How a single axle tractor should work.
single-axle tractor. Types and operation. Application and how to choose. Features
A single-axle tractor is a versatile self-propelled work vehicle based on a single-axle chassis that functions as a small tractor. This equipment is also called a walking or single-axle tractor. It is widely used in agriculture and for various municipal works on landscaping.
Starting the engine of a power tiller is carried out by a cord, on the same principle as a chainsaw, or an elektrostareter. The technique is equipped with a gearbox that allows you to regulate the speed. The wheels rotate both forward and backward.
With all the variety on the market, power tillers can be divided into three categories:
While in each of them you can find both cheap and very expensive models that can literally do everything, but cost as much as a decent car, and even more. As for the first ones, they have limited functionality and often do not inspire much confidence in reliability. Although quite often it is this kind of mini-tractor is preferred, intending to use it only from time to time and to perform the simplest household tasks. The latter, on the contrary, are characterized by enviable endurance and have much higher characteristics, but the purchase and maintenance of such models is very expensive.
Mini machines: count seven times, and then buy. Questions and answers about power tillers and tillers
“How to choose a single-axle tractor?”Ivan Zagoruiko, a farmer from Vinnitsa region, asks. First of all, decide for yourself which single-axle tractor you want to buy. a professional or an amateur tractor. If you have a garden up to 4-7 acres, it is hardly worth spending money on an expensive machine. You can choose an amateur power tiller. And if you have a garden of 20 acres or more, a semi-professional single-axis tractor will do for you. If you plan to work in intensive market gardening and want to use a single axle tractor with other implements (water pump, mowing head, circular saw, power generator, etc.).п.), it is possible to advise to stop on a professional power tiller.
Choose a size of tractor depending on the size of your garden.
The size of the treated area
Of course, these are only recommendations to help you navigate only in terms of minimum cost. On the other hand, buying a more powerful single-axle tractor, you will have a power reserve and reliability. If you’re serious about growing vegetables on a plot of 20-30 acres, a single-axle tractor with 9 liters.с. will be the best helper, and it will more than pay for itself.
The choice of the country-manufacturer of mini-tractors is also important. Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian mini-tractors are still inferior in quality and reliability to machines from Italy, Germany, Japan and other developed countries. Therefore, when buying equipment of the CIS countries, you must be prepared to repair and improve it in the process of operation. But it is one thing when you have a single-axle tractor for fun in the countryside, and quite another thing when it is a means of production, failure of which changes your production plans, shifts the timing of work, timing, quantity and quality of supply of products to the market. That is why when choosing a power tiller serious attention should be paid to its reliability.
Now the most reliable are considered motobloks Italian company “Mechanica Benassi. They do not cost cheap, but their reliable, fully cogged transmission (without belts and chains), high quality metal and professional engines allow you to work with them from morning till night.
To summarize, if you can financially, you can safely choose the imported tractors. If you decide to save money on machinery, we recommend buying Russian motor blocks “Neva”, “Kaskad”, “Mole”, “Salyut”, “Nadezhda”. The production of these tractors is already well established and they are more reliable than those offered by little-known companies often at lower prices.
Every mini-machine buyer is concerned about spare parts. Buyers of mini-technics should know that spare parts for both imported and domestic machinery can be purchased only at the manufacturer through dealers, who are engaged in the sale of equipment. With imported parts you will have no more problems than with the domestic ones. If the firm is constantly engaged in sale of mini-machines, it is always possible to buy spare parts, regardless of the country of manufacture. If you buy an experimental model, you should be ready to continue the experiment, but already by your own forces.
Eugene Pivovarov and many other gardeners are asking about the Italian miracle single-axle tractor, which replaces the tractor, and where you can buy it. Unfortunately, the authors of the letters don’t even name the model of the tractor they are interested in. Obviously, they mean the single-axle tractor of the lightweight series (up to 35 kg in weight). In Ukraine, two models of such power tillers are presented: “EURO-2”, weighing 19-23 kg, and a more modern model “MEPPI”, weighing 28 kg. They have the capacity of 4-stroke engines, respectively, 3.5 and 3.7 liters.с., and the working width of the tiller is 36 and 40 cm.
