How to cut a border on a radius correctly. How to cut paving slabs – tips and methods
DIY paving slabs or paving stones
During the work process, you have to cut paving stones or paving slabs in order to adjust the height, width. These are inevitable actions during construction work. Three proven methods are distinguished: corner grinder, knife.haired metal or guillotine for brick. The first method is suitable for “jewelry” processing. Когда требуется резать по прямой линии, допускаются незначительные неровности, возможна работа гильотиной. Khosuvka for metal will need when you need to remove noticeable chips. Before the process, you should familiarize yourself with how to cut paving slabs at home.
Before proceeding with the cutting of paving slabs with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account the features of working with this material. During the process, elements of the desired shape and size are obtained. It should be borne in mind that concrete is a rather dense material. It contains granite gravel, and during the production of paving structures, vibration press is used. In order to carefully cut the material, it is necessary to use high.quality tools, observe the procedure. Even a beginner can cut the paving stones if he followed by step instructions.
Square or rectangular products are usually cut across in accordance with the marking made. It takes more time to create drawings or complex shapes, building skills. It is most difficult to perform an angular cut, which ensures the insertion of elements into a continuous structure. Manipulations are carried out with a hacksaw for metal. Regardless of the cutting technique used, with the cut, protective means should be used.
How to cut a paving stones without dust
If you cut the paving gaped with a corner grinder at home, there is a lot of dust. You can avoid dirt if you follow the recommendations.
- Make a special pencil or marker marking on the work surface.
- Smell the marked areas with a nearby zone with water using a spray gun or brush.
- During the cutting of concrete, regularly take out the disk and cool it with water.
To cut sidewalk paving stones without dust, some masters use a special homemade casing. The protective agent is made of hermetic material. Dust removal is carried out by a connected vacuum cleaner.
How to cut paving stones at an angle
Sometimes it is required to cut paving slabs at an angle. You can use a grinding machine with an installed diamond cutting disk. Such a technique requires certain skills. Cutting paving paving stones at an angle is performed by devices operating according to the guillotine method. Such electric machines have an uneven surface of the cut. So that after completion of work there is no lot of dust, only cut the material and carefully split. You can also make incisions of paving slabs with corner grinders, a hacksaw, using a canvas for working with metal.
To correctly cut the paving stones at an angle, the following recommendations are taken into account:
- Choose material without surface defects to avoid splitting.
- Marking along the line on the line on which the cutting will be carried out.
- Apply the marked piece to the place where it will be to make sure that the angles are the same.
- During cutting, it is important that the saw clearly follow the drawn line.
- Uneven elements of the edges are stuck with sandpaper or knife.haired.
Than and how to cut paving stones and paving slabs at home
When cutting bricks, glass, cement, wood, plywood and other materials, you need to use protective equipment. It includes glasses, respirator, mask and headphones. The angular grinding device must be serviceable. Only high.quality cut circles must be applied. Discs and electric machines are examined before construction work.
How to cut a paving stones with a corner grinder
The tool should have a diamond circle so that it rotates to the master. Then dust and fragments will not fly in the face.
Cut tiles are folded separately, and garbage is discarded. When a paving stones of different shades, pieces are separated by each other.
How to cut a paving stones with guillotine
Guillotine is less accurate, unlike corner grinders. The tool can be cut the tile only in a straight line.
The device works silently, does not require special safety measures
Cutting paving slabs with a hacksaw for metal
The final stage of preparation of tiles for laying is the elimination of defects. Any noticeable chips are removed with a hacksaw for metal. The tool is a saw designed for cutting metal blanks. The device consists of a framework and sawy canvas. Scabbard is ideal for work with small tiles. With such a tool they work only with two hands. The device does not require compliance with special safety measures, it is enough to interact with it carefully.
Other methods of cutting
For cutting paving stones, you can use not only a corner grinder, but also a guillotine or a hacksaw. There are also electric and diesel files on concrete. They function in the same method as the corner grinder, but are additionally equipped with a comfortable folding chip. Thanks to the last part, a strong fixation of the processed material, the comfort of application is provided.
