How Much Time To Charge A Screwdriver Battery
It would seem that charging a battery for a screwdriver is a simple process. Just insert the battery into the standard device, and wait for the green to turn on instead of the red LED. Then we take out the battery, and you can work. And there are no problems in the work of the screwdriver. It still works, and it also successfully tightens and unscrews self-tapping screws, screws, screws. But let’s take a closer look at how it works screwdriver battery. How to charge is the battery right? You just need to understand what its principle of action is based on.
Differences in the types of batteries (batteries) screwdrivers
The battery is a chemical power source. It consists of several elements of a certain type. In budget screwdrivers, nickel-cadmium elements are used, sometimes nickel-metal-hydrite, in expensive ones, lithium-ion, or lithium-polymer.
When the battery is being charged, the electrons sequentially penetrate the batteries and restore the chemical solution. In the process of work, as well as storage, the substance is oxidized, and the electrons again turn into a neutral state, simultaneously performing useful work. This is called a charge-discharge cycle. Until the end, discharge does not occur anyway, and some potential difference remains. This is called residual stress. The battery is based on electrolytic dissociation processes.
Battery Charging Cycle
Charging the battery is a complex electrochemical process. The simplest models of chargers charge the battery in sequence. This means that electrons pass in turn through all the elements. Over, in extreme batteries, the process of dissociation will be more complete, but in medium batteries it will not go through to the end. Charging will also take much longer. Advanced chargers charge each cell in the battery separately. In this case, charging lasts several times faster, and all the elements in the battery are charged approximately the same, the process of dissociation in them goes almost to the end.
The first method of charging has a certain drawback. Elements in the middle of the circuit are not fully charged, and eventually begin to lose their properties. Battery replacement may be required. Therefore, if you have the opportunity, leave such a battery turned on for charging at night, but nothing more. During the night, all the elements will be charged.
For batteries of all types, there is such a thing as a memory effect.
That is why it is recommended to discharge the batteries to end.
Screwdriver Charger Indicators
What does the lit green LED show? In most cases, it shows that some electric charge current still passes through the battery. When the potential difference of the battery is equal to the voltage of the charger, the current stops and the green light comes on. When the charging current is still flowing through the battery, the red light is on. Complex models of chargers have a special electronic control system that monitors not only the charging current, but also the potential difference of each element and the magnitude of the charging current.
Screwdriver Battery Storage
How to store batteries in a charged or discharged state? For nickel-based batteries, it is best to fully discharge, and for lithium-based batteries, approximately half charge. Half of the charge will be achieved by about 2/3 of the time from normal charging, when the battery is fully discharged and then recharged to the end again. Since lithium batteries are usually bundled with an expensive device, here you can consider a full charge the moment the green light comes on.
The main types of battery screwdrivers
Manufacturers of screwdrivers use different batteries in the manufacture of their units, which have their own characteristics of work and, accordingly, charging. In order for the screwdriver to work without failures for a long time, it is very important to carefully read the instructions that are attached to it. It is worth noting that different screwdrivers differ in many parameters, including price, quality and power, so all screwdrivers are divided into semi-professional and professional. Accordingly, the batteries that are installed by the manufacturer also vary in price, quality and, most importantly, charge capacity.
In professional models, which are more expensive, as a rule, batteries with a higher capacity are installed, so they can work without recharging for a significantly longer period of time. Most professional builders have a spare, pre-charged battery for continuous operation, but if the screwdriver is designed to perform simple housework, it is not necessary to have a second battery, although in some cases an additional screwdriver battery is included with the unit. There are 3 main types of batteries that are most often used in screwdrivers:
The most widely used currently are nickel-cadmium batteries for screwdrivers. This type is distinguished by a fairly compact size, relatively low cost and high charge capacity. The most important drawback of these batteries is the same “memory effect”, but with proper use and recharging, batteries of this type can be recharged more than 1000 times, although it should be noted that even with proper use, the charge capacity will gradually decrease until it reaches a minimum. Among other things, it should be noted that such a battery contains highly toxic substances, so their production significantly harm the environment, which has led to their ban in many countries.
