How to cut a beam into a paw evenly. Cutting technique in a paw
House cabin in a paw
The advantages of this method include the fact that the building has a very attractive appearance. The stability of the design is simply incomparable, since the connection of all logs is as strong as possible. Thermal insulation of walls at a high level, and most importantly, is that there is no need to perform finishing work indoors.
The disadvantages include the fact that building such a log house is very difficult. In addition, you will need to spend more materials. During the construction of houses in this type in the corners, the ends of the logs will be. The tree is connected by cutting down small recesses. The fact is that logs are not used over its entire length, so the maximum area of the room will decrease. That is why sometimes huts are built in several floors.
For the construction of a log house, you need an instrument called a “line” in a “bowl”. When marking, it is necessary to observe maximum accuracy. Marking is similar to drawing a circle using a circul. The bowl should be located at the bottom of the log. After you make a bowl, it is necessary to lay the bars so that the bowl in the upper log occurs perfectly the contours of the lower. Necessarily the entire cavity must be lubricated with special paste, which will allow sealing the connection.
The stability of the connection is very high, so you do not need to use various fasteners, for example, spikes, nails. But in any case, you will have to additionally process wood with various compounds in order to increase the degree of waterproofing, as well as get rid of insects.
In the event that you are engaged in the manufacture of manual cutting log cabins for the first time, instead of logs, you can use a profiled timber. On it you can practice in the construction of wooden houses so as not to make mistakes subsequently
Please note that some work has a high degree of complexity, you cannot do it yourself, so it is recommended to resort to the help of a partner
Temporary concrete beams cutting using Diamond chainsaw
Features of the cutting process in the paw
It can be of two types: complex or simple. In a more complex form, special insert spikes are used, and for a simplified option, cut.out spikes. The cabin in the paw has several features. For example, logs do not protrude over the corners of the structure. This type belongs to the type of cutting without a trace.
Before starting construction, you need to correctly draw up a scheme according to which the main work will be performed. This greatly simplifies calculations, and reduces the possibility of obtaining an error.
The work begins with the fact that the ends of the logs put one on another, starting from the logs where the top of the cut of the smallest size. She becomes reference. If there is even a slight deviation in the placement, then this can lead to a violation of the entire composition, and as a result there will be no tightness. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the correct placement of logs.
Kant, which is needed for the inside of the wall, is usually wrapped along its entire length. The other, necessary for internal placement, is supplied to the length, which is equal to several diameters of the log. The rest of the cantes are blown by approximately one diameter of the log.
The internal angles can be performed in several ways:
In order for thermal insulation in this structure to be better, then the corners of the house are insulated using thermal insulation materials. Also, sometimes they are covered with a corner board.
The advantages of cutting in a paw
This type of cutting is popular because of its undeniable advantages:
- Saving money, because for its implementation it is not necessary to overspend the material
- Aesthetic and beautiful appearance of the structure
- The strength and durability of the structure
- The use of cutting “in the paw” allows you to use different types of wall decoration
- Great sealing the structure
- The protection of the walls from moisture becomes perfect, but only if the logs are laid correctly
- Stability, especially small buildings
Disadvantages of cutting in a paw
Of course, this type of cutting has its disadvantages. For example, for the appearance of the house to be presentable internal and external decoration, which involves an additional consumption of funds. The corners of the house are protected a little worse than with other types of cutting. Therefore, rotting of wood may occur, as a result of increased humidity.
If the structure itself has a large size and a sufficient height, then stability can be low. But, for small houses this does not threaten.
Also, the disadvantage is the difficulty of performing the entire process. After all, if you make a mistake in the initial stages, then the whole structure will be unstable and not tight. Therefore, cutting in a paw requires special attentiveness and work experience.
This type of cutting has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account at the initial stage of development. The cabin in the paw has one main advantage, which made it in demand. this is economical, because you do not need to spend a lot of money on the material. The most important thing is to find a master who already has experience to guarantee a efficient job.
Preparation of logs before laying
The marking of the cups is carried out by a line that works as a circul
It is important to remember that the bowl should be located in the lower part of the log, since otherwise water can accumulate in it, which will lead to rapid spoilage of wood
When installing a beam, logs must be laid on each other so that the cup repeats the contours of the lower log. The size of the bowl should not be more than half of the section of the log.
Since this method is more durable, there is no need to use an additional connection of logs using a stake or spikes.
