How a Gear Shift Arranged on a Screwdriver
The machine is designed to perform a variety of turning operations, including for cutting various threads and is used mainly in the conditions of single and small-scale production. This machine is most widely used in industry. The machine is easy to maintain and reliable.
Design and performance of the main components of the machine
General view and layout of the machine 1K62 (Fig. 1)
The main components of the machine: bed 13, which serves to connect together all the nodes of the machine; the headstock 2, in which the spindle 4 of the machine and gearbox are placed; a support 11 on which the cutting tool is fixed; tailstock 15; feed box 3, transmitting the rotation of the roller 24 and the screw 23; cabinet 20 with electrical equipment of the machine; curbstones 22 and 29.
Machine bed 13 (see Fig. 1, a) rests on the left 29 and right 22 curbstones with which it is rigidly fastened. An electric motor of the main drive of the machine is placed in the left pedestal. In the right cabinet there is a pump that feeds coolant through a hose to a cutting tool. Liquid drains into the interior cavity of the cabinet from the trough 27. The most accurate position of the moving parts of the machine is provided by the combined guides of the bed. Prismatic a and flat b (Fig. 1, b).
Front headstock 2 bolted to the left side of the bed. In the inner part of the headstock, spindle 4 and a gearbox are placed, covered with a lid on top.
If necessary, a rod to be machined on the machine can be passed through the through hole of the spindle 4, and a front center can be installed in the conical socket of the spindle. On the right protruding end of the spindle there is a centering belt, collar and thread for precise centering and fastening the faceplate with cartridge 5, into the cams of which the workpieces are installed.
Caliper 11 is designed to move cutting tools mounted on it and consists of the following main parts: carriage 6, apron 25, transverse slide 7, middle rotary part 8, upper slide 10 and four-place tool holder 9 for installing and fixing cutting tools.
Carriage 6 moves in the longitudinal direction along the prismatic a and plane b guides (Fig. 1, b). Planks 1 and 2 of the carriage slide along the lower guides d and c. Manual movement of the carriage in the longitudinal direction is carried out by rotating the flywheel 26 (Fig. 1, a).
Apron 25 is rigidly fixed to the carriage 6. It contains mechanisms that convert the rotational movement of the roller 24 and the screw 23 into the translational movement of the caliper.
To eliminate backlash in the screw drive, the screw nut consists of two parts that are wedged. The middle part 8, together with the guides of the upper slide 10, which can be rotated relative to the axis of the machine by an angle and fixed on the transverse slide 7, is intended for processing conical surfaces of the products.
The upper slide 10 is designed to move the cutter manually when the handle 12 is rotated. An exact reading of the caliper movement value is performed manually on the limbs with a division price of 0.05 mm
Feed box 3 serves to transmit rotation to the drive roller 24 or the lead screw 23. The feed box is connected to the machine spindle by a transmission, which also includes a removable wheels guitar located under the shield 1.
Tailstock 15 is designed to support the back center of workpieces or to install and move axial tools. The main parts of the tailstock: plate 17, body 16, pin 14, clamping bar 1 (Fig. 1, c).
The tailstock moves along the prismatic a and flat b guides (Fig. 1, c) of the machine bed. Moving is carried out either manually or with the help of a support. In case of connecting the tailstock with a lock (Fig. 1, d). The lock consists of a strap 2 attached to the transverse slide 1, a support and a strap 4 connected to the plate 3 of the tailstock. Bringing the caliper to the tailstock and moving the slide 1 in the transverse direction, lead the protrusion of the strap 2 beyond the protrusion of the strap 4. In this case, the tailstock is connected to the support and along with it will move in the longitudinal direction from the feed mechanism.
In order for the top of the rear center to be exactly located on the axis of the machine, the housing 16 (Fig. 1, a) is moved in the transverse direction relative to the plate 17. To process the conical surfaces of the parts, the rear center is displaced with a screw 19 from the axis of the machine in the direction “towards itself” or “push”. The pin 14 has a conical hole for mounting the rear center or axial tools.
Electrical equipment of the machine located in the cabinet 20. On the front wall of the cabinet there is a panel 18 with an ammeter indicating the current of the main motor of the machine, and switches that include the machine in the electric network, lighting of the machine and the pump motor that supplies coolant.
Under the cover 21 is an electric motor for accelerated movement of the caliper.
Kinematic chain of cutting movement of a turning and rotary machine 1K62 (Fig. 2)
Movement in the machine: main. The main movement, longitudinal and transverse caliper feeds; auxiliary. Quick movement of the caliper, tailstock and pins manually.
