How to choose a saw for wood
How to choose a saw for wood
Many owners of country houses are accustomed to manual work, so they strive to equip their personal workshop in all respects. In order to process wood, you need to get a special saw, or better. several. Now the market for construction tools is expanding, and it is difficult for an ordinary buyer to choose a suitable model. In this article, we will consider the features of choosing a tool.
First of all, it is necessary to understand that conventionally, tools intended for woodworking are divided into two categories: manual and electric (or from another drive).
The most common tool is a jigsaw for wood. Its use allows you to make not only straight, but also curly cuts. Some models are equipped with a blade that can be up to 150 mm long.
How to Choose Hand Saws | Ask This Old House
Processing is carried out by a reciprocating movement of a jigsaw (standard models), however, there are tools where a pendulum movement is provided. Thanks to this possibility, the processing of hard wood, chipboard and USB-boards is available. If you work with such a tool manually, of course, it is difficult to achieve perfect lines, since the blade gives in to vibration and “goes” to the side. If you choose the cutting blade correctly, then it is possible to process not only sawn timber, but also tiles, plastic and thin metal.
There is also an electric mini saw, which is popularly called “saber”. In terms of operation and functionality, it can be compared to a jigsaw. Often they are used for garden work, or when it is required to dismantle a wooden structure. The blade of the plate itself can work at an angle, which allows you to cut off fragments of the product that protrude outward.
The circular type saw, which allows processing wood, has also become widespread. In general, it is a special nozzle, outwardly looking like a metal cup equipped with teeth. With its help, you can make a selection in the material or go deeper into the array. In this case, the drive is an electric drill or an angle grinder. Hole saws can be viewed at 3keego.com.
Also worth noting is the circular saw, which can be described as a portable circular saw. Finds application in household work. The disc can be of different diameters, and, having chosen the right one, you can make cuts up to 90 mm deep.
Comparing the work of a circular saw with a jigsaw, the cut is cleaner and perfectly flat. Some models are also equipped with a function that allows you to change the angle of inclination of the disc.
Particularly noteworthy is also such a tool as an angle saw, better known as a miter saw. It is classified as a semi-professional instrument. It is a cutting disc that is attached to the bed. The cutting head of the product is adjustable, which allows you to process wood both in the vertical and horizontal plane. The longitudinal cuts are perfectly accurate thanks to the miter saw, which is widely used in furniture and housebuilding.
Protection against accidental activation
Unintentional turning on of the circular saw is so fraught with the creation of a traumatic situation that the designers tried to eliminate this possibility altogether. To do this, the saw starts only after pressing two separate buttons, one of which is often recessed into the plastic of the body.
On many instruments, manufacturers install a separate button that allows you to fix the instrument when it is on. It’s useless to look for such a lock on a circular saw. safety is paramount.
Replacing carbon brushes
It is not required so often, but in any case it is better if there is a special window for this operation. Additionally, the brushes can be self-disconnecting. when grinding the graphite rod, the chain is broken, and there can also be an indication of the status of the brushes.
Constant speed control system
The block for maintaining a given rotational speed of the disk under load is also called constant electronics. It is based on a controller that receives data on the engine speed. When the operator starts to drive the saw faster or it just hits a knot or a denser part of the workpiece, the engine speed decreases and the controller signals the electronics to increase power, which happens without operator intervention. The same, but exactly the opposite, happens in the opposite case. when the rated speed is exceeded, the engine power decreases.
For the correct operation of this function, the circular saw motor must have a certain power reserve, which is not always realizable on weak and even middle class devices. If the presence of this option is indicated on a budget saw, then you should pay attention to the ratio of the blade diameter and engine power.
If the simplest stabilizing device can equalize the rotational speed of the disk to only one given standard frequency, then the presence of a stabilizing mechanism on an engine with a smoothly varying number of revolutions is considered the highest class.
Traditionally, the power of a circular saw motor is tied to the diameter of the saw blade. the larger the blade, the more watts the circular motor should have. But here healthy competition comes into play. in the struggle of manufacturers for their customers, they can equip models of approximately the same characteristics with engines of different power.
Here you need to understand the direct relationship. the more powerful the engine, the more force is transmitted to the place where the disk is attached to the shaft. This means that a more powerful electric motor allows the saw to run more stable, better withstand blade speed, cut tighter materials and generally run longer without rest.