To cut it down correctly. Sometimes you can’t do without a master. This is due to the complexity of some nodes, and the accuracy of their execution directly depends on the experience and skills of working with wooden elements.
Drawings and markings of logs
Before proceeding with the assembly, you need to mark the logs. In advance marking will largely facilitate and accelerate the construction process.
This operation is divided into certain stages that need to be strictly observed.
- Floor ending is carried out.
- A horizontal fishing line for a trimmer is carried out in the center of each element from the end. The correctness of the conduct must be controlled using the laser level.
- A template is applied in advance from plywood or dense cardboard on the paw on the first log. Two vertical lines are drawn along it. The vertical construction level will help to check the correctness of the lines.
- Threads are pulled along the pre.drawn lines of the cheeks of the paws. The longitudinal parts of the cheeks are drawn on them with a length equal to the diameter of the logs.
- The cheeks are cut down according to the prepared marking and check how the part corresponds to the template.
The log house in the paw is considered colder than, for example, the same log house. The reason is that the corners of the house are open to “all winds”, and on the outside, rainwater can fall into the gap between the details and spoil the logs, while the corners of the logs are closed by the protruding parts of the logs.
Classic five.walls, even small (for example, 6×4), will require additional protection of both the inner sides of the corner compounds and external. Despite the fact that this can ruin the appearance of the house, such an operation is necessary in order to make the house warmer, protect it from cold and winds.
When using the circle in the construction of houses, it is necessary to ensure the most dense fit of one element to another. To do this, most often on the upper log the groove is cut down along the entire length so that it fit tightly to the lower. In addition, the location of the logs is carefully laid by packley, jute or any other insulation.
Cutting walls of log cabins. The first crown of the log house is the salary of the crown 2, the second and the main. Lower strapping 3 into which the lags are cut.
The technology of cutting walls of log cabins “in a paw” is also called a clean angle, a complex and difficult task. Crowns (logs), angles, all the lover of the log house while the cutting method are tied carefully and the slightest deviations can lead to incorrigible consequences for example:
Starting the manufacture of a log house, the ends of the logs are thoroughly marked, starting from a log in which the top in the upper cut has the smallest diameter, it is called the “standard”, the ends of other logs are marked in size of its paws. Errors in the marking of the paws leads to a violation of the verticality of the angles of the log house and their tightness. Therefore, marking the paws of the “corners” The most crucial moment in the manufacture of a log house.
One Kant, designed for the inside of the wall, is wrapped over the entire length of the log. Kant, opposite to the internal, is wrapped in a length equal to one and a half to two diameters of the log. The two remaining Kant is wiped for a length of slightly larger diameter of the log.
The cabin “into the bowl” is easier in execution, but the problem of forest selection in diameter arises, which is very noticeable at the ends, the corners of the log house. The advantages of this method are that the corners are protected from rain by the protruding parts of the logs, the downsides are less durable and subject to cracking in the sun, often chosen the bowl in the lower crown, water flows into this bowl and the angle begins to rot from the inside, it is difficult to perform the external finish of the log house.
The manufacture of a log house from a log starts with a salary crown. Lay two logs parallel to each other, withstanding high.altitude marks. Typically, a hydraulic level is used for this.
After exposing the first two logs, two perpendicular logs are laid at a right angle and marking begins.
Having arranged all four logs of the salary crown begin to mark the marking. The layout of the bowl is carried out on both sides of the upper log, then cut down with an ax, checking the density of fitting logs. The depth of the cutting is approximately equal to half of their diameter. The top of the stacked logs is equalized and they give them a round shape.
Flame Cutting I-Beam Technique
In order for the logs of the upper and lower crowns to fit each other tightly, they make a sample of the longitudinal oval groove, the width of which depends on the temperature of the outdoor air. In this case, the upper log is laid in the oval groove of the lower with a layer of insulation. Having drawn the contours of the groove sample on both sides of the logs, the wood is chosen with an ax, having previously turned the log up the log up. In order for the contours of the groove sample to be uniform along the entire length, you can make a template of its contour, which will facilitate control of the quality of work. With proper processing of the groove, the upper log should come into contact with the lower throughout the plane. The width of the groove depending on the temperature regime is made from 15 to 20 cm.
Logs in the log house are laid in different directions, withstanding the overall horizontal rows. Moss, pac from the entire length of the log. The logs are installed on each other by the blows of a wooden chock simultaneously checking the verticality of the plane of the walls. After the log house it turns out, you can finish.
