How Reverse Drill Works

Device motor

The motor is the main element of the device that drives the tool reducer. It consists of a stator and a rotor, while the rotor is a moving part, and the stator, respectively, is not. The rotor design includes an armature with a collector. An anchor is an engine element assembled from steel plates. They are wound on windings of an electrically conductive material. copper. The manifold is a cylinder. It is made of a dielectric and conductive plates, and the armature windings are connected to these plates.

Due to the magnetic flux created around the armature by the stator windings, it rotates, which leads to the occurrence of a torque. The magnetic flux arising under the action of a direct current is always directed only in one direction.

The power is supplied to the windings by means of brushes made of graphite. The brushes are positioned in such a way that they provide constant electrical contact with the armature.

The wear of the brushes should not exceed 70-80 percent, if this value is higher, then the contact deteriorates, as a result of which arcing occurs in this place. Before replacing brushes, pay attention to the brush holder and, if necessary, clean it. Thus, the main parts of an electric motor are:

The easiest way to check the windings is with a multimeter. To do this, they touch the brush holder with one contact wire of the measuring device, and with the second touch the contacts of the 220-volt switching plug. If the tester shows infinite resistance, then this means a blown winding. The working resistance of the stator winding is in the range of 30-60 ohms. For example, the popular Interskol DU-13/580 ER electric drill has a resistance of 40 Ohm. When replacing the stator, you will have to disassemble the motor. To do this, four screws are unscrewed and the case is disassembled into two halves. As a result, access to the rest of the engine is freed up.

The armature is connected to the gearbox. Often, having visually examined it, one can conclude about its integrity. The anchor must be free from scratches and blackening. When replacing an armature, it is important to correctly install the rubber-padded bearing. With a simple tester, it is possible to measure the armature only for a winding break, but to check for an interturn short circuit, you will need a specialized device. The measurement is carried out in the mode of checking the resistance between the armature windings on the lamellas. The amount of resistance between all lamellas must be the same.

How Reverse Works on a Drill

Electrical service experts say the electric drill is the most popular tool. Today it is almost impossible to find a person who has never heard of her. Many home craftsmen use a drill not only to drill holes, but also as a mixer to mix paint or mortar during repairs. But we will tell you about the device of the most ordinary electric drill and the purpose of its main components.

Anchor

Its second name is the rotor, because it is in constant rotation during the operation of the tool. The armature is a shaft with a core pressed on it made of steel similar to the stator. Along the entire length of the rotor, at the same distance, special recesses are cut into which its winding is laid. They are wound from solid copper wire, and the taps are attached to the collector plates. The armature is all divided into segments, its collector is rigidly mounted on the shaft shank; during operation, this whole structure rotates on bearings installed on both sides of the shaft.

The design of the rotor and stator is excellently shown in

Stator

As a rule, it is made from special grades of electrical steel that have a very high degree of magnetic permeability. Structurally, it looks like a cylinder with grooves, where a copper wire winding is placed. there are two of them and they are located opposite each other. The stator is rigidly fixed in the drill body.

  • How a Reverse Drill Works
  • How to choose a cordless drill and screwdriver
  • What are power tool brushes and what are they for

Main assemblies and details

In principle, all drills have the same design. all units and parts are shown in the photo. Impact models have additional fixed ratchets, which, interacting with each other, force the drill to perform forward-impact movements for drilling especially strong walls made of reinforced concrete.

The principle of operation is quite simple: by pressing the start button, the user opens the current access to the brushes of the electric motor, which spin the motor rotor up to the revolutions required for operation. The torque is transmitted through the spindle to the gearbox. it ensures the rotation of the chuck with the drill clamped in a special device. As a result of this interaction, drilling of various materials is carried out.

The principle of operation of any models of modern drills is identical, with the exception of the specific nuances of impact options.

Electrical damage

This type of breakdown occurs due to exceeding the permissible load on the device and violations in its operation. They manifest themselves in the failure of the tool to turn on, in the reverse malfunction or the speed regulator. Most often, to restore performance, you will need to disassemble the start button and clean all the places associated with the electrical contact.

The appearance of a burning smell indicates the occurrence of an overload in the operation of the electric motor. In this case, the condition of the brushes and windings is first checked, the places where the power wire are connected are examined for no burning. Combustion is associated with the ingress of dust, as a result of which the transition resistance increases, which leads to heating. Electrical faults can be easily calculated using a multimeter and visual inspection.