Nickel-metal hydride batteries are in second place in frequency of use. Batteries of this type belong to the new generation, as they are completely safe for the environment. This type has a lot of advantages, the main of which is the lack of a “memory effect”. However, it is worth noting that they have a high self-charging current, and these batteries should be stored exclusively in a charged form, and if you do not use a screwdriver for a month, you must necessarily discharge the device and recharge it.
Lithium-ion batteries are a relatively new product on the market for these products. They do not have a “memory effect”, so they do not require adherence to charge cycles to restore charge capacity. To fully recharge these batteries requires a very small amount of time, and the capacity of these funds is quite high. However, these batteries also have disadvantages, including a decrease in performance in the cold and a rather high cost.
Features of charging screwdriver batteries
A very important point is the first charge of the screwdriver, since it depends on it whether the full charge capacity will be activated. Each type of battery has its own characteristics of primary recharging. The greatest difficulty is charging nickel-cadmium options. Their first charge should be three times so that the entire charge capacity is full. Thus, after the purchase, the unit must be fully charged, then turned on and left to work until it is completely discharged, then you need to put it in charge again and discharge again, and so on 3 times.
For the first time, the nickel-metal hydride version should be completely discharged immediately, because, as a rule, when you buy such a battery has a small charge, then you need to leave it fully charged. This type of battery can only be recharged after it is completely discharged. The full charge-discharge cycle should be taken into account the first 4-5 times, after which you can recharge the batteries, even if they are not completely discharged.
Lithium-ion batteries are more modern, so there are no special requirements for their recharging, since in any case their capacity does not decrease.
During the first and subsequent recharges, it must be taken into account that the most optimal recharging effect can be achieved only if this process takes place at a temperature of 10 to 30 ° C. Among other things, it should be noted that when charging, some types of batteries can begin to heat up, which can negatively affect the entire battery. Do not allow the entire battery to overheat above 50 ° C. After work, it is best to store the battery separately from the screwdriver, although this is not necessary.
How long does it take to charge screwdrivers?
Important issues regarding charging the batteries of a screwdriver include the time required to fully charge the battery. Many people think that charging a screwdriver’s battery is worth it until it heats up, but in fact this is the right way to reduce the charge capacity and performance of the entire unit. It’s worth mentioning right away that there are currently hundreds of types of screwdrivers and no less batteries, so it’s very important to familiarize yourself with the instructions that come with the specific unit, because in one case 30 minutes will be enough to charge, while in the other case for a full Charging will take more than 2 hours.
Many types of batteries have an indication system, that is, on the top instrument panel there are 2 LEDs, usually red and green. These LEDs allow you to pinpoint when charging is complete. However, even if there is an indicator, it is necessary to disconnect the batteries from the mains in time, since a long stay in the connected state after recharging can cause damage to the battery.
In addition, considering the duration of charging, it should be immediately noted that there are 2 main types of chargers, and it depends on what type is included with the screwdriver, how long the charging process will take.
How to charge the battery of a screwdriver
Among power tools, both household and professional, a screwdriver is one of the most popular. With its help, you can not only twist and screw the screws, but also drill holes. Tools that are powered from the network, you can not always use and not everywhere, and the cord all the time interferes with the work. Cordless screwdrivers are spared these shortcomings. With them you can move freely and not depend on the availability of the outlet in the room.
An important element of each cordless tool is a battery that allows you to work with it autonomously. This is very convenient, but sooner or later, each owner of such a power tool raises the question of how to charge the battery of a screwdriver.
Types of batteries used for screwdriver operation
Before you purchase new batteries for a screwdriver, you must carefully study the instructions for the device. Tools necessary for work can be professional, domestic and semi-professional. Batteries for them differ from each other in capacity, quality and price.
For certain works, certain types of cordless tools designed for different loads are also designed, therefore, different batteries are needed for them. The greater the battery power indicator, the longer it can work. For convenience, it is better to have two batteries so that you can recharge the second when working with one. Often a second battery is already included when selling the tool.
Various types of batteries can be used for screwdrivers. The most commonly used are nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH), and more recently, lithium-ion (Li-Ion).
The most common of them are nickel-cadmium batteries, which are compact in size, large capacity and reasonable price. These batteries can be efficiently charged more than a thousand times depending on their design, the purity of the materials, the mode of operation, including the correct charge. However, these devices have the so-called memory effect, and if you charge them without waiting for a full discharge, the battery capacity will gradually decrease. In addition, the production of such elements is so toxic that the European Union abandoned it on its territory.