Our manufacturing technology is more complicated, since in addition to all of the following, our masters make a radical spike.
It is known that the house should be on the foundation, and you should start with it, but this is a slightly different topic, so in the figure, instead of the foundation, temporary lining 1 is depicted. Когда появится возможность (даже через несколько лет), они не помешают Вам завести под сруб постоянный фундамент.
Log house. This is a log structure without gender, crate and roof, t. e. The main constructive part of the house. It consists of several crowns, the number of which determines the height of the log house. Crown. A rectangular structure consisting of perpendicularly laid logs, fastened together in the corners with a locking connection.
The first crown of the log house is the salary of the crown 2, the second and the main. Lower strapping 3, into which lags 4. Lags tighten the lower strapping and carry the floor, and the bond serves to enhance the lower binder and protects it from decay. Over time, it can be replaced. Crowns from the lower binding to the start of the window opening are called window sills 5. Next are window crowns 6, then. necessary. The first necessary crown is a closing crown 7. The design that serves as the basis for the roof is called the upper strapping. It consists of two upper runs 8 and subtratoline 9. What are the rafters of 10 and corner verandal pillars 11 is clear from the picture.
Let us agree to call logs in crowns lying perpendicular to the run, transverse, and crowns in which there are window or doorways. split. Logs forming openings are called “shorts”. They can be of different lengths depending on the location of windows and doors.
Traditionally, as the log house is erected in Russia, the processing of logs at the height. In some films, you probably saw how a carpenter sitting on a log is dashingly wielding an ax. Let’s take a closer look at what operations he performs. First of all, he needs to drag the prepared log upstairs. Then, having made a marking, make a cabin on it and lay a log in a place that has a particular place. Agree, such work at altitude requires great qualifications and skill. You, as a novice carpenter, are unlikely to be able to process the log with the necessary accuracy the first time. Surely you will have to remove it repeatedly and put the log again, driving it in place. The slightest negligence with such manipulations leads to injuries. You can facilitate your work and significantly protect yourself by installing forests. They must be made comfortable and reliable, withstanding not only your weight, but also the weight of the processed log. Therefore, the installation of such forests requires a lot of additional building material and time. But even if all requirements are followed by work at a height with an ax (including the forests) without sufficient skill is dangerous!
We suggest you build a log house in parts, each of which has a height of human height. This method is called the trigger with subsequent transfer. It consists in the fact that individual parts of the log house after manufacturing on the ground are disassembled and transferred to the main log house. Transfers will allow you to carry out all the work with the ax on the ground, and the outer forests will not be needed. In this case, we use two shifts, since, in our opinion, this is the best option for a beginner builder. Let you not be embarrassed by the time of time for additional disassembly and assembly of the crowns. They are more than compensated by the convenience and safety of work, because a good and conveniently equipped workplace. high labor productivity. You will learn more about how transferring is carried out, but for now we will continue the acquaintance with the terminology.
Part of the tree of the tree adjacent to the root is called a comal. Starting to chop the house, you should know that there is no perfectly even log. Any log has run.in, t. e. Reduces in diameter from comal 1 to vertex 2. Therefore, when laying logs one on the other, it is necessary to alternate lumps and vertices.
When assembling a log house, so that one crown adjacent to another tightly, a groove 3 is selected along the logs. Another frequently performed operation in the processing of logs is the manufacture of Kant 4.
The end of the log, embedded on two parallel sides, is called the “boob” 5, which is formed at the same time. cheeks 6, and raw, convex surface. Small 7.
The main structural elements of the log house, which are used by the castle joints of the logs, are “paw” 8 and “swallow tail” 9. For additional attachment of logs in the crown, the connection of the penet 10 is used. Luza 11, and the pillars and rafters are reliably installed using thorns 12.
You must pay special attention to the selection of the tool. The most important of them. Plotnitsky ax 1. It should be suitable for you by weight and conveniently lie in your hand. The purpose of such tools as a chisel 2, a plumb line 3, a hacksaw 4, a two.handed saw 5, bracket 6, bayonet shovel 7, as well as roulette 8, line 9, square 10, colored pencils or wax crayons 11 should not cause questions. Smile.free cord 12 and awl 13 are used for marking, and level 14. To check horizontal. To make a level, take an elastic rubber hose 5-8 m long, about 1 cm in diameter, the ends of which are put on two transparent glass tubes of the same diameter 15-20 cm long. The resulting device is filled with tinted water. In addition to the level, it is necessary to make a template 15 from a plexiglass with a thickness of 2-3 mm and the line 16. The main marking tools, as well as “Baba” 17. The main “shock” tool made from birch chock with two brackets drove into it.
