How To Cut 10mm Polycarbonate

How to cut polycarbonate with a jigsaw

In order to cut the polycarbonate evenly, you can use an electric jigsaw. This option is considered an alternative to a construction knife and an angle grinder. In this case, it is important to choose the right file. In order to be able to cut polycarbonate as smoothly as possible, you should use a straight file or with wavy teeth. The rest of the options are not recommended, since it will be extremely inconvenient to cut the product, in addition, burrs and cracks may remain.

The process of working at home begins in a similar way. the first step is to prepare a place suitable for cutting. It is best to use a new file that is inserted into an electric jigsaw before cutting. The fixation must be reliable, otherwise the file will constantly fly out of the device.

The connected electrical device is brought from the end of the polycarbonate sheet according to the cut mowing line applied. To make working at home as comfortable as possible, you can initially apply notches.

polycarbonate

The base plate of the power tool must be pressed against the material. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the downforce, as there is a high probability that the polycarbonate will be damaged. The tool is slowly and carefully guided over the markings left. If you plan to cut wavy parts, then it is best to initially practice somewhere in order to cut accurately and evenly.

When the work at home is completed, the electric jigsaw should be disconnected from the electrical network, remove the plastic shavings. If there are excess elements, they are cut off with a knife.

Laser cutting of polycarbonate

If there is an urgent need to cut polycarbonate to size, then in this case you can use a laser. As practice shows, thanks to the use of an industrial laser, it is possible to cut polycarbonate sheets as quickly as possible, accurately and with high quality at home. If you combine modern technology and numerical control, the cutting accuracy will be carried out up to 0.5 mm.

However, it is important to understand that such convenience of working at home, in addition to high technical characteristics, also has a high cost, as a result of which not everyone can afford this equipment. It is impractical to use expensive professional equipment at a time. It is quite another matter if you plan to open a workshop that will specialize in the manufacture of polycarbonate greenhouses, roofs, fences and lightweight canopies. In addition, if work experience and certain skills were not required in the previous versions, then in this case it is impossible to do without it, besides, self-study at home will not be crowned with success.

How to cut polycarbonate at home

How to properly cut polycarbonate with a hacksaw

Very often, in order to cut polycarbonate, a hacksaw is used, designed for working on metal and having small and frequent teeth. This option allows you to cut the building material into square or rectangular pieces. If we compare the process of work, then it is necessary to cut polycarbonate according to the same step-by-step algorithm as when working with a construction knife.

Before you start cutting polycarbonate sheets at home, many experts recommend that you first take into account some of the nuances, among which the following points should be noted:

  • when cutting, the hacksaw should be located at an angle of 30 degrees;
  • in the presence of a workbench or a clamp, it is recommended to securely fix the polycarbonate sheets, which will greatly facilitate the cutting process.

It is worth cutting the material as carefully as possible so as not only not to damage the sheet, but also not to injure yourself.

How to cut polycarbonate at home with a knife

Many people believe that it is better to cut polycarbonate with a knife, since this tool is considered the most affordable, while it is suitable for both honeycomb and monolithic material. Regardless of what kind of knife will be used at home, in order to cut polycarbonate the blade must be sharpened well in any case. It is important to take into account the fact that a dull knife will leave a large number of burrs and irregularities on the building material.

It should be understood that cutting material at home with a construction knife will be much more difficult and longer than using an electric jigsaw or an angle grinder. Also, the inconvenience lies in the fact that the knife is great for sheets of small area and polycarbonate should have a thickness of 6 to 8 mm, no more.

The step-by-step algorithm of the work carried out is as follows:

  • The first step is to prepare a site for work at home. It is important to properly prepare the place and apply the markings.
  • Many experts recommend trying the knife on that part of the polycarbonate that will not be used in the future for the construction of the structure. This is necessary in order to check how sharp the knife is and whether it is convenient for them to cut. If necessary, the blade can be replaced or sharpened.
  • A thick ruler made of metal is applied to the applied mowing line of the cut. If this tool is absent, then you can use a building level or a flat wooden board.
  • Attach a knife blade from the end of the cut line. If at home you plan to cut thick polycarbonate, then the tool should be in a perpendicular position relative to the plane of the sheet. For thin materials, the angle of inclination can vary from 30 to 45 degrees. A knife is inserted into the end of the sheet as accurately as possible, thereby making a notch.
  • The knife must be guided from the left notch along the cut mowing line. In order not to disturb the cutting, it is recommended to use a ruler when working at home.

