How to Calculate Band Saw Speed
When developing a home-made band saw, it is important to understand how it is organized and for what purposes it will be used. In the case of a private business, you can create a band saw with your own hands, capable of working not only with wood, but also with other materials, including:
Due to the high density, it is necessary to process such materials with special machines made of reinforced steel. Standard metal is not capable of cutting stone or metal workpieces normally. Also, hard woods are beyond his power.
When assembling the frame of a band saw, it is better to give preference to hard and strong wood species. Otherwise, the final structure will not have the required rigidity and will begin to create vibrations. Individual elements, including the desktop, are made of durable plywood, and stiffeners are additionally reinforced with slats. The most affordable option is to dismantle old furniture.
First of all, at home, you need to make drawings, on the basis of which the assembly of the frame will be performed. They are created taking into account the height of the working room and the physiological characteristics of the person who will work behind the saw.
Mounting rods and pulley bearings
The most primitive band saws made by hand with a frame made of plywood or logs have a supporting rod 8×8 cm thick. 2 strong supports are attached to it that will hold the pulleys. It is advisable for band saws to create supports from strong materials, including multilayer plywood with a rigid core.
The distance between them is selected in such a way that it is possible to place the processed log there. Experts recommend making a small gap to prevent possible problems in the future.
When creating a tape machine for distributing wood with your own hands, you need to pay attention to its size. The comfortable height of the band saw is selected depending on the features of the building and the person. The main thing is that the lower and drive pulley, power unit and a large number of chips should fit normally in free space. Any form is chosen, but most users choose a closed cabinet, which becomes a natural container for sawdust.
At the stage of installing the desktop for a band saw with your own hands, it is necessary to provide a convenient way to open and place the pallet. This will allow you to conveniently clean the saw.
The table top is installed on the lower support. If its height is small, you will need to create a stand for the entire structure.
Cutting pulleys and securing them to supports
The band saw tension mechanism and pulleys are welded using special equipment. The diameter of the latter is arbitrary, but the larger it is, the longer the saw will be able to serve without breakdowns. However, it is important to monitor the size of the paintings, choosing a ratio of 1/1000 relative to the pulley diameters. A part 40 cm long should have a diameter of 4 mm. But if you follow the rules of use, it will be possible to apply even a narrow pulley for paintings in 6 mm.
When compiling the diameter parameters, the following principles must be taken into account:
- First you need to calculate the circumference of the pulley using the following algorithm: D = 3.14 pulley diameter.
- The average speed of the blade should not exceed 30 m / s.
- At the next stage, it is necessary to determine the number of revolutions. It is 0 = 30 m / s.
- Next, you need to calculate the ratio of the engine speed relative to the rotation of the drive pulley.
- A tooth bite is selected individually depending on the purpose and scope of the saw.
So that the band saw is independently located in the center and does not fall, the edge is made convex, adhering to an angle of 5-10 °.
It is recommended to leave a small groove where the belt will be located on the drive pulley with a belt. The pulley itself is fitted with rubber from a bicycle or car wheels.
The selected diameter should be 1-2 sizes smaller than the diameter of the pulley, which eliminates the likelihood of slipping of the canvas. The upper element is fixed on the movable block and moves in a horizontal position, guaranteeing a normal degree of tension on the cutting edge. For this, the band saw tension mechanism is used, as a bar under the block to which the spring is attached, can be used. When a specialist presses the lever, the design automatically lifts the block with a pulley, pulling the saw.
Even at this stage of the assembly with your own hands, you need to take care of the method of fixing the lever in the selected position. A similar problem is best solved with bolts that are at different levels. By means of a spring, an optimum degree of pressure absorbing stress will be provided.
In the lower block 2 pulleys are fixed: driven and leading. The main thing is to make sure that they are balanced enough, and the probability of the appearance of “eights” during rotation is excluded.
To fix the upper pulley with your own hands, it is better to use a self-centering bearing. It provides the ability to quickly remove and reassemble the wheels. In this case, the wheels themselves must be fixed with maximum strength, otherwise the bearings will begin to loosen.
Installation of guides of a cloth
The next step is to secure the band saw guides at an angle of 90 degrees. This will prevent uneven and irregular workpieces with crooked ends or defects.
The simplest solution is to fasten 3 bearings to the beam: 1 fixes the flat side, and the rest are designed to fasten the tape on the sides.
An important step in the assembly work of the band saw with your own hands is the alignment of the guides with respect to the fixing point of the support. Otherwise, even small deviations will lead to large defects and deformations.
As an alternative to 2 bearings, wooden stops can be used. You should also fix a number of rails under the table. It is important to fix them in such a way that they are placed closer to the workpiece, and even better. At a distance of 3-4 cm from the log.
If you want to work with materials of different thicknesses, it is recommended to provide the ability to adjust the height of the guides.
Finishing, checking and tuning
A saw made of wood can be operated immediately after assembly, but experts recommend pre-equipping it with a casing that will cover the upper pulley.
Such manipulations will not only give the design an aesthetic appeal, but also increase the degree of safety: even when the tape slides off the pulley, it will stop in the casing. As an additional accessory, a chip container should be provided, which can be easily accessed.
The belt drive is recommended to be removed from under the desktop, protecting it from sawdust. The power unit is protected by a casing isolated from dust and other debris.
The final stage of wood processing with varnish or paint has a positive effect on the life of the tool, and also prevents injuries when it comes into contact with chips and chips of raw material. Before use, all surfaces are additionally sanded and impregnated with antiseptics. They prevent decay and mold development.