If you have the opportunity to purchase a chainsaw. Do not miss her. Chainsaws will greatly facilitate your work, save your strength and time.
To avoid other “troubles” during the construction of injuries and other “troubles”, we offer to get acquainted with the pages of special work and safety techniques.
You need to start construction with the harvesting of the forest. It is best to use coniferous rocks. Pine and spruce. Aspen is good for making logs of baths and wells. She is not afraid of water. But you cannot use birch, since it quickly begins to rot and behaves very “capricious” when processing. Since it burns well and gives a lot of heat, save it for your fireplace. After the forest is cut down, it needs to be tucked and dried.
Construction of chopped houses: the main stages and features
Any construction begins with the development of a project of the future home. But if we are talking about construction from a chopped log, then you should first think about what material to use for this.
Harvesting and preparing logs for log house
As a rule, rarely someone independently engaged in forest harvesting. this is the prerogative of logging and woodworking enterprises with professional carpenters. manual processing specialists, which is also conducted using almost one tool. ax.
Although the stripping is carried out using a bracket, a sickle.shaped device, with which a final processing of a log is performed.
Modern technologies and tools are used only at the stage when a log cabin is assembled. for the manufacture of longitudinal cuts that ensure a tight fit of the crowns to each other and are a prevention from excessive formation of cracks.
Although, many masters do not fundamentally use power tools, for example, an electric rhinoma, and also do not use saws in the work, since they, in their opinion, destroy the structure of the fiber, making wood vulnerable to many negative factors and, above all, moisture.
Special attention is paid to embedded logs, the thickness of which should be more than the cross section used for the log house. This feature allows you to protect the house from destruction and it is easier to lay the floor lag and lower overlap
House design and preparation of a construction site
Given the design features of the house, it is advisable to contact specialists at the design stage. But in order to save money, you can choose a ready.made project, in large numbers offered by specialized construction companies and adapt it to the conditions of the terrain, given the geological situation on the site.
Often the choice of developers dwells on ready.made logs, which are much easier to collect on an already prepared foundation. But, wondering how much the log house is 6 to 6, it should be borne in mind that the price of a square meter of one.story building will be higher than a two.story area of the same area, since expenses are reduced at the expense of the foundation (which, although it should be more powerful, but not much), and also roofs and engineering systems.
But regardless of which project of the building will be selected, at this stage it follows:
- calculate the total weight of the house, in accordance with which to choose the method of erecting the foundation;
- It will be impossible to think over in detail, subsequently it will be impossible to make changes, since the partition in a chopped house is often bandaged with the crowns of the external walls;
- calculate the places for window and doorways, as well as their number;
- select the type of roof in line with the design features of the building;
- develop the sequence and stages of the assembly of the log house;
- design all engineering communications.
An important issue is the storage of the material on the site that needs to ensure the appropriate conditions. As a rule, a special canopy is arranged for this, under which logs with mandatory transfer of thin wooden bars are laid, 4-6 cm thick.
The foundation device
Despite the fact that the weight of the chopped log is greater than, for example, a bar, there is no need for a powerful foundation
But it is important that the base of the house is reliable and stable so that the shrinkage of a log cut from a log occurs evenly
Of course, the type of foundation is affected by the geological conditions of the site, but nevertheless, the most popular are columnar, pile bases, as well as a monolithic slab.
But in the event that a basement is planned under the house, a monolithic or assembly strip foundation is arranged.
After the foundation for the log house is ready, it should be done waterproofing using roofing material, mastic and other materials for this.
This is necessary to protect against moisture of the first crown, and as a result. and the whole house from premature destruction.
The greatest difficulties for masters who have decided to cut a log house from logs arise with the manufacture of rounded adhesion in the timber bar. However, there is no great need for this, since there are special techniques designed to dock the crowns of logs.
- To connect the walls, a nagel is used, which, as it were, permeates these structures. This fastener is nothing more than wooden vertical nails with a diameter of about 30 cm and a length of 20% less than the height of the log house.
- Construction also use specific types and methods of angular compounds. Special spikes are prepared for them, which can be composed and cut in the material.