It is important to keep the cutting speed as low as possible. In this case, the most important thing is to be accurate. The knife should not go beyond the line outlined with a marker, otherwise it will not work perfectly to cut the sheet. Do not be afraid to leave too much, if necessary, all this can be cut off quite easily.

Preparation and marking of sheets

Before you start cutting polycarbonate for a greenhouse or any other structure, you must first carry out preparatory work and make the appropriate markings on the material.

The first step is to completely clean the place where you plan to cut the polymer material. All debris and excess items must be removed. This is necessary not for reasons of cleanliness, but so that during work nothing distracts from the process. After the surface is prepared, it is necessary to put a sheet of plywood or fiberboard on it. Only then can the cutting site be considered as flat as possible.

It is worth putting a sheet of polycarbonate on the workplace. In the event that the material has a laminated surface, a mirror or a special coating, then this side should look up. Until the material is cut, the protective film must remain in place.

Initially, the preliminary marking should be applied to a blank sheet of paper as a diagram with respect to scale. After that, you will need to transfer all the markup from the paper sheet to polycarbonate. For measurements at home, it is best to use a tape measure or a metal ruler. A black marker is used for marking. If you plan to work with large polycarbonate, then many experts recommend putting a board on the polymer material with a width of 10 cm and moving only on it. This approach will exclude damage to polycarbonate.

In the place where it is planned to cut the sheet, it is required to put wooden boards about 4 cm high and 10 cm wide on the right and left sides of the cut mowing line.In this case, the ends of the boards must necessarily look out from both sides of the polymer material.

Movement should be carried out on the board in the same way as at the time of drawing the corresponding markings. This is the only way not to damage the material, carrying out all the work at home.

READ  How to Cut Monolithic Polycarbonate Videos

How to cut polycarbonate

A feature of polycarbonate is the fact that in order to cut it at home, you can use any construction tool.

In this case, the following is perfect:

  • clerical or construction knife;
  • electric jigsaw;
  • angle grinder (angle grinder);
  • a circular saw;
  • hacksaw for metal work.

If we consider industrial equipment, then here you can use a milling machine, which has numerical control and a special laser of several types.

It is worth considering the fact that there are a number of construction tools that should never cut polycarbonate. This is due to the fact that there is a high probability of damage to the sheet, as a result of which the quality will suffer greatly.

Many experts recommend refraining from using:

  • A hacksaw designed for woodworking. as you know, such a model has rather large teeth, so that the material is not cut, but torn during operation. Ultimately, the cut will have a large number of cracks, nicks and burrs.
  • Construction scissors or metal scissors. this option is perfect for thin monolithic polycarbonate. Cellular polymer material will be deformed on both sides.

Choose the right tool before cutting polycarbonate.

How to cut cellular polycarbonate

If you plan to cut cellular polycarbonate at home, then you should understand that this type of building material has a porous structure, as a result of which the work process can be very specific. If the thickness of the material does not exceed 1 cm, then in this case you can do only with a clerical or construction knife with a retractable blade. When cutting cellular polycarbonate along the stiffeners, you will need to do the work in several stages.

Starting cutting should be carried out on the outer surface, after which the sheet of cellular polycarbonate is turned over and a similar action is performed, only on the other side of the building material. When it became necessary to cut the polycarbonate sheet across the stiffeners, the algorithm of actions will already include 3 stages. Thus, as in the previous version, the product is cut from both sides, after which the inner partition is carefully cut.

When a polymer product exceeds 1 cm in thickness, you will need to use a hacksaw for metal or wood, while the teeth must be divorced. If you have an electric tool, for example, an angle grinder or a jigsaw, you can give preference to them, but the speed of the selected tool should be at a minimum level.

Laser cutting

In addition to the listed methods, you can also perform cutting with a laser. But, to work with a laser machine, you need to have the appropriate skills. In addition, not every master has such a tool, therefore, laser cutting of polycarbonate is available only to those who deal with polycarbonate professionally. But, if there is an opportunity to perform the work with a laser, you must definitely use it, since this guarantees:

  • high speed of work;
  • lack of defects;
  • excellent cutting quality;
  • cutting accuracy: when working with a laser, the dimensional accuracy is maintained up to 0.05 mm;
  • when working, you do not need to fix the sheets.