The only drawbacks are the likelihood of getting a tool with a disc mount, which was originally designed for less weak models. When buying, you need to pay attention to the fasteners. ideally, for a more powerful engine, they should be at least more massive, although much depends on the quality of the materials. It should also be borne in mind that excess power is additional spending. for the purchase and maintenance.
Circular saws are conventionally divided into three classes according to engine power:
Up to 0.8 kW
– manual, for sawing small workpieces.
0.8 to 1.2 kW
– most household devices that handle almost all household chores.
Over 1.2 kW
– professional universal saws.
Which of these tools to choose depends solely on the planned amount of work.
Saw blade ergonomics
For household needs, a hand-held circular saw is most often used, which means that the issue of ergonomics should be given special attention. At the same time, it will not work to give any unambiguous recommendations, since everyone has their own concept of convenience.
Base plate and cutting depth: straight and angled
The cutting depth indicates exactly how much the blade can be immersed in the workpiece. Nobody gives an exact classification here, but it is conventionally accepted to divide saws according to the following cutting depths:
- 4-5 cm. the initial, least powerful class of instruments.
- 5-6.5 cm. representatives of the universal “golden mean”.
- 6.5-14 cm. heavy, professional devices.
The cutting depth is not always determined solely by the difference between the outer radius of the saw blade and the bore hole. To a greater extent, it is necessary to look at how much the disc protrudes beyond the plane of the base plate, since this part additionally “eats” 1-1.5 cm, and normal work is simply impossible without it. It is also necessary to take into account the ability of the circular saw to make cuts at an angle, which again is determined by the design of the base plate.
If a circular saw allows you to cut at a variable angle, then in the characteristics the manufacturer usually indicates the cutting depth for 90 ° and 45 °.
For an example of an adjustment and an angle cut, see
When choosing a circular saw with the ability to adjust the cutting angle, special attention should be paid to the quality of the base plate and the fasteners and graduations located on it. The main features of quality are the simplicity of changing the position, the ease and reliability of fixing the clamps, as well as the absence of backlash. Not all manufacturers succeed in getting rid of them completely, but if the base plate of a new tool “backlash” after fixing all the “lambs”, then you should think about finding an alternative.
The base plate material is often cast light alloys, but not uncommon and stamped steel platforms. The former are lighter and hold their shape well, while the latter are more resistant to impacts.
Sometimes this characteristic is confused with the diameter of the bore, but the latter is usually not so important and only shows whether a certain blade will fit the saw seat. The full diameter of the disc is fundamental for the circular saw as a whole, because it is for it that all other characteristics are selected.
The relationship here is very simple. the larger the saw blade diameter, the more powerful and with a higher torque value the engine should be. this affects the starting speed, smooth operation and a decrease in the likelihood of jamming. The more powerful the engine, the more difficult the filling must be to protect and stabilize the saw operation. in turn, all this leads to an increase in the weight, size and cost of the circular as a whole.
All these difficulties are necessary and important, since the larger the diameter of the disc, the thicker the part it can cut in one pass.
Criteria for choosing a circular saw
When you decide on the type of circular saw, you can go directly to the selection of its performance characteristics, on which the productivity and convenience of work depends.
How a hacksaw blade should be?
The main part of the tool is a hacksaw blade. The first thing to look for when choosing a product is the length of the canvas. The possibilities of its application largely depend on this parameter. At the same time, the longer the blade, the more it springs, which also complicates the process, especially when working with hard wood species such as ash, maple or oak.
Long stroke allows less effort when sawing, since more teeth are cut in one stroke
For sawing small elements such as plinths, bars or narrow slats, you can do with a hacksaw with a blade length of 25-30 cm.When planning to use the tool for more serious construction work, choose a product with a blade of 45-50 cm.
When determining the length of the hacksaw blade, be guided by the rule that the length of the saw is 2 times the diameter of the processed elements. If you do not follow this recommendation, you will only complicate your work. The teeth of a short hacksaw will jam inside the wood, and each will have to make a lot of effort to advance the tool to free the sawdust. Uncomfortable work will cause premature fatigue.