But it is an exaggeration to say that the engine blocks can be used as a substitute for a small tractor. For example, at the technical center “Gardening and Gardening Equipment” such power tillers are next to mini-tractors. One look at these machines is enough to see that they cannot replace each other in any way. And the purpose of a power tiller is not to replace but to supplement a tractor. The lightweight single-axle tractor is used on small areas, in hard-to-reach places, in greenhouses, greenhouses, between the rows, etc.д., where even a mini-tractor is difficult to turn around. Thus, a single-axle tractor is a substitute not for a tractor but a shovel and a hoe, which greatly simplifies the work of the gardener and increases his productivity. This is confirmed by practice of using this equipment by Western farmers, who, in addition to powerful equipment, necessarily have a single-axis tractor in their farm, which, we repeat, does not replace a tractor, but a shovel, pick, forks, scythe.
The lightweight single-axle tractor of the amateur series can be recommended to gardeners, especially since it easily fits in the car trunk. Maybe the increased demand for motorsapu “MEPPI” is caused by this circumstance. One can recommend “Mole” from the Russian equipment for such purposes, although it weighs more. 50 kg
Also noteworthy is the electric single-axle tractor Nadezhda, which has proven to be reliable.
For countryside gardeners, the Neva-2K, Kaskad, Salyut, and even better. the professional equipment of the Italian company “Mechanica Benassi” are more suitable.
“How much fuel does a single axle tractor consume?”. asks Sergey Krivun, Zhytomyr region. In the technical characteristics of the engine, the figures for fuel consumption are given only by plants of the CIS countries. Foreign manufacturers of small engines do not provide any figures, as fuel consumption depends largely on the specific type of work performed and the conditions in which it has to work. Nevertheless, in order to orient the buyer, how much gasoline he will have to buy, you can give an approximate data on the fuel consumption of some imported engines:
As you can see, fuel consumption is not a big deal. A canister of gasoline will be enough for you for a long time. In general, we recommend not stocking up on gasoline. Gasoline spoils during storage, its octane number drops, which will adversely affect the operation of the engine. You should be careful with statements like “our single-axle tractor “eats” only 0.5 liters per hour”. Such consumption of gasoline is possible only at idle, and under load the engine will require more fuel. There are no miracles.
Tilling the potatoes
Mowing is carried out in the same way as the inter-row treatment, but instead of the milling machine is installed. If there are weeds between the rows, first use the router and then the hiller.
You can use a special attachment for digging out potatoes. the potato digger. Wheels are used instead of tillers. Cultivator set so that it goes not between the row, but over the row. Till the odd rows first, harvest the potatoes Potatoes, or nightshade tuberous (from the Latin Solánum tuberósum), are a type of perennial c. and only then proceed to the even numbered rows. Set the depth of the digger with the regulator, just know the potatoes’ depth Potatoes, or Solánum tuberósum (Latin for Solanum tuberósum), are a type of perennial tops The digger should be set at an angle to the soil, so it can pass just below the tubers and grab them without damaging them.
- Do not overfill the fuel tank.
- Do not perform any maintenance on your power tiller unless the engine is off.
- If during operation the space between the cutting units and the gear housing is blocked by grass or other foreign objects, turn the engine off immediately and remove any obstructions.
- When working on sloping terrain it is necessary to move only across the slope.
- Do not block the tiller under any circumstances by shutting off the engine.
Servicing your power tiller
Servicing a power tiller consists of performing a number of jobs to ensure the machine’s trouble-free and safe operation throughout its entire service life. To reduce the risk of overloading and damage to your power tiller, change the oil, check the engine, adjust the controls, take care of the tires, etc.п.
Service of the power tiller
the single axle tractor must be free of dirt and level, supported on the third wheel (if there is one) or on a support that ensures the machine’s stability.
When running in with a new tractor unit during the first 30 hours it is advisable to use the machine sparingly, avoiding overloading and running at full throttle. This mode will allow parts to work in and avoid premature wear and tear.
- Check oil level in engine crankcase, transmission (gearbox), clutch.
- Reliable tightening of threaded joints.
- Condition of safety devices.
