How many volts should be given by a screwdriver charger
How much volt is needed to charge the battery
Any specialist will say that fast charging for 15-20 minutes is always more useful for a car battery than if hundreds of amperes are passed through the device. It should also be borne in mind that the device needs a high-quality voltage source, so it is desirable that the outlet is about 4 kW. This indicator is average, taking into account the efficiency of the memory and not very high current strength. In fact, such an indicator can be much larger, especially when it comes to high-quality memory for 55 or 60 Ah.
What current to charge the car battery: 60, 70, 100 Ah
A wide variety of battery cells have been trying to charge with an asymmetric current for a long time, the method has proven effective as a way to combat sulfation, which allows you to restore the lost capacity of “older” drives. To charge a new battery, it has no special advantages. Experts highly recommend the use of voltage asymmetry as a prophylaxis for the occurrence of plate sulfation. It is optimal to alternate three to four charges by the usual method and one with current asymmetry.
Since the invention of the acid battery principle, a constant voltage has been used. After the widespread distribution of maintenance-free batteries, a serious problem arose of ensuring their service life at the level declared by the manufacturer. The use of techniques developed for a classic serviced car battery quickly rendered new drives unusable. To solve problems over the past decade, manufacturers of chargers have proposed various modifications of the main version:
How to charge a car battery
When operating a car with intact electrical equipment, problems associated with the battery of this car usually do not arise. Of course, if you do not leave power consumers for a long time turned on when the car engine is not running. But it is worth blowing the fuse that protects the generator excitation circuit, and the next attempt to start the car engine will not succeed. After that, the previously irrelevant question will arise before the owner of the car: “how to charge the battery correctly?”. With the availability of a charger, it’s nothing complicated to properly charge a car’s battery at home. Charging the machine’s battery with an automatic charger is the easiest and does not need to be controlled.
- With a constant current strength. This method is used for equalization and forced charging.
- With constant voltage. It includes 2 subspecies. A modified charge (slightly reducing the current strength at the beginning of charging) and constant recharging.
- Automatic (combined). Occurs in 2 stages. The first one is charged with a constant current equal to 1/10 of the nominal capacity. After reaching the battery voltage of 14.4-14.8 V, the charge is switched on at a constant voltage, while the charging current decreases due to an increase in the internal resistance of the battery. This method eliminates the disadvantages of the first two methods. It maintains an optimal charge rate, eliminating excess voltages leading to hydrolysis and dangerous gas generation.
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How to charge a 12 volt motorcycle battery
There are many ways to significantly reduce battery capacity and shorten its useful life. For example, regular reloads and discharge below a critical level. A clear sign of abnormal use of the battery is the formation of a white coating on it. This is lead sulfate, which, in addition to the cases described above, can also occur when:
The main question that almost every novice motorist asks is. Is it possible to charge the battery with car charger? The answer to this question is rather ambiguous. On the one hand, car chargers with a current regulator allow you to do this. On the other hand, it is better for a novice motorcyclist not to undertake such a recharge, since the procedure requires attention and experience.
Car battery charging time calculator
Although often used the so-called forced charge and take a different ratio. 10% of capacity. That is, the standard battery of a 55Ah passenger car is charged with a current of 2.75-5.5a, and for a 60Ah battery, the charging current is set in the range from 3A to 6A. But, you need to know that the smaller the charging current, the deeper the charge, although it takes more time. The situation is exactly the same with the supplied voltage. The more the faster, but it should not fall below 13.8 and exceed 14.5v). The charging voltage is raised to 16.0-16.5v only when charging a maintenance-free battery.
Charging requires not only a completely dead battery (it is not advisable to bring this up), but also a battery in use. Only now, the charge time will be different for them. Often this is from 8 to 12 hours. Our online calculator will help you calculate how much you need to charge a car battery using direct current.
How to charge a car battery with a charger
What voltage and current harmlessly charge a car battery
We decided to write this article when we came across one of the “service centers” for charging the battery. Chargers were transformers with a diode bridge. The advice on the Internet was even more disappointing: “unscrew the cans before charging”, “find the charger supplying voltage of 16 V – 16.5 V”, “achieve good gas evolution”, “charge for a long time with low currents”.