Read more: DIY battery repair for a screwdriver
In second place in frequency of use. Nickel-metal hydride batteries, representing a new generation of such devices. From an environmental point of view, both the production and disposal of these batteries are practically safe. The pluses of this type of battery include the fact that they have less pronounced memory effect, and the minuses are high self-discharge current. These batteries must be kept charged, and if they are interrupted for more than a month, they must be fully recharged.
Not so long ago, more powerful lithium-ion batteries began to be used for cordless tools. They also do not have such a drawback as the memory effect, which requires the recovery of the capacity of periodic discharge cycles. However, these batteries do not tolerate low temperatures, and it is undesirable to work with them in cold weather. Despite the fast charge and high capacity, they are not very popular yet, since their price is quite high.
Battery Charging Features
How to charge the battery of a screwdriver so that it lasts as long as possible?
The batteries must be charged before using them for the first time, as they are discharged during storage. In order for the screwdriver’s battery capacity to become the maximum possible for the nickel-cadmium element, it is recommended to charge it three times and then discharge it. Thus, since the new battery has incomplete capacity, it must be brought to its full working capacity. After that, the batteries will need to be charged as soon as their power becomes minimal. Li-ion batteries are easier to use. They do not have a memory effect, so you can not bring them to a complete discharge and charge when convenient.
When charging, it is necessary to take into account the optimal temperature regime of the process. It is better that the ambient temperature is above ten degrees and does not exceed forty. During charging, the batteries sometimes heat up, but this should not be the case, since overheating negatively affects their operation, and they need to be cooled. It is undesirable to leave batteries in the charger. And it’s better to store them by disconnecting them from the screwdriver, separately from the tool itself. If the batteries are not used for a long time, they should be recharged once a month.
Batteries are better to buy at specialized points of sale. Proper operation will help to increase their service life. It is undesirable to completely discharge the elements during operation, until the engine stops. The fact that they need charging will be indicated by their markedly reduced performance characteristics.
Read more: How to choose a saw
How long does it take to charge a screwdriver battery?
As a rule, the charging time of the screwdriver’s battery is indicated in the tool manual. Carefully adhere to these recommendations. Often the charger has a special display system that helps you understand how the charging process is going. Thanks to this, you can easily determine how much to charge the battery of a screwdriver. When charging is completed, you must interrupt it in time so that the batteries are not damaged. On average, a battery charger for a screwdriver can recharge from about half an hour to 7 hours. Practice shows that a 1.2 Ah Ni-Cd battery is charged with a current of 250 mA for about seven hours. Charging current is supported by a network adapter.
It should be borne in mind that there are two types of battery chargers. Regular and pulse. A standard conventional charger is more often used in a non-professional tool, it charges the battery in about 3-7 hours. Pulse. suitable for professional mechanisms. Thanks to him, the battery can recover in a maximum of an hour.
Do I need to charge batteries before storage?
If the cordless tool is not used for a long time, experts advise you to carefully consider the battery cells.
It is recommended that the nickel-cadmium batteries be discharged before storage, but not to zero, but to the point where the tool stops working at full strength. With long-term storage, to restore the battery capacity, you need to make 3-5 full cycles of its discharge and charging. During operation of the tool, it is also advisable to ensure that the battery is not partially discharged before charging, but completely.
Nickel-metal hydride batteries have a higher self-discharge value than previous cells. They are recommended to be kept charged, and after a long “rest”, charged for about a day. Partial discharge is preferable for this type of battery. Their capacity decreases after 2-3 hundreds of charge-discharge cycles.
Lithium-ion batteries, characterized by the absence of a “memory effect”, can be charged at any time, no matter what the degree of their discharge. These batteries have the lowest self-discharge at high capacity. It is not recommended to completely discharge them, as this may lead to the disconnection of the protective circuit. Power tools with such batteries are equipped with control electronics, when the temperature or voltage rises, disconnecting the cell from the load. These batteries are recommended to be kept at 50 percent charge. The number of charge-discharge cycles does not affect the capacitive characteristics of the elements, however, their useful life is limited by time and is about two years.