Traditionally, the width of the fabric of the product varies in the range of 10-20 cm. Models with a narrower fabric are not allowed for technical reasons, since they fail at the slightest bend. But it should be borne in mind that too wide canvases are inconvenient for manual work.
Of no less importance is the material for making the canvas, which is most often the role of alloy steel, as well as its degree of hardening
Tool alloy steel with high silicon and carbon grades is used for hacksaws:
- 65G, 60 C2A;
- 8 HF, 9 HF, 9 XC;
- U7, U7A, U8, U8A, U8G, U8GA, U9A, U10
Metal hardening is carried out due to the influence of an alternating magnetic field on it, in which a high-frequency electric current appears. Spreading over the surface, it heats up the surface layer of the metal, which is quenched after cooling.
Types of hand saws for wood
Option # 4. bow
Bow-type saws are more bulky devices that act as an analogue of a jigsaw.
The main purpose of saws of this type is to create an accurate cut when working with surfaces located at any angle.
Due to the solidity of the design and the threaded connections of the handles, the bow-type saws are able to easily overcome knots, cutting along radii and curved patterns.
Depending on the purpose and design of the saw, there may be:
- swinging. for longitudinal cutting;
- transverse. for sawing blanks across the wood fiber;
- circular. for cutting holes, making rounding and curly sawing;
- thorns. for cutting connecting spikes, as well as cutting out simple geometric shapes on the workpiece.
Only with an onion-type hacksaw can you cut the material up and down, sawing blanks with complex fishing lines and performing the work alone without the involvement of an assistant.
How to choose the right hacksaw: looking for the best hand saw for wood
In the arsenal of a home craftsman there is always a functional and easy-to-use circular saw. But there are situations when you need to saw off a part and perform a small amount of woodwork, and there is no time or desire to unfold and connect the unit. In these cases, a hacksaw is excellent. But how to choose a hand saw for wood, so that it is convenient to use and easily “gnawed” any wood species, we will consider in more detail.
The saw is rightfully considered the ancestor of a large family of hand tools. Since the creation of the first type of tool from iron, the saw has undergone many changes, having managed to acquire numerous “sisters” capable of performing dozens of jobs.
In the household, it is impossible to do without “toothy helpers”: they are indispensable when pruning a garden, small carpentry and joinery
Hand saws for wood differ in many ways: blade size, steel grade, tooth shape, handle design. Let’s dwell on each parameter in more detail.
Option # 1. narrow
A small, narrow saw is a design that consists of a straight-line flat blade and a handle. She performs delicate work: through cuts, cut out curved parts.
This type of tool is designed for sawing wooden blanks, the thickness of which does not exceed 8-10 cm, sawing small branches and small works in the garden
In the manufacture of narrow models, manufacturers install blades with triangular double-sided teeth, or with parallel sharpening. The disadvantage of the tool is that when pressed during operation, the canvas is able to deviate from a given direction.
Option # 3. with backing
Both narrow and conventional saws tend to bend as the workpiece becomes stiffer. In these cases, it is effective to use canvases equipped with a backing, which acts as a kind of stiffening rib.
Hand saws equipped with a backing are designed to create shallow cuts in a wooden surface of any thickness
The presence of the backing prevents the saw from making a cut deeper than the width of the blade, since it prevents the cutting blade from going further into the tree.
How to choose a saw
The specific type of saw is selected depending on the tasks to be performed. You need to pay attention to the following characteristics that any hand saw for wood has:
Table Saw vs Miter Saw vs Circular Saw Basics | How to Choose a Type of Saw | This or That DIY
- the size and shape of the teeth;
- type of steel;
- saw blade length;
- shape and material of the handle.
Size, number and shape of teeth. In short, all types of teeth that a hand saw for wood can have are combined into three groups:
- for longitudinal sawing, that is, along the wood fibers. In shape, these are beveled triangles, sharpened on both sides.;
- for transverse. across the fibers. The teeth in this case are equilateral triangles;
- universal. for them the direction of the fibers does not matter. The teeth of the first two types are combined here. In addition to this, they are collected in small groups, separated by special notches.
For modern saws, there is a special TPI indicator, which is reflected in the tool passport, and means the number and size of teeth per inch of the saw blade. The higher the indicator, the more accurate the cut is given by such a tool.