- Tire pressure.
Each manufacturer establishes its own maintenance schedule, depending on the characteristics of components and materials used in a power tiller. Approximate values of operating hours at which the power tiller should be serviced and adjusted are given in the service table below.
|Work performed||After each use||After 5 hours||After 25 hours||After 50 hours||After 100 hours or once a season||As required|
|Clean the Moto-Block and its parts|
|Check air filter|
|Air filter change|
|Check spark plug|
|Replace the spark plug|
|Change oil in engine crankcase|
|Gearbox and clutch oil changes|
|Lubrication of the control cables|
|Adjusting the clutch cable|
|Replace the silencer|
|Adjusting the tension of the V-belt gears|
The first oil change in the engine crankcase should be done after the first 2-5 hours of operation (different manufacturers specify different times).
- Check oil level in engine crankcase, change oil regularly.
- Ignition system maintenance (check and replace the spark plug, check the gap between the coil and ignition coil).
- Maintenance of fuel system (check tightness of system, clean fuel and air filters, carburetor adjustment, etc.).).
Parts of the engine may be hot when running or at a standstill, so be careful not to touch them with bare hands to avoid burns.
Engine lubrication system. If a single axle tractor has been purchased without oil in the engine crankcase, fill it up when preparing for work with. Use gasoline engine oils with proper SAE and API viscosity grades for engine lubrication. Consult your power tool operator’s manual for specific oils. SunGarden, in particular, recommends to use oil of SF, SG, SH, SJ, SL, SM types according to API (where S stands for S for four-stroke petrol engines) or SAE type for their motor blocks according to the following chart.
Selection of oil viscosity according to ambient temperature (SAE classification)
- Unscrew the oil filler cap.
- Unscrew oil drain plug.
- Drain the oil into a container (10-15 min).
- Screw in oil drain plug.
- Pour in oil up to the required level (you can check the level with a dipstick).
- Screw in cap.
Oil fill and drain holes for the SunGarden MotoGarden engine
For example, for a SunGarden power tiller, oil must be filled to the bottom of the oil filler neck.
Fill oil level in the engine of your power tiller
Ignition system. On power tillers the contactless electronic ignition system is usually implemented, consisting of integrated in the flywheel magnet wire, ignition coil, high-voltage wire and plug. The distance between the ignition coil and the ignition coil and the ignition advance angle are factory-set and usually do not require adjustment. In this case, maintenance of your power tiller is limited to checking the condition of the spark plug. every 25 hours of work. Check for spark plug or replace it. after 100 hours of use.
To check or replace the spark plug, remove the cap from the spark plug wire and twist it with a spark plug wrench. Check for carbon deposits and measure the gap between the electrodes with a feeler gauge. Depending on the brand of plug, the latter should be about 0.8 mm (different manufacturers give different recommendations). If there is soot deposits, the plugs should be cleaned. Also check the condition of the threaded part of the plug and its skirt. If damaged (cracked casing, worn electrodes, torn thread) the spark plug must be replaced.
Many owners have noticed this phenomenon when trying to start the machine. Why does it give out in your hand when you start the single axle tractor and how to avoid it?? This phenomenon is usually a sign of early ignition. This is a common problem with motorized machinery.
Early ignition is a consequence of contact wear during operation. To eliminate it, you need to readjust the starting system.
Another reason for knocking back in the arm may be bad quality gasoline. It is necessary to drain the fuel and change it for another, not forgetting to observe the oil proportion. You might have to flush the tank additionally. When dust and dirt accumulate in it, the gasoline becomes clogged, which leads to irregular operation of the engine. To be certain that it is the fuel which affects the machine and causes kick back when you start the engine, look at the spark plugs. Having unscrewed it, you need to examine it for carbon monoxide and soot. If there are combustion products in abundance, it clearly indicates the low quality of gasoline (provided that the plugs are changed regularly).
Important! In any case, a single-axle tractor, like any machine, requires maintenance. All of the basic recommendations are given by the manufacturer, so read the manual carefully and follow all of the steps for servicing the machine.