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It is practically useless to charge a battery discharged below 8 Volts, most likely one of the cans in it is shorted or reversed. An ordinary charger will not be able to fully charge a highly unbalanced battery: the voltage at the current outputs will not exceed 12.5-12.6 volts. Such batteries can only be cured (fully charged) by specialists. The charge must be carried out by lagging weak banks separately with a voltage of 2.4 volts with a current of 0.1 of the capacity of the entire battery in a pulsed mode.
How to charge the battery
Everyone knows that the nominal voltage of one element in a lead-acid battery is 2 Volts (note that in practice it usually never equals strictly 2 V, but just such a number is used for simplicity). In everyday life, the most commonly used batteries are 6 volts (3 cells) and 12 volts (6 cells).
The most striking example of the buffer mode of battery operation is a UPS (uninterruptible power supply, aka UPS). In the UPS, the battery is on constant charge and gives off energy only when the electricity disappears in the network, and as soon as it appears, the battery is immediately recharged. This is the most sparing mode of operation and it is in the buffer mode, as we have said, that the batteries last the longest (for example, our EverExceed ST series batteries, manufactured using the new generation AGM technology, have a service life in the buffer mode at T = 20 ° C. 12 years).
How to properly charge a car battery with a charger
The voltage at the terminals during battery charging can reach 16V. To avoid a possible short circuit, disconnect the negative terminal before charging the battery. Why exactly negative? Because it connects just to the on-board network and to the body. By disconnecting the positive terminal first, you can accidentally touch the body or metal parts of the motor with a wrench. This is fraught with a short circuit.
The maximum allowable battery charging current is 10% of its capacity, that is, with a capacity of 60 amperes / hour, it is worth letting a current of no more than 6 amperes. A current from 2 to 3 A is considered optimal for charging the battery. It is impossible to recharge or overheat a battery with such a current, and, by the way, these troubles can significantly shorten the life of the battery.
How many volts should a charged car battery show
Many car owners are familiar with the situation when, even with a slight frost, the battery, which works perfectly last winter, hardly spins a cooled engine. Often, problems with batteries begin to be felt already at 5–10 ° C below zero, so it is best to check the condition of the battery before the onset of the first cold weather, because the battery is one of the important elements of the car’s electrical equipment. Therefore, each owner of the car must know how many volts a battery with a full charge should show.
Pulse devices are incredibly compact and have a high level of automation compared to transformer devices. The charger, among other things, must also rectify and stabilize the current in the network, because we charge the battery with direct current, and the household network gives a change. In addition, the quality of battery charging is highly dependent on the magnitude of the voltage. The pulse device is precisely designed to control these indicators, and much more accurately than transformer devices.
05 Aug 2018 toplawyer 624
How many volts should be given by a screwdriver charger
Charger for a screwdriver. How to choose and whether you can do it yourself
A screwdriver is in every family where simple repairs are made. At least some electrical appliance needs stationary electricity or a power supply. Since cordless screwdrivers are very fashionable, an additional charger is required.
It comes complete with a drill, not like any electrical appliance could fail. So that you do not encounter the problem of non-working equipment, we will study the general description of the chargers for a screwdriver.
Types of Chargers
Analog with integrated power supply
Their popularity is justified by the low price. If the drill (screwdriver) is not designed for professional use, the duration of the work is not the first question. The task of a conventional charger is to obtain a constant voltage with sufficient current load to charge the battery.
Such charging works in compliance with the principle of an ordinary stabilizer. As an example, consider a charger circuit for a 9-11 volt battery. The type of battery does not matter.
Such a power supply (aka a charger) can be assembled on your own. Soldering a circuit is an option on a universal circuit board. To dissipate the heat of the stabilizer chip, a rather copper heatsink with an area of 20 cm².
The input transformer (Tr1) lowers the alternating voltage of 220 volts to a value of 20 volts. The power of the transformer is calculated by current not voltage at the output of the charger. Further, the alternating current is rectified with the introduction of the diode bridge VD1. Usually, Russian manufacturers (especially Chinese) use an assembly of Schottky diodes.
After rectification, the current will be pulsating, it is harmful to the production activity of the circuit. Ripples are smoothed out by a filtering electrolytic capacitor (C1).