What to do if the screwdriver’s battery does not charge?
If the screwdriver’s battery does not charge, it’s possible that the cause should be sought in its deterioration or in the malfunctioning charger. However, the problem is often a violation of the contact between the battery terminals of the screwdriver and the charger, since over time they are unbent. In this case, you can disassemble the charger and bend its terminals.
In addition, after some time of use, both the contacts of the battery and the contacts of the charger may oxidize and become contaminated. Even minor changes of this kind can interfere with normal battery charging. This is usually expressed in a significant reduction in both the charge time and the duration of the cordless power tool itself. To avoid this, you need to periodically wipe the contacts of the battery, charger for the battery of the screwdriver and tool.
Unfortunately, the characteristics of battery cells deteriorate over time. So, with the improper use of nickel-cadmium batteries, most often used in household models of screwdrivers, they quickly lose their capacity. Experts sometimes advise “overclocking” such batteries. The battery pack is disassembled and problematic elements are identified. After that, their charging is required. What current to charge the screwdriver battery in this case? Experts recommend that you first charge such elements with a higher current than it should be, then discharge them and charge them again, but with a small current. If the electrolyte has not yet evaporated in Ni-Cd batteries, such “therapy” may help bring them back to life.
In addition, you can restore one battery pack from two that partially lost capacity by selecting entire banks from them and soldering together. After that, to equalize the charge, it is required to fully charge and discharge the reconstructed unit several times.
Also, the reason is that the battery does not charge, it may be in the temperature sensor
Screwdriver battery charge time. Find out how long it takes to charge a screwdriver’s battery on ionpower
The convenience of a cordless screwdriver is largely due to the fact that it can be used away from an outlet. The main thing is not to forget to charge the battery. But in order to use the tool with the greatest efficiency, you should still know the exact time of charging the battery of a screwdriver. This will help to avoid an unpleasant situation when the calculations turned out to be incorrect, and it is impossible to finish the work, because the power tool refused to work. There are two practically unmistakable ways to find out. The first is to find this information in the instructions for the device itself. As a rule, it is available, because the manufacturer is interested in the buyer acquiring the next tool in their company, which means that he will try to give the most comprehensive information on any issues, including how long the screwdriver’s battery is charging. The second way is possible for those batteries that are equipped with a charge indicator. Once the scale is full, you can remove the battery and get to work. But in this case, you will have to determine how much you need to charge the battery of the screwdriver yourself, time tracking. The fact is that modern screwdrivers use mainly two types of batteries: nickel-cadmium and lithium-ion. They have different characteristics, including charging time. But to have an accurate idea of how much to charge the external battery of a screwdriver is not necessary for this. Nickel-cadmium batteries, of course, are cheaper than their more modern counterparts. But they have one not very convenient feature. Memory to charge. That is, with incomplete discharge, they perceive the level of remaining energy as a zero mark, thereby reducing capacity. To avoid this phenomenon every time you have to completely exhaust and replenish the battery capacity. Lithium-ion batteries have no such drawback, so they can not be charged all the specified time and can not even be used with a full charge. But the operating time will be directly proportional to how “filled” the battery. However, with such a battery, charging is faster than with nickel-cadmium cells.
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How to charge Ni-Cd batteries: process description
Thanks to improved production, Ni-Cd batteries are used today in most portable electronic devices. Reasonable cost and high performance made the presented variety of batteries popular. Such devices are now widely used in tools, cameras, players, etc. For the battery to last for a long time, you need to learn how to charge Ni-Cd batteries. Adhering to the rules of operation of such devices, you can significantly extend their service life.
To understand how to charge Ni-Cd batteries, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of such devices. They were invented by W. Jungner back in 1899. However, their production was then too costly. Technology has been improved. Today on sale are easy-to-use and relatively inexpensive batteries of nickel-cadmium type.
The presented devices require that the charge occurs quickly, and the discharge is slow. Over, the empty capacity of the battery must be performed completely. Recharging is performed by pulse currents. These parameters should be followed throughout the life of the device. Knowing how to charge the Ni-Cd battery with current, you can extend its service life by several years. Over, such batteries are operated even in the most difficult conditions. A feature of the presented batteries is the “memory effect”. If the battery is not completely discharged periodically, large crystals will form on the plates of its cells. They reduce battery capacity.