- Accuracy is inversely related to speed and effort. This must be taken into account in advance when starting work and choosing a tool. For example, if it is supposed to work for a long time, you need to give preference to a tool with a more comfortable handle, equipped with high-quality damping rubber inserts. This will save you from calluses on the palm and from overloading the ligaments of the hand and wrist.
In their shape, the teeth are as follows:
- “Wolf’s Tooth”. used for sawing raw wood.
- “Jet-kut”. this is the name of the union of six set dagger-shaped teeth with two of the same undivided.
- “Japanese tooth”. used in Japanese hand saws for wood. It is distinguished by a reverse wedge shape and the uselessness of wiring as a result.
- “Simple dagger tooth”. has the shape of an equilateral triangle (this allows you to cut and counter movement), the setting is done every third of the thickness of the canvas. Saws with these teeth are designed exclusively for cutting wood across the grain. This tooth is widely found on hacksaw and bow saw blades.
- “Tooth-chisel”. so called because of the sharpening of its top transversely relative to the blade. The shape is a beveled right-angled triangle. Such a tooth is used exclusively for cross-cutting wood with award-winning hacksaws and back saws.
- “Universal tooth” is a synthesis of simple dagger and chisel teeth. Has a sharpened leading edge. Because of this, a saw with such teeth is very versatile with respect to wood fibers. This tooth type is used in all circular saws.
Steel type. Most often, hand saws are made from low carbon steel. This makes the web sufficiently flexible and elastic at the same time. The teeth on these saws can be sharpened independently. Most durable stainless steel saws.
Of course, you need to remember that stainless steel can also be destroyed by rust if the storage and operating conditions are violated. Recently, hardened tooth saws are gaining popularity among DIYers.
For sporadic work, this is an advantageous solution, since they hold the sharpening well. But they have a significant disadvantage. after grinding, the teeth cannot be restored at home. In fact, such a saw is disposable.
Saw blade length. According to this parameter, all saws are divided into three groups:
- mini. their length is not more than 35 cm.
- universal. length from 36 to 55 cm.
- wide (large). blade length more than 56 cm.
The shape and material of the handle. They are quite diverse and depend on the type of work performed. They can be quite minimalistic (as, for example, in Japanese wood saws) or have a very comfortable anatomical handle that protects the hand.
Previously, the main material for the handles was wood. Now it has lost some of its positions to metal, plastics and rubbers. Which of them to give preference depends on the type of planned work, their duration, available budget.
Type 5: Reward
Otherwise called a hacksaw-reward. In shape, it is a modified butt, the handle of which was transferred directly to the butt. The purpose of this type is the precise processing of tenons and grooves. Using this tool eliminates the need for a manual electric router, but requires a lot of practical experience.
Type 1: Classic
This type is the most common and is found in both amateur and professional workshops. The length of the saw blade can fluctuate around 50-60 cm. Often these saws are equipped with a quick-change mechanism for the saw blade and can be used quite easily for a variety of jobs.
Often these saws are preferred by amateurs. The disadvantage of these saws may be the low quality of workmanship. the blade may not be firmly fixed. This reduces the accuracy of cutting the workpieces. But an indisputable plus is the rather democratic price of this tool.
Type 2: Narrow
She’s a circular hacksaw. Medium length, pointed towards the end and not removable. It is a manual alternative to an electric jigsaw. It is convenient to carry out complex-profile cuts in sheet materials such as plywood, fiberboard, chipboard and the like. There is a version of this saw for working on drywall.
Type 6: Folding tool
By the shape of the canvas, it is closer to the circular hacksaws. The length usually does not exceed 30-35 cm. The canvas is connected to the handle by a hinge mechanism that allows them to be folded. The handle also acts as a saw blade holder. Folding is often used by gardeners or travelers because of their compactness and rather high functionality.
Type 3: Backed
She’s a butt saw. It is called so because of the thickening along the upper edge of the canvas, the so-called obush. It is made from a thick sheet of metal. Its main function is to provide rigidity when cutting. This makes the cuts very accurate, but limits their depth. Often they work with a butt saw in a pair with a miter box.
- The miter box is a “P”.shaped device with six cuts. It is made of wood, light alloys or plastic. The miter box allows you to quickly and accurately cut workpieces at a predetermined angle. This is usually 45 or 90 degrees.