How to build a house yourself how to cut slate
How slate sheets are nailed
The slate is nailed with an ordinary hammer. Nails are inserted into a pre-drilled hole and hammered not all the way, but so that the slate does not move. An 8-wave slate is hammered into the 2nd and 6th wave from the joint, 7-wave. into the 2nd and 5th, respectively. Vertically, the sheet is nailed in two places to the crate. The distance from the nail to the edge of the canvas is at least 15 cm.This is how they move to the ridge.
Types and sizes of sheets of wave slate for roofing
Slate sheets are produced in 6, 7 and 8-wave. The standard sheet length is 1750 mm, the width depends on the number of waves and is shown in the figure, the thickness is from 5.8 to 7.5 mm, the wave pitch is 150 or 200 mm.
The height of the crest (wave) is 40 mm for 7 and 8-wave and 54 mm for 6-wave sheet.
How and what to fix the slate on the roof
Fastening the sheets of roofing material to the crate is an important stage on which both the strength of the roof and the integrity of the slate itself during operation depend. It should be borne in mind the seasonal deformations and movements of the rafter systems and slate, increased loads on the roof in winter.
The main advantages and disadvantages of slate
The advantages of this roofing material include:
- ease of installation,
- durability and low cost,
- long service life (35-40 years).
Slate roof is suitable for any building design, looks beautiful and lasts a long time.
- relatively large weight: more powerful truss structures should be made,
- fragility: may break down during careless transportation or careless handling.
How to determine the amount of roof slate
When planning the work with your own hands, it is important to correctly calculate the amount of slate for the roof so that there is enough material and there is no waste. For a person familiar with the basics of geometry, such calculations will not be difficult. For a roof with one or two slopes, you will need to measure the width and length of the house, the angle of inclination of the slope.
It is easier to calculate the slate by the size of the roof, it is done as follows:
- determine the size of the roof along the cornice, divide the resulting distance by the size of the width of the sheet and add 10%, get the number of sheets in one row;
- measure along the slope the distance from the ridge to the cornice and divide it by the size of the slate sheet height, get the number of rows, increase the result by 13% for overlap;
- the resulting numbers of rows and sheets in one row are multiplied and the number of slate sheets per one slope is obtained. If the roof is gable, the result is doubled.
For hipped roofs, the area of the slopes is calculated geometrically (the area of the triangle and the area of the trapezoid, as shown in the figure), divided by the area of the slate sheet and add 15%.
Chimney junction device
If the house has a stove, a bypass for the chimney is required on the roof. For a chimney on a roof slope, the junction is arranged differently, depending on whether there is waterproofing or not. In the presence of waterproofing, a steel sheet abutment is installed under the slate and film, and in its absence, it is made in such a way that the upper edge of the steel sheet is under the slate, and the lower edge along the slope is above it. The junction device diagram is shown in the figure.
The smaller the slope angle, the stronger the sheathing
For slate roofs, a slope angle of at least 22 ° is recommended. For pitched and gable roofs, the angles of inclination may be less, but a reinforced sheathing is required. The principle of amplification for different angles of inclination of the ramp is shown in the figure. A vapor barrier is placed under the slate, especially if roof insulation is planned.
How to raise slate on the roof
Those who plan to make a roof with their own hands often have the question of how to raise the slate on the roof. This is done with a rope and two hooks. The leaf is hooked from below with two hooks, to which a rope is tied. The rope along with a sheet of slate is pulled to the roof. You can feed the sheets by hand using a stepladder if the work is done by two or three people.
Sawing slate. the best ways and tools for cutting
In “home” construction or renovation, a material such as slate is often used. But sometimes you need not a whole sheet, but only a part of it. You also have to do some curly “cuts”. And here difficulties and questions arise: HOW and WHAT to do it? Let’s try to figure it out.
It should be borne in mind that currently there are two types of slate in use. The first one is traditional, made of asbestos cement. The second one is called “euro slate”, in which there is no more asbestos. You can saw slate in different ways, using different tools.
A somewhat inconvenient process, as it takes more time. You need to use the reduced speed mode and do not press hard.
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Use a fine-toothed instrument. True, this requires the utmost accuracy and deliberation. The main thing is to walk strictly along the mowing line, do not split the material and do not break the saw.
No special tool
Several holes must be made along the mowing line (drill with a drill, pierce with a nail. only with a special slate). It is advisable to make more holes along the mowing line. After that, at the edge of the workbench, the sheet is broken in the same way as glass. You can put a rail under the slate and break it on it. It is better if the holes are small in diameter, but there will be a lot of them. then the edges of the fracture will be smoother.