To understand how to properly charge Ni-Cd batteries of a screwdriver, camera, camera and other portable devices, you need to familiarize yourself with the technology of this process. It is simple and does not require special knowledge and skills from the user. Even after long periods of storage, the battery can be recharged quickly again. This is one of the advantages of the presented devices, which make them popular.
Nickel-cadmium batteries have a large number of charge and discharge cycles. Depending on the manufacturer and operating conditions, this indicator can reach more than 1 thousand cycles. The advantage of a Ni-Cd battery is its endurance and the ability to work in busy conditions. Even when operating it in the cold, the equipment will work properly. Its capacity under such conditions does not change. At any degree of charge, the battery can be stored for a long time. An important advantage is its low cost.
One of the disadvantages of the presented devices is the fact that the user must learn how to properly charge Ni-Cd batteries. The presented batteries, as mentioned above, have a “memory effect”. Therefore, the user should periodically carry out preventive measures to eliminate it.
The energy density of the presented batteries will be slightly lower than other types of autonomous power sources. In addition, in the manufacture of these devices, toxic materials are used that are unsafe for the environment and human health. Disposal of such substances requires additional costs. Therefore, in some countries the use of such batteries is limited.
After long-term storage, Ni-Cd batteries require a charge cycle. This is due to the high rate of self-discharge. This is also a disadvantage of their design. However, knowing how to properly charge Ni-Cd batteries, to operate them correctly, you can provide your equipment with an autonomous power source for many years.
Varieties of Chargers
To properly charge the nickel-cadmium type battery, you need to use special equipment. Most often, it comes complete with a battery. If for some reason there is no charger, you can purchase it separately. On sale today are automatic and reversible impulse varieties. Using the first type of device, the user does not need to know to what voltage to charge Ni-Cd batteries. The process is performed automatically. In this case, you can simultaneously charge or discharge up to 4 batteries.
Using a special switch, the device is set to discharge mode. In this case, the color indicator will glow yellow. When this procedure is completed, the device automatically switches to charging mode. The red indicator lights up. When the battery reaches the required capacity, the device will no longer supply current to the battery. In this case, the indicator lights up in green. Reversible chargers belong to the group of professional equipment. They are able to perform several charge and discharge cycles with different durations.
Special and universal chargers
Many users are interested in the question of how to charge the battery of a Ni-Cd type screwdriver. In this case, a conventional device designed for finger batteries will not work. A special charger is most often supplied with a screwdriver. It should be used when servicing the battery. If there is no charger, you should purchase equipment for the batteries of this type. In this case, it will be possible to charge only the battery of a screwdriver. If in operation there are batteries of various types, it is worth purchasing universal equipment. It will allow serving autonomous energy sources for almost all devices (cameras, screwdrivers and even batteries). For example, it will be able to charge iMAX B6 Ni-Cd batteries. It is a simple and useful household appliance.
Press battery discharge
Pressed Ni-Cd batteries are characterized by a special design. How to charge and discharge the presented devices depends on their internal resistance. This indicator is affected by some design features. For long-term operation of the equipment, disk-type batteries are used. They have flat electrodes of sufficient thickness. During the discharge process, their voltage slowly drops to 1.1 V. This can be checked by plotting the curve.
If the battery continues to be discharged to a value of 1 V, its discharge capacity will be 5-10% of the initial value. If the current is increased to 0.2 C, the voltage decreases significantly. This also applies to battery capacity. This is due to the inability to discharge the mass over the entire surface of the electrode evenly. Therefore, today their thickness is reduced. At the same time, 4 electrodes are present in the design of the disk battery. In this case, they can be discharged with a current of 0.6 C.
Today batteries with cermet electrodes are widely used. They have low resistance and provide high energy performance of the device. The voltage of a charged Ni-Cd battery of this type is held at 1.2 V until 90% of the specified capacity is lost. About 3% of it is lost during a subsequent discharge from 1.1 to 1 V. The presented type of batteries can be discharged with a current of 3-5 C.