Any cutting material intended for work on metal or wood can be applied to the blades of solid polycarbonate, even a standard cutter for metal.

Hacksaw

Beginners are usually interested in: is it possible to cut and how to cut cellular polycarbonate with a hacksaw or a hand saw? In the event that there is no experience, it is advisable not to use these tools: the blades along the cuts can crack. It is best to work with power tools. But both beginners and experienced professionals need to fix polycarbonate sheets well in order to prevent vibration and stress in the material, which is also fraught with bad consequences.

Stationery knife

Perfectly cuts polymer plastic canvases and a stationery knife. over, even beginners can cope with this. The main thing is that the knife is of good quality, and the work is not done in a hurry. the blade of such tools is very sharp and you can not only make an incorrect cut, but also get hurt very well. A stationery knife is suitable for honeycomb sheets with a thickness of 4-6 mm, but with 8 mm it is already quite difficult to work with. On thicker sheets, cutting polycarbonate is almost impossible, so experts recommend using the knife only where you need to trim the material, and even then, on sheets up to 10 mm.

Angle Grinder

The very first tool that almost everyone has and that can work with polycarbonate is an angle grinder. over, it is not at all necessary to use an expensive tool: even an inexpensive and small angle grinder will do all the work perfectly. To make even cuts, you need to set the circle 125, intended for metal. The only thing you need to pay attention to is experience, since the tool is distinguished by high revolutions, and if you did not have to work with it before, it is advisable to practice on scraps from this material before cutting the polycarbonate. Where can I get them? Contact the craftsmen who are engaged in the manufacture of polycarbonate structures.

Electric jigsaw

A household, most ordinary electric jigsaw is also quite suitable for working with polycarbonate sheets, only you need to install a file with fine teeth on it, otherwise the material will tear, not cut. This tool, like the angle grinder, is quite easy to use, but to be completely confident in the quality of work, it is advisable to also practice in advance. An electric jigsaw is very much in demand, especially when you have to cut monolithic polycarbonate of complex decorative shapes or make roundings.

Note: If you have to cut thin sheets, experts recommend folding the canvases of 10-12 pieces, and placing a layer of cardboard under them and then cutting everything at the same time.

When only one sheet needs to be cut, the risk of cracking increases significantly. To prevent damage to the material, you need to work only with a very well sharpened tool. There are craftsmen who use scissors when working with polycarbonate. This is also perfectly acceptable. The main thing is that the tool used does not violate the structure of the canvases.

2mm. 3mm, 4mm, 6mm Solid Polycarbonate Clear Sheets

Tools

How and how to cut polycarbonate at home?

Cloths of polymer plastic, more familiar to everyone under the name polycarbonate, are becoming more and more popular every day. And it is no coincidence: the relative cheapness and excellent properties of the material brought it to one of the first places in sales. It is also of great importance that almost anyone can work with it, if there is a desire. But since this is a relatively new material, not everyone knows how to correctly and how to cut polycarbonate at home in order to get a high-quality cut and not spoil the material.

How to cut correctly?

Before cutting polycarbonate, specialists prepare the workplace well beforehand. It is necessary:

  • Remove all foreign objects from the site: branches, pieces of planks and boards, even small pebbles. Ideally, the place should be clean. This is necessary so that there are no dents, scratches and other damages on the polycarbonate canvases. It is best to pave the work area with sheets of chipboard, fiberboard or other suitable material for this purpose.
  • Using a marker and a long ruler or other object on the panels, you need to mark up. If you have to move along the canvases during this, you need to lay a wide board and walk only on it so that dents do not appear on the polymer surface.
  • Before cutting polycarbonate to size, it is necessary to put boards under both sides of the markings applied with a marker, the size of which should not be less than 4 × 10 × 220 cm. will move on them.
  • If the cut is made on an even mowing line, you can work with an angle grinder, rounded parts go through with an electric jigsaw, and if you need to make a slight adjustment, a clerical knife will do.
  • If the work is performed on material with a laminated or mirror surface, it is very important to correctly position the canvas in the workplace: the laminated or mirror coating must be turned up. What is the best way to cut this type of polycarbonate? With the same tools as other types of material, but using a hacksaw is not permissible: mirror or laminated layers can peel off.
  • When working with canvases of cellular polymer plastic, if the cut is made along the length of the sheet, the marking can be omitted: the honeycombs themselves will serve as a guide. Thanks to this, it will not even be possible to walk on the surface of the material.
  • After completing the sawing work of honeycomb blades, it is necessary to blow out all the seams with compressed air to remove dust and chips that have got inside.
READ  Can I Cut Safety Glass