The role of the stabilizer is made by the KR142EN microcircuit; on amateur radio slang, it is a “roll”. To get a voltage of 12 volts, the chip index should be 8B. The control is assembled on a transistor (VT2) not tuning resistors.
Automation on similar devices is not provided, the user determines the charging time of the battery. To control the charge, a light circuit is assembled on a transistor (VT1) not a diode (VD2). When the charge voltage is reached, the indicator (LED HL1) goes out.
Advanced systems include a switch that disconnects the voltage at the end of the charge in the form of an electronic key.
Complete with economy class screwdrivers (manufactured in the Middle Kingdom), chargers are not extraordinary. It’s not difficult that the percentage of failure is high enough. The owner has the prospect of staying with a relatively new inoperative screwdriver. According to the attached scheme, you can assemble a charger for a screwdriver at home, which will last longer than the factory. Changing the transformer is not a stabilizer, you can choose the right value for your battery.
Analog with external power supply
The charger circuit itself is primitive, with the ability. The kit includes a network power supply, not actually a charger, in the housing of the battery module retainer.
The power supply is silly to consider, its standard circuit is a transformer, a diode bridge, a capacitor filter is not a rectifier. At the output, you are 18 volts for the traditional 14 volt batteries.
Screwdriver charging. Repair of the charger of a screwdriver Interskol 18 V. Do it yourself.
Repair of the charger for the Interskol screwdriver 18 V. Screwdriver charging. The battery does not charge
How to measure battery charge current
Charging an uninterruptible battery.
The charge control board occupies the area of a matchbox:
You, there is no heat sink on such assemblies, there may be a high-capacity load resistor. Therefore, such devices often become worthless. The question arises: how to charge a screwdriver without a charger?
The solution is common for a person who knows how to hold soldering irons on his palms.
- The first condition is the availability of a power source. If the “native” unit is operational, it is enough to assemble an easy control circuit. For which the design of the failure of the entire kit is intended. Use the power supply for the laptop. The output required 18 volts. The power of this source is enough for the eyes of any set of batteries
- The second condition is the simple ability to assemble electrical circuits. The details are the most affordable, there is an option to get out of the old radio-electronic products, otherwise buy on the radio market almost for a penny.
Schematic diagram of the control unit:
At the input, a zener diode is 18 volts. The control circuit on the transistor KT817, amplification provides a powerful transistor KT818. It must be equipped with a radiator. Depending on the charge current, up to 10 W can not dissipate with it, so a radiator with an area of 30-40 cm² will be required.
It is saving money “on matches” that makes Chinese chargers so unreliable. A 1 kΩ trimmer is needed to accurately set the charge current. The 4.7 ohm resistor at the output of the circuit must also dissipate enough heat. Power not less than 5 watts. The end of the charge will be notified by the LED indicator, it will go out.
The assembled circuit is easy to place in the standard charging case. It is not necessary to take out the radiator of the transistor, the main thing is to ensure air circulation inside the case.
The savings are that the power supply from the laptop is still used for its intended purpose.
For a household screwdriver, this is not scary. Left to charge overnight before starting work. Enough to assemble the cabinet. The average charge time of a Chinese cordless drill is 3-5 hours.
We pass to heavy weapons. Professional screwdrivers are used intensively, and it’s unacceptable to work because of a discharged battery. We omit the price question, any serious equipment is expensive. Over, usually two batteries are included. While one is at work, the second is on recharge.
The switching power supply, complete with an intelligent charge control circuit, fills the battery 100% in literally 1 hour. You can also assemble an analog charger with the same power. But its weight and dimensions will be comparable to a screwdriver.
All these shortcomings are deprived of pulse chargers. Compact size, high charge currents, thoughtful protection. There is only one problem: the complexity of the circuit, and as a result, the high price. However, it is possible to assemble such a device. Save at least 2 times.
We offer an option for “advanced” nickel cadmium batteries equipped with a third signal contact.
The circuit is assembled on the popular MAX713 controller. The proposed implementation is designed for an input voltage of 25 volts DC. It is not difficult to assemble such a power source, so we omit its circuit.