Roll type electrodes are installed in cylindrical batteries. They can be discharged with current with higher rates, which is at the level of 7-10 C. The capacity indicator will be maximum at a temperature of 20 ºС. With its increase, this value changes insignificantly. If the temperature drops to 0 ºС and lower, the discharge capacity decreases in direct proportion to the increase in the discharge current. How to charge Ni-Cd batteries, the varieties of which are commercially available, need to be considered in detail.
General charging rules
When charging a nickel-cadmium battery, it is extremely important to limit the excess current flowing to the electrodes. This is necessary due to the growth inside the device at such a pressure process. When charging, oxygen will be released. This affects the current utilization factor, which will decrease. There are certain requirements that explain how to charge Ni-Cd batteries. Process parameters are considered by manufacturers of special equipment. Chargers in the course of their work tell the battery 160% of the nominal capacity value. The temperature range throughout the process should remain in the range from 0 to 40 ºС.
Standard charge mode
Manufacturers must indicate in the instructions how much to charge a Ni-Cd battery and how much current it needs to be done. Most often, the execution mode of this process is standard for most varieties of batteries. If the battery has a voltage of 1 V, it should be charged within 14-16 hours. In this case, the current should be 0.1 C.
In some cases, process characteristics may vary slightly. This is influenced by the design features of the device, as well as the increased active mass tab. This is necessary to increase the battery capacity.
The user may also be interested in how to charge the Ni-Cd battery. In this case, there are two options. In the first case, the current will be constant throughout the process. The second option allows you to charge the battery for a long time without the risk of damage. The scheme involves the use of stepwise or smooth reduction of current. In the first stage, it will significantly exceed the rate of 0.1 C.
There are other methods that accept Ni-Cd batteries. How to charge this type of battery in accelerated mode? There is a whole system. Manufacturers increase the speed of this process through the release of special devices. They can be charged at high current rates. In this case, the device has a special control system. It prevents a strong recharge of the battery. Such a system can have either the battery itself or its charger.
Cylindrical types of devices are charged with a constant current type, the value of which is 0.2 C. The process will last only 6-7 hours. In some cases, it is allowed to charge the battery with a current of 0.3 C for 3-4 hours. In this case, process control is essential. When the procedure is accelerated, the overcharge indicator should be no more than 120-140% of the capacity. There are even batteries that can be fully charged in just 1 hour.
Studying how to charge Ni-Cd batteries, you need to consider the completion of the process. After the current stops flowing to the electrodes, the pressure inside the battery still continues to rise. This process occurs due to the oxidation of hydroxyl ions on the electrodes.Over time, a gradual equation of the rate of oxygen evolution and absorption at both electrodes occurs. This leads to a gradual decrease in pressure inside the battery. If the recharge was significant, this process will be slower.
To properly charge a Ni-Cd battery, you must know the rules for setting up the equipment (if provided by the manufacturer). The nominal capacity of the battery must have a charge current of up to 2 C. It is necessary to choose the type of pulse. It can be Normal, Re-Flex or Flex. The sensitivity threshold (pressure reduction) should be 7-10 mV. It is also called Delta Peak. It is best set to a minimum. The swap current must be set in the range of 50-100 mAh. In order to be able to fully use the battery power, you need to perform high current charging. If its maximum power is required, the battery is charged with low current in normal mode. Having considered how to charge Ni-Cd batteries, each user will be able to complete this process correctly.
Screwdriver battery device
The battery is an energy source for cordless screwdriver models. Due to the occurrence of physicochemical processes (electrolysis), this element accumulates electricity, and then produces a constant voltage of the desired value at its respective outputs. Voltage and capacitance are the main parameters of any drive. The first shows the potential difference between the cathode and the anode of the battery. Voltage is measured in volts. The capacity determines the amount of current issued by the battery for 1 hour, therefore this parameter is measured in ampere-hours.
For different models, the battery pack (battery) looks and is designed in a similar way. It consists of the following structural elements:
- Cases with contacts located on it;
- Power elements (batteries);
- Temperature sensor circuit (thermistor), which performs the function of protecting the unit from overheating (range is from 50 to 600 degrees).
Not all models are equipped with thermistors. The case is usually a two-piece plastic box. He basically has about 10 batteries inside, and sometimes there are more. In this case, the batteries are connected to each other in a chain. The free terminals of the extreme cans are connected to the contacts located on the housing, designed to power the electric motor of the instrument and connect to the charging equipment. Battery output voltage determined by summing this parameter of all batteries connected into a single circuit.