Adjusting the plowing depth
The depth of plowing a vegetable garden is determined by various factors. The way a power tiller works is that it can plunge into the cultivated ground at different depths. They bury themselves. The working depth depends on many factors.
Speed of travel. If the machine is held in one place longer, it will burrow deeper, and vice versa. This is why the working depth is mostly controlled by the operator during work. The actual ploughing depth is 10 cm to 25 cm.
The depth adjustment of the cultivator can also be limited using the depth limiter wheels. Some models of power tillers have disc wheels at the ends of the milling shaft, limiting the depth of cultivation of the ground.
Propashnik. On all others, this is done with a tilled wheel mounted at the back of the body, in front of the operator. It has degrees of adjustment. At a certain maximum depth the tiller hits the ground, the machine hangs on it, and the cutters can’t go any deeper.
The working depth also depends on the total weight of the machine. Heavy weight presses the cutter down, contributing to the working depth. With a lightweight tiller, it tends to go forward before the tiller has had time to sink deep enough.
So the lightweight unit sometimes has to carry additional weight. especially on heavier soils.
The working depth also depends on three other reasons:
When rotating in loose soils, the tillers sink in quickly. Sometimes the tiller gets stuck and cannot move forward and must be swung left and right across the axis; then it drives off on its own.
The depth in one spot can be increased or decreased by lowering or raising the tiller, supporting the tiller on the tiller.
Most router bits from different manufacturers are of standard design. But there are many variations with different bends, cutting edges etc.д.
As a result, some cutters are oriented to quickly move the unit forward, while not having time to plunge to a significant depth. Others, on the contrary, work mainly “in depth” due to specific angles of attack.
Power tiller operation
Versatility. a distinctive feature of power tillers. With their help it is possible to perform many different works, which the owners of summer cottages and rural houses have to deal with. Numerous power tiller implements provide different functions. Plowing, pulling, planting and harvesting potatoes and other root crops, weeding, mowing grass. These are only the main kinds of work that these multifunctional machines are indispensable for private households.
Plowing with a power tiller
Whatever they say about the benefits of no-till plowing, but the main operation of cultivation is still plowing with a conventional mouldboard plow. That is most often used to start tilling the soil before planting various crops.
Plowing land with a power tiller
The first thing to do before plowing with a power tiller is to install the necessary equipment on it. Metal wheels with cleats, hitch and plough.
Metal wheels serve to provide traction of the tiller with soil, without them it will not develop the traction force necessary for pulling a plow. Optimal wheel sizes for plowing are considered to be the following: diameter. 50-60 cm, rim width. 18-20 cm. Smaller diameter will not provide the necessary clearance under the gearbox of the motoblock and the soil, and with narrower wheels the single-axle tractor will “walk” along the furrow. It is desirable that the rim of the metal wheel is not solid, as in this case the earth will be filled between the grousers and the single axle tractor will be slipping.
Made the rear axle of the tractor from the rear axle of the truck | Did you like my work
Metal grouser wheels
Wheels should be as heavy as possible. Experience has shown that good ploughing with a tiller weighing less than 70 kg is not possible. the machine just slows down. The heavier the single axle tractor, the deeper and more efficient the ploughing and the easier it is to work with. You should attach additional weights to the wheels or to the front part of the walking tractor.
The distance between the wheels (track width) should be about 60 cm. This corresponds to an optimum plough working width of 19-21 cm.
After setting the wheels, the hitch must be installed. There are many hitch designs, both specialized, suitable only for certain models of power tillers, and universal. It does not matter what is the design of the hitch, as long as it allows the plow to be set and adjusted in depth, track width and angle of attack.
Setting the ploughing depth. This adjustment is best made with a helper. To set the plowing depth, you need to put the single-axle tractor on a level place, running the wheels on the spacers (wooden boards, bricks) 13-15 cm high. The single-axle tractor itself must stand level (ridgeline). longitudinal part of the hitch. must be horizontal). Place the plow on the ground so that the whole edge of the share touches the base and then hitch it to the hitch.