The charger is intelligent. After checking the voltage level, the accelerated discharge mode is started (to prevent the memory effect). The charge takes 1-1.15 hours. A feature of the circuit is the ability to select the charge voltage and type of batteries. The description in the figure shows the position of the jumpers and the value of the resistor R19 for changing modes.
If the branded charging of a professional screwdriver fails, you can save on repairs by assembling the circuit yourself.
Power supply for a screwdriver. Scheme and assembly procedure
Many people are familiar with the situation: the screwdriver is alive and well, and the battery pack has ordered a long life. There are many ways to restore battery life, but not everyone likes to mess around with toxic elements.
How to use the appliance
The answer is simple: connect an external power supply. If you have a typical Chinese device with 14.4 volt batteries, you can use a car battery (convenient for working in a garage). And you can pick up a transformer with an output of 15-17 volts, and assemble a full-fledged power supply.
A set of parts is the most inexpensive. Rectifier (diode bridge) and thermostat to protect against overheating. The remaining elements have a service task. Indication of input and output voltage. A stabilizer is not required. The electric motor of your screwdriver is not as demanding as the battery.
If your screwdriver’s batteries are completely out of order, then you can remake it on a power supply, how to make such a power supply see in this
Here you can download a printed circuit board in lay format
This is how the rework of the charger looks like.
Attention! The circuit of this memory is designed to quickly charge your battery in critical cases, when you need to urgently go somewhere after 2-3 hours. Do not use it for everyday use, as the charge comes with constant voltage, which is not the best charging mode for your Akum. When recharging, the electrolyte begins to “boil” and toxic fumes begin to stand out in the surrounding space.
Once upon a time in the cold winter time
I left the house, there was a severe frost!
I get in the car and insert the key
The car is out of place
After all, Akum is dead!
A familiar situation, right? 😉 I think all motorists fell into such an unpleasant situation. There are two ways out: to start a car from a charged Akum of a neighbor’s car (if the neighbor doesn’t mind), in the jargon of motorists it sounds like a “light”. Well, the second way out is to charge Akum. Chargers are not very cheap. Their price starts at 1000 rubles. If you have a pocket on money, then the problem is solved. When I got into such a situation when the car did not start, I realized that I urgently needed a charger. But I did not have an extra thousand rubles to buy a charger. I found a very simple circuit on the internet, and decided to assemble a charger on my own. I simplified the transformer circuit. Windings from the second column are indicated with a dash.
F1 and F2 are fuses. F2 is needed to protect against short circuit at the output of the circuit, and F1 is used to prevent overvoltage in the network.
And this is what I got.
Now, first things first. A power transformer of the TS-160 brand can and the TS-180 can be pulled out from the old black and white Record TVs, but I did not find one and went to the radio store. Let’s take a closer look.
Petals where the findings of the trance windings are soldered.
And here, right on the trance, there is a sign on which petals what voltage is coming out. This means that when applying to the petals No. 1 and 8, apply 220 Volts, then on the petals No. 3 and 6 we get 33 Volts and the maximum current to the load is 0.33 Amperes and so on. But we are most interested in windings No. 13 and 14. On them we can get 6.55 Volts and a maximum current of 7.5 Amps.
How to check the diodes for performance, I think everyone remembers who do not remember. Here.
A bit of theory. A fully planted Akum has a low voltage. As you charge, the voltage melts more and more. Therefore, according to Ohm’s Law, the current strength in the circuit at the very beginning of charging will be very large, and then less and less. And since the diodes are included in the circuit, then a large current strength will pass through them at the very beginning of charging. According to the Joule-Lenz Law, diodes will heat up. Therefore, in order not to burn them, you need to take away heat from them and dissipate them in the surrounding space. For this we need radiators. As a radiator, I demonized a non-working computer power supply and used its tin case.
Remember to connect the ammeter in series to the load. My ammeter is without a shunt, so I divide all the readings by 10.
Why do we need an ammeter? In order to find out whether our Akum is charged or not. When Akum is completely discharged, it begins to eat (I think the word “eat” is inappropriate here) current. He eats about 4-5 amperes. As it charges, it eats less and less current. Therefore, when the arrow of the device shows 1 Ampere (in my case, on a scale of 10), then Akum can be considered charged. Everything is ingenious and simple :-).