Reversible drill functions

The drill mechanism includes an electric motor, a gearbox, a power regulator and a start button. If a mechanism is additionally installed that allows you to make reciprocating back and forth movements, such a drill is called a percussion drill. Modern drills have the function of adjusting the rotation speed, in some models there is a reverse function. The reversible drill is compact, safe, reliable, easy to operate and light in weight. Its performance allows it to be operated with one hand, as well as in places with limited access. The change of consumables is carried out very quickly thanks to the use of a high-quality keyless chuck.

The electronic control maintains the required speed and ensures a slow start of drilling and further smooth operation at a frequency that is optimal for the material. The reversible drill can be used for drilling fragile materials such as glass, tiles. In this case, the drill can be used as a screwdriver. The reverse also makes it easy to remove the drill if it gets stuck in the material, it is convenient to use it for more even mixing of mixtures.

Reversible drill functions

The drill mechanism includes an electric motor, a gearbox, a power regulator and a start button. If a mechanism is additionally installed that allows reciprocating back and forth movements, such a drill is called a percussion drill. Modern drills have the function of adjusting the rotation speed, in some models there is a reverse function. The reversible drill is compact, safe, reliable, easy to operate and light in weight. Its performance allows it to be operated with one hand, as well as in places with limited access. The change of consumables is carried out very quickly thanks to the use of a high-quality keyless chuck.

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The electronic control maintains the required speed and ensures a slow start of drilling and further smooth operation at a frequency that is optimal for the given material. The reversible drill can be used for drilling fragile materials such as glass, tiles. In this case, the drill can be used as a screwdriver. The reverse also makes it easy to remove the drill in case of jamming in the material, it is convenient to use it for more even mixing of mixtures.

How a Reverse Drill Works

  • How a Reverse Drill Works
  • How to choose a drill
  • How to repair a drill

How to work with a drill

Drills are critical in how to use a drill. There are tools for working on metal, wood, concrete and stone materials. The drilling tool (drill) is clamped in a chuck, which can be conventional (with “jaws”) or keyless. Concrete drills have a tungsten carbide insert (“pobedita”). They are designated “NM ST”. When drilling a concrete wall, it is recommended to use the hammer drill mode. In order not to break the drill, the tool must be held strictly perpendicular to the surface.

Since the surface of the wall is usually somewhat looser than the deep layers, the drill can splinter it at the moment of impact, and the hole will move away from the intended point. To avoid this, you first need to “punch” the hole, that is, make a depression with a hammer and a special core. A stop bar can be used to adjust the drilling depth. If it is absent, tape should be wound around the drill. In the process of work, cement dust and crumbs must be removed from the hole.

Drills for metal are designated by the Latin letters HSS. When using them, you cannot turn on the “impact” mode, the drill may break. To make the drilling process faster, the metal surface must be pre-punched. Wood drills have edges that are sharpened parallel to the surface. There is a thin awl in the middle of the tool, which allows the drill to punch the hole on its own. When drilling a hole, you need to monitor the rotation speed; at the first signs of smoke, the hole must be moistened with water. By switching the drill to reverse, chips can be removed from the hole. This function is activated by a checkbox next to the start button.

Why do I need a reverse function in a grinder

First, you should understand the principle of operation of the grinder itself. The auger, moving the pieces of meat to the exit, is equipped at the end with a special cross-shaped knife, which chops the products. Then the chopped meat is pressed through the grate. thus the minced meat is formed.

Poor quality meat containing veins, coarse fasciae, not everything can be frayed. Often there are long, stiff fibers that have nothing to do but wind around the rotating shaft. This reduces the speed, increases the load on the sander, which ultimately can lead to a work stoppage due to overheating. There is only one way out: periodically turn off the device, disassemble it and remove everything unnecessary from the auger and knife. The reverse is very helpful in such a situation.

Stringy meat can get stuck in the grinder

Reverse in electric grinders

Both the forward run and the reverse in the electric grinder occur without user intervention, in automatic mode. The hostess only needs to give the desired command (with the reverse on / off button).

Physically, the function is implemented in the same way as in mechanical models. The shaft begins to rotate in the opposite direction, moving the food towards the loading chute, freeing the knife and auger from the stuck wires. The direction of rotation changes automatically when you press a certain button.