When ploughing, the plough leg must always be in a vertical position. Even when the right wheel of the motobloc goes on the bottom of the furrow. To meet this condition, the plow hitch has arc-shaped adjustment slots for tilting the plow body to the right or to the left. So after the first two or three passes, when the single axle tractor tilts to the right and the right wheel is at the bottom of the furrow, you must loosen the nuts of the groove, turn the plough body counter-clockwise (when looking at the single axle tractor from behind) and set the plough leg upright. Don’t forget to tighten the nuts.
Adjusting the tilt of the plow leg
Adjusting the plough to the track width. When setting the plough to the width of the track the right edge of the ploughshare should be the guide. It should line up with the left (inside) edge of the right wheel. This ensures that the soil is completely undercut and the soil is lightly tilled, which reduces the amount of traction required for ploughing.
Setting the plough to the track width
Setting the angle of attack. The plough should rest on the ground with both heel and toe. If it only touches the heel, it will be pushed out of the ground if it touches the toe. It will be too deep. You may have to make adjustments when working, tilting the plow forward or tilting it back. An indication of initial correct installation is usually the verticality of the plow stand.
A few helpful hints. The straightness of the first furrow is very important. When ploughing, the plough pulls the single-axle tractor to the right because of the asymmetry of the load acting on it. A person for whom tillage is not quite usual with a power tiller will find it difficult to make the first furrow straight. It is desirable to have a landmark in the form of a stretched cord or a straight line drawn on the ground. To make things easier, the first furrow may be made shallower than the next. 10-12 cm. For further plowing, the single axle tractor will be guided by its right wheel rolling in the furrow.
If the length of the ridge allows it, it is better to plow with a support wheel, which sets the plow’s plowing depth. It can be placed either on the left side of the plow (the wheel rolls over the uncultivated area) or on the right side (rolls over the furrow).
Furrow with depth wheel
It’s easier and more convenient to use the tiller if you turn it to the left. so you can walk on unploughed ground.
Plowing with a power tiller with the handles turned
Ploughing should be done along the long side of the furrow. In this case there is less turning.
When working with plough, it is important to change direction every year, this will prevent gradual movement of soil due to ploughing and dragging to the end of the furrow.
Avoid pile ridges (two ridges facing each other) and ploughed furrows. Some experienced plowmen advise to place the plowing furrows in the middle of plots, so that the resulting ditch contributes to the drainage of water after the snow melts. This allows the soil to dry more quickly.
How to set up and plow with a mounted plow
The main working tools of the tool are the metal ploughshare and the mouldboard. The ploughshare plows: it cuts the top layers of soil and directs them to the mouldboard. The mouldboard wraps the soil picked up by the ploughshare, crumbles it and throws it into the furrow. This process deeply loosens the soil, leaving it well oxygenated and free of weeds.
The figure (scheme) shows how a plough designed for plowing with a cultivator or power tiller in the garden looks like. Different models of ploughing tools may have some differences between them, but for the most part this is how they are all designed.
Before you start plowing with a cultivator or power tiller, you assemble the detachable plow. To do this, take two bolts and use them to attach the hitch to the stand of the attached implement. The assembled unit should be attached to the cultivator bracket, slightly fixing, and then make adjustments according to the parameters:
For adjustment to the desired plowing depth, the motocultivator is rolled out on stands 12-20 cm in height and put as evenly as possible: the field board must be in full contact with the ground surface, and the stand must be perpendicular to it. Adjust the mounted plow to the desired position at which it will plow, and then secure it with the adjuster screw and locknut.
To adjust the angle of the mouldboard, the cultivator is tilted sideways. To do this, remove the support from under the right wheel (or the grouser), leaving only under the left. Loosen the nuts on the hitch, turn the plough slowly, and bring it into the optimal position for ploughing.
Change the angle of the heel (field board) by turning the adjustment screw of the cultivator hitch. If you want to increase the height of heel height relative to the ploughshare, turn the screw clockwise and vice versa. When adjusting, make sure that the distance does not exceed 3 cm, otherwise the nose of the plough will dig deep into the ground when ploughing in the garden and reduce the pulling power of the cultivator, as well as of the power tiller or tractor. When you have finished making adjustments, tighten all the nuts well with a wrench. Read more about the process of setting the plow for plowing with power tillers Salyut, Neva and others on video.
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