And most importantly, before cutting polycarbonate with an electric jigsaw or an angle grinder, you need to wear safety glasses to protect your eyes from micro particles and dust. And one more thing. you always need to remember the popular wisdom, which says that before you cut it off, you need to measure it seven times. this will help save both money and time.

Cutters for openwork elements

When processing and cutting monolithic polycarbonate, you can use cutters for metal. Milling machines allow you to perform the following operations:

  • receive parts with exact dimensions;
  • perform relief images and engravings;
  • process edges;
  • cut out various curvilinear and openwork elements;
  • round corners.

When performing work, it is necessary to promptly remove sawdust from the cutting area, since they scratch the blade and deform the edges of the material.

Torn saw

Beginners are usually interested in: is it possible to cut and how to cut cellular polycarbonate with a hacksaw or a hand saw? In the absence of experience, it is recommended not to use these tools: the blades along the cuts may crack. Works best with power tools

But for beginners and experienced professionals, it is extremely important to secure the polycarbonate sheets to prevent vibration and material deformation, which is also fraught with bad consequences.

Cellular polycarbonate: properties and characteristics

Polycarbonate is a viscous polymer that is 200 times stronger than glass. Cellular polycarbonate is used for roofing roofs, canopies or canopies, greenhouses. Given that the material is transparent, it is often used in construction.

Cut out the polycarbonate. Along the “honeycomb” polycarbonate is well cut with a knife along a ruler, across. with a hacksaw.

Since cellular polycarbonate is light enough, the cost of supporting structures can be minimized.

High temperature resistance of polycarbonate eliminates material deformation. It also indicates high safety, since it does not burn and does not support combustion. Due to the fact that polycarbonate sheets are covered with a special layer that absorbs ultraviolet rays, this material can be used in any climatic conditions.

Polycarbonate profiles do not transmit sound waves very well, therefore, using this material, you can achieve a sound insulation effect.

Polycarbonate has a low thermal conductivity. This helps to reduce the energy consumption required for heating or cooling by almost half.

Cutting polycarbonate with an electric jigsaw

The choice of an electric jigsaw as a tool for cutting polycarbonate sheets can be called a kind of compromise between the cutting speed of the “angle grinder” and the safety (as well as relative simplicity) of working with a construction knife. In addition, the jigsaw is great for sawing semicircular / round elements and complex parts.

Using an electric jigsaw to cut polycarbonate

The main thing is to choose the right file.

First, notice the shape of the teeth. Straight or wavy prongs for a clean and straight cut. exactly what you need

With adjustable teeth, the opposite is true. they are designed for working with wood, therefore an electric jigsaw with such a saw will not cut, but tear the polycarbonate, leaving in it a lot of chipping, burrs and other defects.

Second, pay attention to the number and size of the prongs. They should be frequent and small

These properties are determined by the TPI parameter. the number of teeth per inch. In our case, give preference to files with TPI from 9 to 13 and more.

Thirdly, ask the seller what material this or that file is designed for. You need those canvases that are designed to work with metal, plastic or plexiglass. Choose specialized files whenever possible. they will give a clean cut with a minimum of defects.

File for working with acrylic glass, plastic and polycarbonate

Mark out the polycarbonate sheet and prepare your work area.

Place the file in the electric jigsaw. It is advisable to use a new and sharp blade. Fix it carefully and adjust. if it is not properly fixed, the file will vibrate and leave defects on the polycarbonate.

Bring the jigsaw connected to the power supply to the end of the sheet along the cutting line of the cut. For greater convenience, make a notch in this place in advance with a sharp knife with a retractable blade. Do not remove the protective film from the sheet until the cutting process is completed.

Cut polycarbonate for 4 m greenhouse Kremlevskaya

Press the base plate of the jigsaw against the material. Make sure that the force applied to the tool is not excessively large, otherwise the polycarbonate along the mowing line of the cut will bend. It is advisable that your helpers or clamps hold the sheet, not allowing it to move or vibrate.