Benefits of reversing in a sander

Reverse grinders are more popular with buyers. And the point is not so much that more advanced and fashionable models are equipped with it. The reverse function in the grinder is, without exaggeration, the most useful. It greatly simplifies the work as a whole, increases the working resource of the device, makes caring for it more comfortable and faster.

Reverse working principle

Reverse. reverse movement of the shaft, which allows you to solve the problem of winding the cores on the auger. His task is not to miss the veins so far that they are wound around the knife. For this, the contents of the shaft are returned a certain distance back by the return stroke. After that, the appliance is given a second chance to cope with the stubborn piece of meat. Depending on the type of grinder, the reverse may be different.

Reverse in mechanical (hand) grinders

We are talking about simple hand-held grinders, which at one time were in almost every home. The shaft is rotated manually. The user rotates the handle, the force from which is transmitted to the free end of the auger. The auger moves in sync with the handle. This is a very simple mechanism. Reverse, that is, a change in the direction of movement of the shaft, occurs when the direction of rotation of the handle is changed.

Attention! The main working movement in a mechanical grinder is clockwise. Accordingly, if you need a reverse, you need to rotate the handle counterclockwise.

As a result of such actions, the veins from the knife and screw will unscrew, and everything that is in the grinder will return along the auger to the loading chute. Here you can select tendons and send the rest back for recycling.

Advantages of the reversible electric sander

Electric models equipped with a reverse function have a number of advantages over their mechanical counterparts.

  • Making minced meat, shaping sausages and other operations are quick and easy to do with the push of a button rather than turning the crank for hours.
  • The veins are removed from the knife themselves, during the reverse. There is no need to disassemble the device.
  • For minced meat, you can use raw materials of any quality. You don’t need to clean it as thoroughly as you would for a hand sander. All cores can be removed in the process using the reverse.
  • The reverse ensures uniform operation of the device, without “tense” areas. This makes the knives less blunt.
  • This sander is easier to maintain.
  • Since there are no situations when the device does not cope, it works at the limit, the service life as a whole increases.
reverse, drill, works

Is it possible to do without reverse

It is quite clear that if the minced meat is prepared from the sirloin, the device of any power will cope with this task. But the hostess does not always manage to cleanse the product well from tendons and bones. And in the absence of a reverse stroke, the work will be difficult.

Some models of devices have special safety devices against the ingress of bones and veins into the apparatus, but in such cases, overheating of the mechanisms can often be observed, which sometimes leads to their breakdown. Therefore, manufacturers prefer reversible units.

Although it is believed that low-power devices need a reverse stroke, from 1000 to 1800 W, and high-power ones can cope without it, more and more devices with a power of 1800 W are made with reverse scrolling.

Obviously, the reverse has an important property. Its use simplifies the meat scrolling procedure, and many modern brands are equipped with a reverse system. But the presence of such a function is reflected in the cost of the unit. Consider carefully whether you will use meat with stringy fibers, fish with skin, vegetables and fruits with skin. If not, then you can not overpay for a sander. It should be borne in mind that such household appliances are purchased infrequently. Therefore, you need to treat your purchase carefully, with a future perspective, and still choose a model with auto-reverse.

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Brushes

Brushes with built-in springs move along special guides in the stator housing during engine operation. they transfer voltage to the rotor, therefore, sparking constantly occurs between them and the armature body, indicating that everything is normal. During operation, the body of the brushes, made of pressed graphite, wears out due to constant friction, therefore, they are periodically inspected and changed.

Maximum efficiency

In the operating instructions, each manufacturer indicates the range of rotation speeds at which the drill will make the most of its capabilities. For example, when working with wood, the highest speed is used, while for concrete and stone, the setting is slower. To use the drill as a screwdriver, choose the lowest speed.

With each part of the device, some small manipulations can be carried out, which will significantly increase the efficiency of using the drill.

How to use a drill and wall screw

  • Cartridge. When the drill is clamped in the chuck with a key, then you need to manually bring the jaws to the stop, and then, moving in a circle, clamp them finally with a key. In models without a key, which are increasingly difficult to meet, the whole process is done by hand.
  • Drill. This cutting tool must always be well sharpened, wear, various damages significantly reduce its performance. The use of poor quality drills can result in overloading of the motor and gearbox, affecting their service life.
  • Secure grip. This tool belongs to a very dangerous product, therefore, during operation it is necessary to fix it well in your hands. During drilling, vibration is transmitted to the body, so manufacturers add a second handle for comfortable holding the drill, this greatly helps to control the entire process.