There are 4 contacts on the battery case:
- 2 power (“”, “-“), designed for charging and discharging;
- One control top connected to a thermistor;
- One contact used for charging from special stations that are able to equalize the charge value of all the batteries available in the unit.
By type of batteries rechargeable drives are divided into the following types:
- Nickel metal hydride (designated NiMh) with an output voltage of 1.2 V;
- Nickel-cadmium (labeled NiCd) output also give 1.2 V;
- Lithium-ion (denoted by Li-Ion symbols), in which the voltage depends on the number of power elements in the battery and can be in the range of 1.2-3.6 V.
Lithium-ion batteries have a control board. At the same time, a special controller monitors the operation of batteries.
A separate battery consists of the following structural elements:
- Positive and negative contacts;
- Positive charge electrode;
- External cover of the body;
- Negative electrode.
Nickel-cadmium energy storage devices are most widely used due to the affordable price, compact size and large capacity. They can be recharged more than 1 thousand times.
General battery charging rules
In order to properly charge the screwdriver battery, a certain external battery must be provided. Temperature condition. The optimal temperature is from 10 to 40 degrees. An undesirable point is a possible overheating of the battery pack during charge accumulation. To avoid possible negative consequences of this phenomenon, it is necessary to disconnect the battery for cooling from the charger.
It is not recommended that after the batteries have reached full capacity, left in a disconnected charger or inserted into a screwdriver, which will then not be used, it is better to put them in a case from under the tool.
Battery packs that are not used for a long period of time are recommended to be recharged once a month.
The recommended battery charging time is from 30 minutes to 7 hours and depends on its type. For a specific model of power tool, it is indicated in the operating instructions. These instructions must be followed exactly so that the product lasts a long time. Most Chargers equipped with indicators, showing at what stage the process is. In such cases, by lighting up LEDs of a certain color, it is not difficult to determine how much batteries need to be charged. After reaching the full capacity level, you must immediately stop the process.
The nuances of charging various types of batteries
Charging various types of battery packs has its own characteristics. They are related to the properties of the materials of which the batteries are made. For regular recharging of battery packs, pulsed or conventional chargers are used. Adapters of the first type are equipped with professional power tools, and the second. Models for domestic use. New or discharged drives during storage must be properly charged before use, taking into account their characteristics.
So, nickel cadmium batteries different pronounced “memory effect”. The first time it is recommended to charge them three times in a row, each time at the same time completely discharging. Only in this way will the maximum (working) value of the battery capacity of the drive be achieved. After that, you need to conduct a regular connection of the screwdriver to the charger when its power drops to a minimum.
At nickel metal hydride batteries there is also a “memory effect.” Before the first use, it is recommended to repeat the full charge / discharge cycle for them 4-5 times. With further use, the charge is replenished as necessary.
If the initial charging of the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries is not performed correctly, then the capacity of their batteries will gradually decrease.
Lithium battery packs least whimsical. There are no special rules for them, because there is no “memory effect”. Lithium-ion nutrients can maintain their initial levels of working capacity for a long time. Each time it is not necessary to bring them to full charge / discharge.
Charging methods without using a special charger
When a standard charger is missing or simply broken, you can do without it. Craftsmen came up with different ways to recharge the battery from different sources. To charge the battery of a screwdriver without a conventional charger, you can use:
- Car charging;
- Universal type charger;
- External sources of electricity.
The best option for car charging is a device with the ability to control the magnitude of the voltage and current. The main thing in such cases is to avoid overcharging. To do this, the charging current is set so that the process goes from 0.5 to 0.1 Ah, depending on the size of the total capacity. For example, if it is 1.3 Ah, then the current should be from 650 to 130 mA.
When the current values are too large, and the regulator cannot set lower values, additional resistance is used, for example, a car lamp. It is connected in series to the battery pack.
Universal charging convenient in practice. They have many additional settings that allow you to optimally select the appropriate current parameters for recharging batteries from various power tools.
External power sources They are mainly used for worn screwdrivers, for whom it is not economically feasible to purchase new batteries. In such cases, the power tool is upgraded in a certain way, and an appropriate connection diagram is developed. An example is a redesigned USB charge, additionally equipped with a fuse.