A diamond wheel should be used. It must be taken into account that a lot of dust will be generated. The best way out is to work with a partner. One makes a cut of the slate, and the other pours water on this place. This is also good because the water will also prevent the diamond disc from getting dirty. This means that the quality of the resulting cut will increase. In addition, with an angle grinder, you can then easily process all the irregularities on the edges of the resulting fragments. In winter, this work is best done right on the snow. Only the angle grinder will need to be pressed against the sheet from above.
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The technique is the same as for cutting thick glass. But it is possible to cut slate in this way only on condition that the line needs to be made longitudinal, and not across the “wave”. They pass a cutter several times along the intended mowing line, and then break off the leaf along the mowing line. To begin with, you still need to practice on some separate piece.
General advice when sawing
Regardless of which method you choose and what tool you will use for sawing, the line of the cut should be constantly moistened with water during the work. And don’t rush.
It should be noted that when cutting traditional slate, dust containing asbestos is emitted in large quantities. Therefore, it is necessary to protect both the eyes and the respiratory tract from damage. When working with slate, you need to use goggles, a respirator. Hands should be protected with gloves, as dust gets into the pores of the skin. Work must be carried out either on the street or in a good draft. If the room is closed, then a good exhaust must be organized.
I recommend. a video on how to preserve a slate roof for many years and significantly extend its service life:
How to cut corrugated slate with a nail
The first method from the list is used in conditions when the necessary tool is not at hand. A nail is taken, preferably sharp enough, and with a hammer, with short and sharp blows, holes are punched along the mowing line of the cut. For this method, it is better to take a special slate nail. The holes in the sheet should be punched as often as possible. The blow must be sharp and precise in order to get holes in the sheet, preventing it from splitting.
After holes are punched under the sheet along the cutting line, a bar is placed and the slate sheet is broken. The edge of the cut with this method turns out to be uneven and it is desirable to process it. You can use pliers or pliers to trim the edges, or use a coarse file with a coarse cut.
Differences in cutting wave and flat slate
Differences in the technique of cutting flat slate from wave slate stem from the shape of these materials. It is easier and more convenient to work with a flat blade. When making a cut on a wave sheet, as a rule, only one side of the wave is used. Then the sheet is broken off. When working with a flat sheet, the material is cut immediately to the full depth. Flat material is less afraid of kinks than wave material. But in any case, it is advisable to use water to wet the cutting site.
Some experts cut flat slate in several passes. With both a cutting knife and an angle grinder, a risk is applied at the cut. It goes deeper in several passes. The sheet is not cut through, but breaks at risk.
It is very convenient to cut slate in the snow in winter. If conditions permit, then this is the most optimal option. The sheet is placed on the snow tightly and without distortions. When using an angle grinder or circular saw, the working discs are immersed in the snow mass.
At the same time, the place of work is humidified and cooled. With this method, there is practically no dust. All of it is absorbed by the snow pillow.
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When working with slate, it is important to remember that it is a rather fragile material. Its cutting technology is much similar to glass cutting, and it must be handled as well. extremely carefully. The surfaces on which work is performed must be straight to avoid stress in the sheets.
How to cut roofing slate with a hacksaw
You can use a hacksaw to cut the slate. It is advisable to take a tool for working on metal, since a hacksaw for wood will become dull very quickly. You can also use hacksaws with victorious surfacing, used for sawing foam concrete.
The technology of cutting slate with a hacksaw is simple. It is enough to follow the pressure on the sheet to avoid breaking it. Periodically, the place of the cut is moistened with water to reduce dust and cool the hacksaw blade. Cutting slate with a hacksaw is also a rather slow and laborious method, so it should be chosen for small roofs.
How to cut a blade with a cutter
The second method, how to cut wave slate, is more laborious than the first. A standard cutter is taken. an oblique knife with a sharpening angle of 40-35%, and with which a deep scratch is made along the mowing line of the cut. This method is very similar to cutting glass. Glass cutters do not cut glass, but only make a deep groove in the material, along which they break it. So when cutting slate with a cutter, a sheet breaks along the furrow. This method is more suitable for cutting along the sheet. Cutting wave slate across with a cutter is possible, but very difficult.
How to avoid dust formation
Dust generated when cutting asbestos-cement slate is irritating to mucous membranes and lungs, so it is important to keep its formation to a minimum. Professionals use several methods:
- Liberally moisten the surface of the blade before work and moisten the risk during cutting and sawing several times. In this case, it is important to immediately wash off the resulting asbestos mass from the surface until it hardens.
- A vacuum cleaner is used as a dust collector. Here it is more convenient to work with an assistant who will hold the tube in the cutting area.
- Glue construction tape to the surface, which slightly reduces the formation of dust.
How and how to properly cut wave slate
There are several ways to cut wave slate. Methods differ in labor intensity, used tools and cut quality.