Important points of the process
In fact, cutting paving stones. processing of strong concrete products of various thicknesses. As a result of such a procedure, elements of the required forms, sizes are obtained. over, their edges should be even, neat. It is possible to cut sidewalk tiles in different ways: figuratively, across, longitudinally, diagonally. It is important to remember that concrete is highly density. It is achieved thanks to the features of its production: granite crushed stone is added to the composition, the method of vibration pressing is used. Therefore, all procedures should be carried out with a special tool, observe the accuracy and correctness of such actions:
The volume of all works, as well as their complexity, largely depends on the desired pattern, the initial shape of the paving stones. Usually square or rectangular products are cut across (according to the previously made markup). To create multi.colored patterns from complex tiles, it is necessary to use significantly more strength. The corner cut, which ensures the insertion of elements into a single design, is most difficult to perform. It is made only with a hacksaw for metal.
Attention! Regardless of the method used, when performing the cut, it is certainly worth using individual protective equipment.
Without cutting paving stones, laying out a complex pattern on the site is almost impossible for Trotuar.Biz
Before starting sawing paving slabs (by any method), it is important to provide reliable protection of the employee: this will help to prevent his possible injury. In the process of cutting paving stones, it is necessary to strictly adhere to such rules:
- All work must be done in protective equipment, which includes a respirator, glasses, and overalls made of dense fabric. This is most about the cases when the cutting procedure involves the formation of a huge amount of dust.
- It is advisable to use special headphones that will protect from excessively loud noise.
- In the process of using the selected tool, it is important to comply with the basic requirements for its operation: to check the functionality of any mechanisms before the start of work; Change the consumables in time; avoid the use of incorrectly functioning devices; You can not bring your fingers to rotating details; while using the power tool, always be extremely attentive.
Each separate method of cutting paving states its own set of rules. Therefore, it is extremely important to think through the sequence of all actions in advance, to study the instructions for devices that are required to be used with such work.
In the process of cutting paving slabs, too much dust is formed: this requires the mandatory use of protective equipment source I.ytimg.com
Non.standard sizes of borders
Agree, such large and massive borders are not needed to arrange a personal plot. Rather, very rarely needed. Unless the smallest in order to fence off a track for a car from a lawn/garden. Here their strength will be required so that all the beauty does not leave. And the rest are applicable when installing roads.
For the garden and access paths, such options are more acceptable. They not only look better, but also weigh and cost less
Therefore, manufacturers of the same paving slabs make borders on their own size. Name such products with lawn or garden borders. By the way, the standard does not prohibit making border stones of other sizes. Only they should have a strength not lower than B22.5 and frost resistance not lower than F200. You can find such a name as a curb of a typical size. This is that such a dimensions are often found. But not about the fact that it is registered in the standard. Here are what the size of the borders for paths in the garden or in the yard can be found:
In general, the sizes of borders are different. Length from 80 cm to 40 cm, height. about 200 mm, width. from 3.5 cm up to 10 cm. They can be a “standard” gray color. Colored are a little more expensive. Color, usually the same as the paving slabs. Most often it is red, brown, green, sometimes yellow. Keep in mind that the colors are not “clean”, but with an admixture of gray cement.
Granite borders are laid with granite tiles
There are also granite borders. They are also several sizes:
Granite borders, of course, are beautiful and very durable, but they have a very large mass and a very high price.
We will talk about the installation of not those large and massive borders that are for separation of the road, but lawn or garden, which are needed to separate the garden path. No matter what you plan to cover the track. tiles, stone or other coating so that it does not blur, you need limiters. Most often they make a low curb. That is, the top of the path fencing a few centimeters above the surface of the track and garden/garden/flower garden on the other side. In this case, when watering or rain, the soil will not be washed onto the track.
These are recommended borders installation schemes with paving slabs
Cutting curves and circles from patio slabs (part1)
The order of work
So, this is what the procedure for installing the curb:
- Draw a track on the ground. To do this, you can use a dense plastic bag into which we pour sand. We cut one corner, we get a thin stream of sand, which is convenient to mark. If you need to fix something, also not a problem. Wiped, painted on a new.
- Dig a trench. Width-30-40 centimeters, depth-about 20-30 cm. In general, the depth of the groove for the installation of the curb depends on the height of the curb. Rather, the part that you are going to bury. There should be a crushed stone pouring under it and a layer of concrete.
- Align the bottom of the trench, compact the soil. How to align, probably, you are roughly represented. And what to trim? Know how to cook and have a welding machine, take a piece of thick metal, weld a piece of a rod or pipe to the middle, on top-the cross-pink. Get normal tamping. It is required when leveling the surface under the track. There is no welding machine? Make the same thing from wood. Also not bad, although the mass is less.