- In the process of this work, it is necessary to strictly observe the rule: when connecting the elements, which is a necessary operation when building a log or pellet log house, you must definitely take care of the presence of a certain vertical clearance. Its purpose consists in compensating for the consequences of natural shrinkage, which accompanies the construction of each wooden object. This gap should have a size of not more than 0.5 cm. In the manufacture of longitudinal installation grooves, the size of the gap is increased to 1 cm.
How to choose wood wood?
A log house from a cedar does not require internal and facade finishes, thanks to the beautiful texture and healing properties of wood.
Before ordering wood for a log house, you need to choose it correctly. When deciding how to cut a log house, you should not forget about this stage. Not only the quality of work, but also the durability of the entire structure will depend on the correctly selected wood. If everything is done correctly, then thermal conductivity, texture, assembly quality will be at the height.It is best to cut a log house from conifers. They are inexpensive, perfectly processed, have numerous useful properties. Posna, which is used in construction most often, is popular in this sense. The log is almost not subjected to drying. This is especially important during the construction of a bathhouse, where the walls of the structure are constantly exposed to sharp temperature differences, humidity fluctuations. In addition, pine has a little weight, it is durable, easy to work.
In addition to pine, larch is also used, it differs in strength, durability, not subject to decay. But it is difficult to process, and this makes work difficult and long. The paw is cut poorly, it is necessary to make certain efforts. Of the minuses, it should also be noted that the larch is a type of cold wood, so its diameter should be larger than for other types.
You can cut a log house from a cedar that differs with soft wood, but in terms of strength it resembles a larch, in other properties it looks more like a pine tree.
Distinguishes this material a pleasant smell. The appearance of the log house is stylish and beautiful, different from the rest. Cedar wood has numerous beneficial properties, which is a big plus for any structure, and especially for the bathhouse. The texture is very beautiful, for such a log house there is no interior decoration, facade is not used either. But the cost of this material is higher than that of the rest, although quality justifies such a price.
What parameters to pay attention to?
When choosing a tree, you need to pay attention to the following factors:
- type of wood;
- properties of a particular type of tree, compliance with construction requirements;
- necessary size, log diameter;
- Are there any useful properties of the selected material.
Among the properties, you need to pay attention to the following:
- service life, its conditions;
- the level of protection of premises from heat loss;
- level of protection against negative weather conditions;
- protection against decay, lesions of insects, rodents;
- how convenient the wood is in work, it is easy to process.
In order not to cut a log house, you can buy a finished project where wood has already been selected, a cutting is made and marking is applied. As a result, the assembly process itself will be as simple and fast as possible. This option is perfect for those who have no work skills with wood.
Drinking a bar with the remainder
The easiest way to dock the beam in the corners of the log house is “in the floor of the tree”. Cut a rectangular groove, the dimensions of which depend on the thickness of the beam and make up. Recess depth. half the thickness of the beam. That’s why it is called “half.term”.
Connecting the beam in the corners with the remainder. at half.term, in Kurdyuk, in Okhr
The Kurdyuk method is characterized by the presence of an additional spike, which provides a more durable and reliable connection, but requires more carpentry skill. complicated is the connection of the beam in the ocher. Here you can not make a mistake when calculating the width of the jumper, but it is realized much easier than on a log: the geometry is standard and you can use the template, which significantly accelerates the work, and the error can then only be when cutting out.
What is a log house in a paw
If you look at the skeleton of the log house in the paw, we will see that the perimeter of this log house is a normal rectangle without logs protruding for the external planes of the walls of the log house. Sharub in a paw, can be called an antipode of the log house in the bowl (with the remainder). But this type of antipode log house is not only in the design, but in the characteristics of the log house. Sharb in a paw, whiter cold, compared to a log house with the remainder. The edges of the logs are cut, the angle at the house is straight and affordable for winds and precipitation.
To improve the thermal characteristic of the “log house in the paw”, the corners of the log house on the outside are necessarily lined with lining. In addition, the cold corners of the log house make increased requirements for the adjustment of the logs of the neighboring crowbar crowns, especially in places of castle joints.
Methods of connection “in the paw
Wall cutting “in a paw” is considered a more complex, but economical way.
Solid, high.quality log house. the one in which the cracks allowing the premises of drafts are completely absent. The main task of the master is to make geometrically accurate corner compounds of logs.