We bring out two hooks for Akum terminals from our charger, in our radio store they cost 6 rubles apiece, but I advise you to take it more qualitatively, since these quickly break. When charging, do not confuse the polarity. It’s better to somehow mark the hooks or take different colors.
If everything is correctly assembled, then on the hooks we should see such a waveform (in theory, the tops should be smoothed, since they are a sinusoid), but unless you present something to our electricity provider))). The first time you see something like this? Run here!
Pulses of constant voltage charge Akum better than pure direct current. And how to get a pure constant from an alternating voltage is described in the article How to get a constant voltage from an alternating voltage.
Below in the photo, Akum is almost already charged. We measure its current consumption. 1.43 Amperes.
Let’s leave a little more for charging
Do not be lazy to modify your device with fuses. Fuse ratings in the diagram. Since this kind of trance is considered power, when the secondary winding that we brought to charge Akum is closed, the current strength will be frantic and a so-called Short circuit will occur. Your insulation and even wires will begin to melt in one fell swoop, which can lead to sad consequences. Do not check for a spark voltage on the hooks of the charger. If possible, do not leave this device unattended. Well, yes, cheap and cheerful ;-). You can modify this charger with a great desire. Put protection against short circuit, self-shutdown when the Akum is fully charged, etc. At cost, such a marshmallow turned out to be 300 rubles and 5 hours of free time for assembly. But now, even in the most severe frost, you can safely get a machine with a fully charged Akum.
Those who are interested in the theory of chargers (charger), as well as the normal charger circuit, then without fail download this book from this link. It can be called a charger bible.
Charge the car battery correctly
For many motorists, problems with the battery occur most often in the winter (due to appropriate operating conditions).
As an example, we will solve the most common of these problems and try to charge the car battery.
The car battery should be charged from a direct current source (you can use any rectifiers that have voltage regulation). At this time, you need to take into account that the charger for the 12-volt battery should give out a voltage of about 16 volts (otherwise it will not be possible to charge it at full power).
During operation, use one of the following battery charging methods:
- Charge with constant voltage;
- Charge with constant current.
These two methods are equivalent in terms of their impact on battery life. When choosing a charger, it is recommended to consider the information that is written below.
Constant current charge
The disadvantage of this charging option is the need to constantly monitor the current and adjust the charger.
- The battery should be charged at a constant current value, which is 0.1 x C20 (if the battery is 60 A / H, then the current is 6 A.).
- In order to maintain a constant current throughout the charging process, it is necessary to have a control device.
The battery is considered to be fully charged when the voltage and current during charging does not change for several hours (this moment for modern batteries comes at a voltage of 16.2-16.3 volts, and depends on the purity of the electrolyte and the composition with which the alloy lattice is made).
Constant voltage charge
The charge level of the car battery when using this method depends directly on the level of charging voltage that the charger supplies. For example, when using a voltage of 14 volts in 24 hours, the battery will charge 70-85%, when using a voltage of 15 volts. By 85-90%, and only when using a voltage of 16.2-16.3 volts the battery will be fully charged.
So if your charger produces a voltage of 14.3-14.4 volts, then it will take more than a day to fully charge the battery.
Charging the battery in a car
When driving a car, the battery is under constant voltage. Car manufacturers set the charging voltage to within 14.1 ± 0.2 volts. With decreasing temperature, the efficiency of such a charge decreases significantly, because the internal resistance of the battery increases. Because of this, the battery, after a complete discharge, cannot always fully restore its capacity.
The charge of the battery in the winter is usually 70-75%. Therefore, it is recommended at low temperatures to charge the battery with the charger and carry it out at least once a month.
The density of the electrolyte in a fully charged battery is 1.28 g / cm3. (as the battery discharges, the density decreases). Checking the density of the electrolyte should be done at all banks of the battery and, if it is the same, it means the absence of internal circuits.
In the event that, during measurement, the electrolyte density is lower than 1.24 g / cm3, and the open circuit voltage is less than 12.6 volts, then you should charge the car battery to full capacity and check the voltage that the generator gives (it should be approximately 14-14.2 volts).