Turn on the electric jigsaw and let the saw speed up. As soon as it does this, start cutting into the material along the cut mowing line, slowly and carefully guide it forward, pressing the base plate of the jigsaw against the plane of the polycarbonate. Take special care in curved sections. It is a good idea to pre-practice cutting rounded parts on polycarbonate cuts and waste. a good idea that will give you experience and simplify your business.

Start cutting an element of complex shape using a jigsaw Finish cutting polycarbonate with a jigsaw. If you do not want to stand on the material, even if you have a scaffold board, then first make a cut on one side, then on the opposite

After completing work with the electric jigsaw, turn it off and disconnect the power. Clean the cells of the polycarbonate sheet from chips with a vacuum cleaner or a jet of compressed air. Cut off the excess with a knife and clean the edge of the sheet from defects. Cover it with construction tape to protect the cells from dirt and dust.

If you need to make small parts of complex shapes, it makes sense to contact a workshop where they work on laser equipment. A construction or boot knife or a jigsaw with a good quality file will help to cut a sheet of thin cellular polycarbonate. It is easy to cut solid material with a jigsaw. angle grinder and circular saw can be used for straight cuts, but they are inferior to a jigsaw in terms of safety and ease of use.

Angle Grinder

You can make a neat cut quickly with an angle grinder, but you don’t need to apply too much pressure. If you have a tool with a lot of revolutions, then improper use can lead to breakage or deformation of the polycarbonate sheet.

Advice! In order not to spoil the whole sheet, practice first on the waste. Make the cut lightly and don’t press hard. Cut gently.

Cut polycarbonate with a jigsaw?

The second tool is a jigsaw. The most common household jigsaw. The file on it should be with fine teeth, so that the carbonate is cut and not torn. This tool is easy to use and does not require special training skills. But still, for greater confidence, you can also pre-train. They can cut polycarbonate in places where the angle grinder will be difficult to do.

For example, using a jigsaw is very convenient to cut fillets or cut complex decorative shapes. For even cuts, I do not recommend using a jigsaw as it takes more time to cut than an angle grinder.

Saw or scissors

Some craftsmen, as a rule, also use a file and scissors. Perhaps you can use this improvised inventory for cutting polycarbonate. If only it does not violate the structure of polycarbonate and does not affect the correctness of the technology of its installation.

READ  The Better To Cut Polycarbonate

So, than cutting polycarbonate, I think we figured it out, let’s now look at how to do it.

How to cut polycarbonate and how to do it correctly

How and how to cut polycarbonate? This question is asked by almost every second visitor to our site. Let’s take a look at what tools and skills are needed for this.

Over the years working with the beautiful material called polycarbonate, I have certainly tried different tools to cut it. And today I would like to highlight a few of them that are especially valuable and often used.

Earlier, I already wrote about how to cut a sheet of polycarbonate. And at the time of this writing, I used exactly the tools that I indicated in it. But time, like technology, does not stand still. Of course, I had to try quite a few tools. And today, I will tell you about more reliable tools and methods for cutting polycarbonate.

What is the best way to cut polycarbonate

Stationery knife

And the third tool that I often use is a stationery knife, preferably of good quality. With him, I think any beginner in this business can handle. The main thing is not to rush when working with a knife, since the blades of this tool are very sharp and you can easily get injured.

With a stationery knife, of course, you can easily cut honeycomb polycarbonates 4-6 mm, slightly more difficult polycarbonate 8 mm. By the way, I would not recommend cutting thick polycarbonate with a knife. There is a good chance that the panels could be damaged. Perhaps, I use a knife in cases where it is necessary to cut a small section of the sheet, so to speak, adjust it to size.

Angle Grinder

So, the first tool is an angle grinder. Yes, yes, this is not a typo. Of course, I use an angle grinder, under the 125th circle for metal, in order to cut polycarbonate evenly. That is, in order to make any even cut, I recommend using a small angle grinder. Even the cheapest will do. It withstands the load on sawing sheets with interest.

The only thing that is required is a little skill in working with this tool, since it is a highly revolving tool and if you use it inexperienced, you can ruin the sheet. It is advisable to pre-train on some polycarbonate waste. You can find waste from any master who is engaged in the installation of polycarbonate.