There are three main connection schemes: straight paw, paw with a knocker and a swallow tail.
The simplest of them is the connection of “straight paw”. With this method of cutting the log house of Tyusk surfaces is carried out only in the horizontal and vertical direction. Before proceeding to the cut, the logging of logs should be carried out. For this purpose, you can make a special template that simply applies to each of the ends. On the finished contours, the “paws” is carried out. Material for the template. dense cardboard.
As a standard, a log is selected with the smallest diameter at the top. The size of the “paw” for this log will be the basis of the template for marking all the ends.
The ideal version of the material for the “in the paw” is the logs of the same thickness. The level of heat in the house depends on the thickness of the log: the thicker it is. the less compounds, and, accordingly, the number of ways to penetrate cold air is reduced.
Any wooden house is subject to natural shrinkage, therefore, during the cutting of the log house, the arrangement of a gap of no more than half a centimeter should be provided, which subsequently compensates for its consequences. The gap increases to one centimeter if longitudinal installation grooves are made.
A paw with a nurse
A paw with a nurse
This is a rather complicated way of connecting, which only builders with extensive experience can do qualitatively. The technology of cutting a log house in a paw with a knock implies the presence of a spike protruding 2 cm up on a “paw”, the area of which is a quarter of the area of the “paw”. The spike is located on the inside of the angle. In a log laid on top, for this spike, a deepening of the corresponding size is made. The principle of assembly of this type of connection resembles a children’s designer. The process of cutting “paws with a cone” requires almost jewelry accuracy, which is its complexity.
Connection “Lastochkin tail”
Connection of Lastochkin tail
The log house is no less durable if the connection is made according to the “Swallow tail” scheme. In this case, not a straight line is cut down, but a slanting “paw”, which largely complicates the manufacturing process. But in the end, various angles of inclination of the “paws” planes prevent deformation of the log and better protect the room from the wind. “Paw”, cut down in the form of a cone, is compacted during the shrinkage of the house, and does not dry out. The house cut down in this way is stable and reliability.
The disadvantage of this type of log house is that rainwater may fall on the inclined corner of the paws into the log house. However, with the right approach to processing the ends, this trouble can be avoided.
This technology is similar to the method described above, the logging of the log log cabin “into the pillar” (“to Zabir”).
The frame is vertical racks with grooves. The bars with the finished spikes of the desired shape at the ends are laid on each other. The thorns inserted into the grooves make the corners airtight and reliable. Since the joint itself is not visible, the structure has a very neat appearance.
The use of a single template for all spikes gives a significant advantage in the manufacture time of the log house and in the simplicity of its installation.
Following the log house
A very important point in the construction of log cabins, both log and timber, is the fasteners of the elements among themselves. The need for this procedure is explained very simply: the tree has dry out over time, as a result of which logs and bars can change the shape or turn around. The crowbar’s crowns falling out in different directions. the sight is not pleasant. Well, about living in such a structure (it is already difficult to call it a house).
What they collect
Elements of fastening are metal and wooden.
It should be noted right away that nails in wooden logging house construction are not used! With metal hairpins, only a non.drying glued beam can be attached.
In all other cases, the log house is collected on wooden fasteners. heated and dumpings.
This approach is argued by the fact that the drying wood will simply “hang” on the metal stilettos that are unchanged in the size of the size, as a result of which large cracks appear between the crowns.
“Nagel” translated from German. a nail. In practice, it is a round, triangular or square long block. Round dugs are used in wooden housing construction. Square and triangular embodied performed more complex, therefore, they are used less often.
Brushes with a diameter of 25-30 mm are clogged into drilled holes with a diameter of 1-2 mm less. For the manufacture of the bastards, the wood of solid is taken. spruce, oak or birch. There are certain requirements for this type of fastener. wood humidity not more than 12%, the absence of knots or other defects, antiseptic treatment. is required. The fulfillment of these norms gives a guarantee of the strength of the entire structure.
The length of the nagel depends on what the cross.section of the beam. The formula for calculating the length is very simple: the height of three bars (crowns) is multiplied by 0.8.
The assembly of the log house for wooden bends is carried out in the following order: first the lower 2-3 crowns are fastened, then two rows laid on top are attached to the upper timber or log from the first ligament. Such an algorithm is preserved until the end of the build of the log house, that is, to the full “set of heights”.