Special ventilation openings must be constantly open during operation to ensure normal ventilation of internal parts.

Cartridge types

In practice, you can find only two main types of this simplest mechanism for fixing the cutting tool.

  • The fixation of drills is carried out manually. there are single-sleeve chucks, where the drill is clamped with one hand, and there are also two-sleeve chucks, where both hands are already involved.
  • The chuck is tightened using a special key of a complex design. This is considered the most common type of chuck. it is used on all models of modern drills, especially on powerful versions.

Functional nuances

Drilling tool manufacturers are always trying to equip their products with exclusive options, so users today have the opportunity to purchase an excellent and very high-quality assembly. Here is a small list of the main innovations from the developers of modern electric drills.

  • Electronic speed controllers. The latest models of electric tools are equipped with smart controls, they are very convenient. the engine automatically shuts off in case of emergency, for example, when the drill gets stuck inside the hole. Then we turn on the reverse and take out the drill. this way the electronics prevents the engine from overheating.
  • Reverse. with its help, the drill is able not only to tighten the fasteners, but also to quickly unscrew them when dismantling. The regulator is located next to the start button.
  • Impact mechanism. It is installed on special models, due to its use, it is possible to drill holes in especially hard material. Impact drills can drill concrete and natural or artificial stone.
  • Fixing the start button. This function greatly facilitates the drilling process. the worker’s finger does not get tired. The latch is located next to the button, it is very easy to use it: one press and the drill works in a constant mode, a second press will release the trigger and it will turn off the power supply.
  • Drilling depth stop. a metal rod that abuts against a part or wall and stops the drill at the desired level.
  • Recently, such a unique function as additional illumination of the workplace has appeared, which is very useful in places with poor lighting.

Every drill of medium size and power is equipped with an additional handle, which is installed directly behind the chuck and helps the process: you can hold the tool with two hands and apply constant pressure on it with your whole body.

How To Rotate Drill In Reverse Only In 20Rs || Reverse & Forward Rotation

Main assemblies and details

In principle, all drills have the same design. all units and parts are shown in the photo. Impact models have additional fixed ratchets, which, interacting with each other, force the drill to perform forward-impact movements for drilling especially strong walls made of reinforced concrete.

The principle of operation is quite simple: by pressing the start button, the user opens the current access to the brushes of the electric motor, which spin the motor rotor up to the revolutions required for operation. The torque is transmitted through the spindle to the gearbox. it ensures the rotation of the chuck with the drill clamped in a special device. As a result of this interaction, drilling of various materials is carried out.

The principle of operation of any models of modern drills is identical, with the exception of the specific nuances of impact options.

The heart of the instrument

The brushed motor consists of three main parts: stator, rotor and graphite brushes.

Battery model

Cordless drills are very popular with DIYers because the work is not limited by the length of the wire, which allows them to be used in any environment. They also refer to the electrical tool. There are options when the charger is located in the tool storage case, and after work it is stored and simultaneously charged. Basically, battery drills have two spare blocks, which are enough for work.

Such a removable battery can be charged for no more than an hour, so you will not have to take long breaks when you have planned a large amount of work for the day. As a rule, the charging unit is designed for several thousand times, but it is specifically necessary to find out this indicator when buying, there are more expensive replaceable batteries that charge in 15 minutes.

The cost of cordless drills is slightly higher than conventional models.

Drill button connection diagram. how to fix the problem?

Unfortunately, a tester will not be enough for you to check the performance of the tool, which is due to the fact that most of the buttons of the device are equipped with a stepless speed control, and therefore an ordinary tester may give you incorrect data. In this case, you will need a special wiring diagram for the drill button. Often in tools, one wire is connected to the terminal, and therefore pressing the button at the same time leads to ringing of the terminals. In the event that the light comes on, everything is fine with the button, but if you notice a malfunction, it’s time to replace the button.

When replacing, keep in mind that the circuit can be either simple or with a reverse. Due to this, all work on replacing the button must be carried out exclusively according to the scheme, without adding anything “from oneself”. So, the part must be suitable in size and correspond to the power of the tool. At the same time, calculating power is a fairly simple task. We use the formula P = UI (taking into account that the power of the drill is 650 W), I = 2.94 A (650/220), which means that the button should be 2.95 A.