How to properly cut polycarbonate

Let’s take a step-by-step look at how to properly cut a polycarbonate sheet:

  • We clear the area for the polycarbonate sheet (s). We remove stones and foreign objects that can leave traces on the panels. Ideally, it is better to pave the site with sheets of fiberboard, chipboard, or you can use CSS.
  • We make the necessary markup on the panel with a marker using a wire or any even object. If necessary, we move around the panels using a wide board (moving along it with our feet) so as not to make dents on the plastic surface.
  • Before cutting the polycarbonate, place it under the panels on both sides of the whiteboard markings, at least 40x100x2200. On top of the panel, on one of the boards placed below, we put another board on top (at least 20x100x2200), in order to move along it during cutting.
  • If you need to cut along an even mowing line, then we use an angle grinder. If you need a round or curly cutting, we use a jigsaw, and for a slight adjustment of the sheets we use a clerical knife.
  • With an even cut along the entire sheet, that is, along the honeycomb, the use of a marker is not required. As a rule, you can safely cut along the honeycombs themselves with an angle grinder, jigsaw or knife, since the honeycombs themselves in this case will serve as a guide for cutting. This must be done in order not to trample on polycarbonate sheets once again.
  • Of course, after sawing, chips and dust must be removed by blowing with compressed air.

So in this article we figured out how to cut polycarbonate, and most importantly, how to properly cut polycarbonate sheets.

In conclusion, I would like to remind you of one more important thing, as you know “we mark seven times, cut once”. So, do not forget this wisdom, because polycarbonate sheets are not a cheap pleasure, and their damage will be a pretty penny.

Yes, I almost forgot, when cutting with an angle grinder or jigsaw, be sure to wear safety glasses. They will undoubtedly protect you from dust and microparticles getting into your eyes. Well, that seems to be all. Good luck in this difficult, but necessary business!

How to cut cellular polycarbonate

The porous structure, at first glance, makes it easier to work with this material. But this is not always the case.

If thin sheets of up to 10 mm are used in the work, then no complicated tool is needed to cut them. An ordinary construction knife with a retractable blade will be enough. A metal ruler, tape measure and marker are useful as auxiliary tools.

If polycarbonate is cut along the stiffeners, then this should be done in two stages. First, a cut is made along the upper plane. Then the sheet is turned over, and a similar cut is made along the lower surface.

It is better to cut cellular polycarbonate across the ribs in three stages. On the first two, the outer layers are cut on both sides, and then the inner partitions are cut one after the other.

If you have to cut a thick (more than 10 mm) sheet, then for this you can use both manual cutting tools (hacksaws for metal, wood with undiluted teeth) and electric (jigsaw, circular saw with an emphasis).

Thus it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the teeth of the cutting tool were as small as possible, and the “revolutions” of the power tool were set to a minimum. Otherwise, the cutting line will have torn or melted edges.

Cutting polycarbonate

The popularity of polycarbonate as a material for the manufacture of glazing for greenhouses, greenhouses, awnings, lighting housings, the construction of translucent fences, partitions, a porch canopy is growing constantly.

Along with professionals, polycarbonate is actively used by amateur craftsmen. The question often arises: “How to cut polycarbonate?” This material is sold in standard sheet sizes. And using without cutting is rather an exception than a rule, and still rather than cutting polycarbonate sheets.

Cutting polycarbonate is a simple process, but it requires certain skills and attention. Cutting recommendations depend on the polycarbonate used.

Today there are two types of material on the market. cellular and monolithic. The first has an internal structure with a lot of voids. Thanks to them, cellular (cellular) polycarbonate has a high heat and sound insulating ability. Monolithic polycarbonate is a solid sheet, without pores and voids. This structure makes it possible to use for glazing with heavy loads, the manufacture of protective masks and helmets, partitions.

How to cut polycarbonate

Solid polycarbonate cutting

A construction knife is not suitable for cutting solid polycarbonate. In this case, a guillotine cutter can be used. But with a sheet thickness of more than 5 mm, its use will be difficult. Therefore, for, for example, 6 mm monolithic polycarbonate, it is better to use a hacksaw or an electric cutting tool.

Some experts allow the use of laser cutting. But in this case, there is a high probability of carbonization of the cut edge and the occurrence of internal stresses.