Kinematic chain drive main movement. This circuit provides transmission of rotation from the electric motor M1 to the spindle VI with the possibility of switching on different frequencies of its rotation (Fig. 2). The machine spindle can have a right and left direction of rotation. With the right direction of rotation of the spindle, the equation of balance of the kinematic chain of the drive of the main movement is written as follows (the coupling Mf1 is turned on to the left) (Fig. 2, a):
Kinematic diagram of a 1k62 lathe (Fig. 3)
Catalog reference of screw-cutting lathes and their analogues
Schemes and passports for screw-cutting machines and equipment
Trofimov A.M. Metal cutting machines. Kinematic Schematic Album
Screw-cutting lathe 1K62D, 1K625D. Everything for Dummies
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How a Gear Shift Arranged on a Screwdriver
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“DEVICEAND LABOR WORK
For students 1 and2 courses of the faculties of the Ministry of Agriculture, CXM and TS AP
SozykinG. G.Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor (ChGAU)
DoroshenkoA.G..Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor (ChGAU)
SolovyovN.M..Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor (ChGAU)
ZvonarevaL.M.. Cand.Tech. Sciences, Associate Professor (ChGAU)
SolovyovN.M. HeadDepartment of Metal Technology
Printed byeditorial decision
Gou VPO “Chelyabinsk StateAgricultural Engineering University ”, 2007.
The device and the operation of the lathe 1k62
Purpose of work:to study the purpose, the design of the turningthe machine and the kinematics of its mechanismsthe main movement and the movement of innings.
Training stand”The main types of work on turningmachine tools. “
Training stand”Kinematics of the machine 1K62.”
Posters:”Classification of machines”, “Universalscrew-cutting lathe “,” Systemmachine control ”,“ Gearboxmachine 1K62 “.
The machine is usedfor processing external and internalsurfaces of shaped partsbodies of revolution and conical surfaces.Designed to perform a variety ofturning works: metric cutting,inch, modular and pitch threads,threads with normal and increased pitch,single and multiple threads, for cuttingend carving and copying(when completing the machine with hydrocopydevice). The machine is used inindividual and small batch conditionsproduction.
Largestdiameter of the product to be installedover the bed mm
Largestturning diameter above bottomcaliper mm
Largestdiameter of the processed bar, mm
Number of speedsspindle rotation
Number limitsspindle revolutions, rpm
Value limitslongitudinal feeds of a support, mm / rev
Value limitscross feed of a support, mm / rev
Inch (numberthread for oneinch)
Pitch in pitches
Speed fastlongitudinal movement of the caliper,m / min
Power mainelectric motor kw
1.2. Kinematic diagram of a screw-cutting machine 1k62
Fig. 1.4.Kinematic scheme of screw-cuttingmachine 1K62
The main thingtraffic.The main movement in the machine isthe spindle rotation that it receivesfrom electric motor 1 through V-beltgear with pulleys 2-3 and boxspeeds. On the receiving shaft II is installeddouble-sided multi-plate frictioncoupling 97. For direct rotationspindle clutch 97 is shifted to the left and driverotation is carried out as followschain of gears: 4-5 or 6-7, 8-9 or10-11, or 12-13, shaft / V, wheels 14-15, spindleV, or through brute force consisting of a groupgears with two-crown blocks 16-17 and18-19 and gears 20 and 21. Lastthe pair engages when movingto the right of block 15-21 on the spindle. Switchingwheel blocks you can get sixgear engagement optionswhen transmitting rotation from shaft IVdirectly to the spindle and 24 options- when transmitting rotation through busting.In fact, the number of valuesspindle speeds: less (23),since the gear ratios of someoptions are numerically the same.Spindle reversingby moving the coupling 97 to the right. Thenrotation from shaft II to shaft III is transmittedthrough gears 22-23, 24-12 and furtheron the previous chain. Number of optionsgears 15, actual valuesrotational speeds 12, since gearrelationships of some options toonumerically match.
