaching the intersection of the marking lines, hold the triangular retreat with one hand and shorten the hacksaw strokes.
Hacksaw for metal
A hacksaw is probably the most famous metal cutting tool and also one of the most useful. Its hardened steel sheet will handle most metals found in or around a home; a hacksaw is able to cut metal up to a third of the length of its blade.
Hacksaw for metal
General purpose hacksaw blades have hardened teeth and are made from molybdenum, carbon or tungsten steel. The main factors when choosing a blade are the number of teeth per inch (the same parameter can be referred to simply as the pitch of the teeth. the distance between adjacent teeth) and the set / set of teeth. the angle at which they are located on the cutting edge.
For effective cutting, at least two teeth of the hacksaw blade must always be in contact with the metal. If the metal is too thin for two teeth to fit on its edge, when sawing, place it between two sheets of thin plywood (another option is to cut at an angle to the plane of the metal sheet).
Hacksaw for metal
A good hacksaw An adjustable, reversible hacksaw can accept blades from 25 to 30 cm in length. For blades, the number of teeth per inch can vary from 4 to 32. In general, blades with a number of teeth per inch from 4 to 16 are used for those metals that “clog” the blade with finer teeth. Coarse-toothed blades usually have a variable setting. the teeth are located in a straight line, but bent alternately in different directions. Fine-toothed blades are usually given a wavy set. their teeth are bent over a gently curving cutter line as shown for 24 teeth per inch in the illustration above. Wavy cut gives wider kerf to prevent blade from binding.