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Checking the electric motor: causes of breakdowns and repairs

There are several reasons for drill armature or stator breakage. First of all, this is the illiterate operation of the device. For example, many users simply overload the tool, carrying out work without interruption. This leads to the fact that the drill motor does not have time to “rest”. The second reason lies in the poor winding wire, which is often found in cheap models. That is why breakdowns of cheap tools are much more common. In this case, repairs must be carried out using a specialized tool. And it will be better if you entrust this work to professional specialists.

However, if it was decided to carry out the repair on its own, you will certainly have a question. how to do everything right? As you already understood, an electric drill “suffers” from breakdowns of the armature and stator, and this can be checked by several signs, for example, when the tool suddenly sparks during operation. If there are no “bright” signs, you can use an ohmmeter.

The stator is changed like this:

  • First, carefully disassemble the device case;
  • We remove the wires and all internal parts;
  • After finding out the reasons for the breakdown, we change the spare part to a new one, close the case again.

Required tools and materials

Drill repair can be carried out on your own, the main thing is to know the causes of breakdowns and methods of their “treatment”. Today we will talk about how the drill button connection diagram looks like, we will not ignore other malfunctions, thanks to which you will be the happy owner of a working tool.

Possible tool malfunctions. we carry out repairs ourselves

If your tool has begun to work worse, or has completely ceased to perform its direct duties, it’s time to diagnose malfunctions and try to cope with them. First, we check the wire for damage and voltage in the outlet, for which you can turn on any other device. a TV or a kettle.

If you are inspecting battery-powered devices, you need to check them when using the tester. in this case, the voltage indicated on the case should have the same value as the battery voltage.

If the voltage is less, you will have to replace the batteries with new ones. If the battery is working properly, the power supply is normal, look for problems in the hardware. The most frequent breakdowns are:

  • Problems with engine operation;
  • Wear of brushes;
  • Problems with button operation.

Knowing how the electric drill button is connected, you can quickly solve the problem. In addition, a problem with the operation of the drill may arise due to the dustiness of the tool, because the drill “takes” wood, brick, and other materials. This means that you should take care to clean the device after each use. this is the only way to reduce the risk of malfunction due to dirty tools. That is why after you have carried out repairs in the apartment, immediately clean the drill.

Drill button connection diagram. we fix the tool ourselves!

How to connect the drill button yourself?

Despite the fact that this process is quite complicated, you can do all the work with your own hands, observing some important rules. For example, remember that opening the case can cause all parts and loose parts to simply fall out of the case. Naturally, this should be avoided, because then it will be quite difficult to put the device together. To do this, you can smoothly lift the cover, noting the exact location of the spare parts on paper.

The button is repaired as follows:

  • First, the clamps for the casing are hooked, after which it is carefully pulled together;
  • All rusted and darkened terminals are cleaned of carbon deposits, for which you can use alcohol or sandpaper;
  • We reassemble the tool, making sure that all the parts of the device are in place, and we check the performance of the drill. if nothing has changed, we change the part;
  • We fill the turnover regulator with a compound, and therefore, if the part fails, we simply replace it;
  • A frequent breakdown is the erasure of the working layer under the rheostat. it is better not to repair it, just waste your time, it is better to buy a new one and replace it.

Many are wondering where to get such a scheme? First of all, it should come with the tool when you buy it, but if there is no scheme, or you have lost it, you will have to search the Internet. After all, only with its help you will be able to carry out the repair correctly, without errors. By the way, the speed control button and the reverse control button are located in different places, and therefore they will have to be checked separately.

How to replace brushes: work in a couple of minutes

But the drill may not work due to trivial malfunctions. for example, because of the brushes inside the motor. This means that you cannot do without repairing brushes, while this work is quite simple. you do not even need to have special knowledge and tools. To do this, we disassemble the device, remove the brush holders from it and change the parts that are broken. By the way, there are models, the body of which can not be disassembled. in them you just need to remove special plugs through the installation window, after which we change the brushes.

As you can see, there are various breakdowns, many of which will be subject to you, others will be feasible only for specialists in service centers. And in order to reduce the risk of such breakdowns, you need to take care of your tool, clean it after work, check the condition of parts and brushes in order to replace them with new ones in time. However, if you see that you cannot handle it yourself, take the device to the workshop.