Trafficfiling.Feed mechanism includes fourkinematic chains: screw-cutting,longitudinal and transverse feed chainaccelerated caliper movements.Rotation to shaft VIII is transmitted from the spindleV through gears 25-26, and whenincreased thread cutting- from shaft VI through the step increase linkand then through the gears 27-28. Inin this case, the step increase link maygive four gear options:
SpindleV, wheels 21-20, 29-19, 17-27-28, shaft VIII;
SpindleV, wheels 21-20, 29-19, 16-30, 27-28, shaft VIII;
SpindleV, wheels 21-20, 31-18, 17-27-28, shaft VIII;
SpindleV, wheels 21-20, 31-18, 16-30, 27-28, shaft VIII. Fromshaft VIII movement is transmitted in a chainwheels 32-33 or 34-35, or through reversemechanism with wheels 36–37–38, interchangeablewheels 39–40 or 41–42 and intermediatewheel 43 on the shaft X. From here the movement canpass on two options gearinggear wheels. Rotation is transmittedthrough gears 44–45–46 to the shaftXI, then through wheels 47-48 and the uniongear wheel 49 gear coneNorton (wheels 50-56) and further down the chaingears 57–58, 59–60, 61–62 or63–64 through the wheels 65–66 or 64–67 — to the shaftXv. Then the rotation can be transmittedeither lead screw 68 or leadshaft XVI. In the first case, through the coupling101, in the second. Through a pair of 69-70 and a couplingovertaking 106. From the shaft X through the clutch 98, i.E.When clutch gears outerand internal gear 44-71 rotationtransmitted to the Norton cone, whichbecomes the lead and thenthrough wheels 49–48–47 to shaft XI and beyond,through the coupling 100. To the shaft XIII, and from the lastfurther along the chain of the first option.
Screw cuttingchain.When threading, feed the calipercarried by a lead screw 68through the uterine nut fixed inapron. For cutting metric andmodular threaded screw chainset according to the first embodiment, andfor inch and pitch. In the second.Change in thread pitch is achievedgear link gearincrease in pitch, Norton’s mechanism,blocks 61–63 and 67–66 and installing interchangeablewheels on the guitar. When turning and cuttingmetric and inch threads in engagementinterchangeable gears39–43–40, and when cutting modular andpitch. 41–43–42. In special cases,when threading high precision,to eliminate the influence of errorskinematic chain last shortenthe inclusion of couplings 98, 99 and 101, as a resultwhat shafts X, XII and XV form together with68 lead screw single tight connection.Thread cutting chainwith different steps are configured in thiscase only selection of interchangeable wheelsOn guitar. Longitudinal andtransverse feedcalipers. To transmit the rotation of the mechanismthe apron serves as the running shaft XVI. On himtoothed slides along the keywaywheel 72 transmitting rotation from the shaftXVI through a pair of gears 73–74 andworm pair 75-76 shaft XVII. For gettinglongitudinal feed caliper and itsreversals include one ofcam couplings. 102 or 103. Then rotationfrom the shaft XVII is transmitted by gears77-78-79 or 80-81 shaft XVIII and then a pair82-83. To the rack wheel 84. Since the rail85 is fixedly connected to the bed of the machine,rack wheel 84 while rotatingrolls on a rail and pulls an apronwith a support. Cross feed and herreversal bycouplings 104 or 105. In this case, through gears77–78–86 or 80–87 rotation is transmittedshaft XIX and further through gears55–89–90 per screw 91, which reportsmovement to the cross caliper. Chainaccelerated caliper movement. Forimplementation of accelerated (installation)caliper movement of the running shaft XVIreported fast rotation fromelectric motor 92 through V-belttransmission 93-94. Caliper feed mechanismthrough the feed box you can notturn off, as in the drive circuitshaft mounted overtaking clutch 106. Cusing screw pairs 95 and 96 can be manuallymove tool carrier and quilltailstock.
Frontheadstock of a screw-cutting machine 1K62.
Frontgrandmother.In fig. 10 shows the headstock withgearbox. Rotation from the mainelectric motor is transmitted to the slavepulley sitting on shaft I. This shaft carriesreverse friction clutch, fromwhich movement is transmitted to the shaft IIor through the block z = 56— z = 51, or through the wheelz = 50 and the intermediate block z = 24. Z = 36,sitting on the cantilever axis. From shaft II toshaft III rotation is transmitted through a tripleblock z = 47. Z = 55. Z = 38. In the left positionblock g = 43. G = = 52, sitting on the spindle,movement from shaft III is transmitted to the spindledirectly through the wheels z = 65. Z =43, and in the right position of this block.Through bust mounted on shaftsIV and V. All shafts rotate on bearingsrolling that are lubricated likesplashing since the boxspeeds are flooded with oil and forced- using a pump. Feed motion fromspindle VI transferred to shaft VII of snaffleand further to the feed mechanism.