Battery Storage Recommendations
It is recommended to store any type of battery by disconnecting it from the screwdriver. Each type of battery also has its own characteristics in this regard:
- Nickel-cadmium batteries must be discharged before storage to such an extent that the screwdriver does not work at its full capacity;
- Nickel-metal hydride batteries are recommended to be kept fully charged, but their small discharge is still allowed;
- Before storing a lithium-ion battery, it also needs to be discharged, but only half.
After a long storage period nickel metal hydride batteries, capable of withstanding 200 to 300 recharge cycles without loss of capacity, it is necessary to recharge within 24 hours. Blocks of this type are distinguished by a significant self-discharge parameter.
As mentioned above, lithium ion power cells deprived of the “memory effect”. They have a large capacity and the lowest self-discharge rate. You can recharge their charge at any time, despite the degree of discharge.
Do not completely discharge Li-Ion batteries, because this may cause the built-in electronic protection system to turn off against rising temperatures or voltages.
In order to achieve 50% of the charge required for proper storage, lithium-ion batteries need to be charged from almost zero level for a period of about 65% of the time it takes to reach full capacity.
Compliance with the simplest recommendations on the storage and charging of various types of battery packs will make it possible to develop the entire resource of batteries inherent in them by manufacturers.
Checking the battery status with a multimeter
Not always, when the battery runs out quickly or does not function at all, you need to buy a new one or carry the unit to the service center specialists. In many cases even an inexperienced electrician will be able to find the cause of the malfunction independently, having familiarized himself with the search algorithm. To do this, you will need to use a multimeter or instruments similar to it in measuring capabilities. In addition to this device, you will also need the following tools:
- Soldering iron with a set for soldering;
In order to accurately determine the cause of the battery malfunction, it is necessary to find out the performance of each individual power supply. But first recommended check charger. With a multimeter, this is done in this way:
- Turn on the device;
- Set the switch of the measured values of the multimeter to a constant voltage;
- Install the probes in the corresponding sockets of the multimeter and touch them to the contacts (“” and “-“) of the charger;
- Compare the value displayed on the instrument panel with the output voltage of the charger specified in the operating instructions or on the case;
- If the values do not match, then repair the adapter or buy a new one.
Whenever possible, the measurement range that is closest to the output voltage indicated on the charger is selected on the device used.
To check screwdriver battery multimeter, perform the following steps:
- Fully charge the battery pack;
- Check the output voltage of the battery with a multimeter by setting the device switch to its constant value, and touch the plus and minus with the probes;
- If the discrepancy of the measured parameter to the value specified in the operating instructions is established, then the battery pack is disassembled and all batteries are removed;
- When there are no damaged banks (leaked or swollen), then check the voltage at the terminals of each battery with a multimeter, first using a soldering iron to solder the circuit;
- The load is connected to the batteries in turn for the same time (for example, a lamp of the corresponding voltage);
- On which battery the greatest drawdown occurred, it is damaged.
For testing, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium energy storage devices are completely discharged. This is done in order to avoid the “memory effect”.
When checking batteries, it should be noted that for nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride types of batteries, the output voltage should be in the range from 1.2 to 1.4 V, and for lithium ones from 3.6 to 3.8 V.
If you find a defective battery, you can replace it with a new one or try to temporarily restore it by adding distilled water or exposure to high voltage. You can also use a multimeter measure current: if it grows and in the first hour exceeds 1 A, then the battery is considered operational.
If there is no voltage at the output of the battery, then there is a high probability of breaking the integrity of the circuit inside the unit. At the same time, they also disassemble the block and first search visually, and then with the help of a multimeter, the place of the cliff.
Before using the new cordless screwdriver, you must carefully study the instructions for use of this product supplied by the manufacturer. The features of the type of batteries installed on the power tool should be taken into account in order to properly charge them and also to store them for a long time. Compliance with simple recommendations will extend the battery life to a complete exhaustion of the resource. When there is no branded charger, then the alternative charging methods mentioned above will temporarily help.
If the battery capacity drops, the operating time on a single charge decreases, you can repair them with your own hands. To do this, it is enough to set the output current or voltage with a multimeter and compare their compliance with the standard values of these parameters.