Assembly for the nagel
The arrangement of the warts for the log house is carried out in this way: in the lower conjunction, the first bastard is installed in the middle of the log at a distance of 200-600 millimeters from the edge (end), the following-after 1.5-2 meters. In the second bunch, the worships are clogged in a checkerboard pattern relative to already established. It is very important to comply with the chess order. they should not fall on each other!
The holes for the heated are drilled to a depth, slightly larger than the length of the bar. during the vsushushki a log or a beam should “sit” in place, and not hang on the mount.
Experienced craftsmen use small tricks when working with nagas. For example, to make the depth of the holes the same, on a drill, with a painting tape or colored island, they make a tie that helps to navigate. Or use machine oil (working out) for smooth entry of a bar into a groove. unnecessary strikes can lead to cracking of wood. Efforts and strictly vertical direction of the impact on the worship when clogging should be controlled.
Real baches are expensive. But on sale there are various lumber from which you can make them. The most budget option is a dry “elite” board without defects, cut and cut into bars of the desired size.
The finished alternative is ready.made cuttings of a suitable diameter (for mop or rake). you just need to remove the knots and cut into pieces of the required length.
Assembly for doughs
Squares. analogue of the bastards. But the dimensions of the doughs are such that they can only fasten a couple of logs (crowns). Drilling additional holes both in the lower and upper logs requires time and certain accuracy. Installation of crowns on doughs. quite hard work. For these reasons, the assembly of log cabins or timber logs is a little popular way.
Connection with the nursery
This method of connecting in the paw is more reliable, but it is also much more complicated, therefore, without proper experience in fulfilling the connecting grooves, it is definitely worth it to take on it. When marking and cutting the paws on its inner surface, a protrusion of 2-2.5 cm with an area of 1/4-1/5 from the total area of the paw is usually left on its inner surface, or the conjure, as experts call it, make it on the paw so that when laying the crown he was located at the inner angle of the building under construction.
Connection diagram Lastochkin tail.
From below the upper crown laid, the same area and depth of the hole under the spike. When using a paw of paws with a knock, the assembly of a log house is akin to assembling parts in a children’s designer.
Thanks to the collection, the clutch of logs and the overall stability of the construction increases significantly. However, such a distillation requires almost jewelry accuracy of the spike entering into the groove, therefore the time of manufacture of compounds is significantly increased not only due to their more complex shape and the need to additionally make grooves, but also to a large extent to fit them.
If, when straight.cutting the paw, the groove is made more than required, and the logs will not fit tightly to each other, then you can displace and drive a wooden wedge of the desired width between them (although this should be an exception, but not the assembly rule). When cutting a paw with a cone, if the hole is larger than the spike, the crowns will shift, and this one cannot fix it by any wedges.
Cutting in a swallow tail
Many builders distinguish this method of cutting the log house into a separate type of connection of the crowns, although in fact this is the same paw, only improved. This type of connection has all the advantages of the connection in the paw, but is almost deprived of its shortcomings.
The paws of the crowns with this method of connection are not perpendicular, but under a slight inclination. When assembling a log house, each next paw lies in the previous one, while each middle paw is fixed between the underlying and upper paw in the form of a wedge
Such clutch is much stronger than other methods of log house in the paw. With proper skill and dexterity, the tail folded in Lastochkin can stand for decades even without additional fastenings with vertical spikes. In addition, the angle cut down in this way due to different indicators of inclination of the paws is much warmer, although it still requires additional thermal insulation.
But this method of connection and its shortcomings have. Firstly, the manufacture of such a paw is much more complicated even by the paws with a knock, not to mention direct connection. Without certain skills of cutting and experience, you should not even try to perform it yourself. only translate the material.
Secondly, the inclined shape of the paw, which provides the block for additional stability during the rain, contributes to the fact that the water from this inclination enters the paw. After several years of such an alternation of getting wet and drying, the paw is deformed and covered with cracks, so additional waterproofing is required for the corners of such a log house.
If you want to fold a log house with your own hands, but do not have sufficient chopping experience, then regardless of the method of cutting the paws, follow the golden rule: always initially make grooves a little less than necessary.
After trying on, the excess can always be removed, but it will be impossible to build a paw in the event of a too large sample.
The cabin in the paw is indispensable when it is planned to finish the external walls with siding or other finishing materials. In addition, this method can save 10-15% on the cost of materials. However, the need for subsequent insulation and waterproofing of angles practically reduces this savings to zero.