Actually everything. Then we continue in the same spirit: lay out cement, installed/leveled a piece of the curb. The joints of the two fragments of the curb are smeared with a layer of cement. We remove its residues immediately after installation and alignment. If it dries, there will be ugly traces, from which to get rid of completely difficult. If the installation of one border takes a little time, you can lay out the solution by several “borders” at once. So it will be faster.
Features and subtleties
Most questions are usually about crushed stone. Not everyone puts it. You can do without crushed stone if sandy soil. Then just align the bottom of the trench and you can work further. But if the soil is clay or loam, chernozem, then without gravel adding in the spring of the curb simply stands in different directions. So here gravel gives an increase in durability. You can use not crushed stone, but gravel or construction garbage? This is better than nothing, but not the best option. Especially the brick fight. He will collapse over time and turn into a baby, the curbs will pass. So, it’s better not to, and there. see for yourself.
The sizes of the borders (height) are selected taking into account the fact that the part needs to bury
Another moment. Clay, chernozem and loams amazingly quickly “eat” gravel. He is drowning in them. If you want a “long.playing” path, put geotextiles on the bottom of the trench. Its edges should go behind the trench. They just straighten them around the edges. When the curb was installed on cement, the edges of the geotextile were wrapped, and the concrete was covered with a film. In a week you can remove the film and fill the ground with the ground. The edges of the geotextile at the same time can not be deployed. Then the crushed stone will not be blurred.
A few words about how many solution to knead. Depends on how quickly you work. If you have a small experience of such work, it is better to make a very small knead for the first time-two or three stones. The fact is that if the concrete begins to grasp, it will have to be thrown away. It will not recover if you add water. No, you can get the right consistency. But the concrete itself will be from the word “nowhere”. He may not gain strength at all or be very tiny. In some cases so much that you can just break it with your finger.
How to cut a concrete border
Garden borders produced in factories have a length of one meter. In the markets, you can find half a meter borders, but usually the quality of borders made in the garages leaves much to be desired, since the amount of cement in them is minimal and such a border will begin to crumble after 2-3 years.
The installation of concrete borders is not complete without the need to cut them. This is necessary to obtain the curb of the necessary length or with the height drops necessary for the extension and when the site is irregular. With the right approach, the cut of the curb becomes a very simple task.
To begin with, we will need an angle grinding machine (corner grinder) and a concrete disk. Do not try to use metal disks, they will not be able to cut concrete. In stores they sell both ordinary concrete disks and diamond. Diamonds will last longer, but it is much more difficult to saw them than usual. Also, diamond discs with perpendicular cuts are prone to “snacking”, which leads to an overlapping tightening of the nut of a grinding machine and remove such a diamond disk will be much more difficult.
Swimming on the curb on both sides fishing line for a trimmer saw a graphite pencil.
Stand so that the wind blew on you, then all the dust will not fly into your face.
Sprinkle on each side of the border 1 slot.5.2 centimeters. There is no need to saw the whole border. Firstly, you will less often change the detachment disc, secondly, there will be less dust.
Put it under the part that there is more a piece of iron. Any flat scrap metal is suitable.
If you drank grooves from all sides, then the edges of the border will be neat enough so as not to resort to their processing with a grinding machine. The border is ready to install.
Pay attention to the correct installation of the border and paths. Be sure to remove the vegetable soil, put geotextiles, organize a sand pillow and compact it. It is also recommended to install borders in a concrete castle.
How can you replace a concrete border. In gardening, more economical options are often used: a curb of a profiled sheet chopped by stripes, a wooden curb, a ready.made border plastic tape.
When installing paving stones from paving slabs, it is necessary to install a lateral stone (border, curb, br). These products have several functions:
- distinguish between the pedestrian and roadway, pedestrian path and lawn;
- prevent displacement and dispersion of paving stones, pollution of the soil with paths;
- give the plot a neat look.
The most popular are BR from heavy concrete mixture. When buying factory production products, the following factors must be taken into account:
- Concrete characteristics from which products are made. High.quality products should have a frost resistance of at least F200. This material, capable of withstand up to 200 freezing / thawing cycles, lasts about 40 years. Water absorption. not more than 6%, degree of strength. M400 (strength class B30).
- Production regime. The best characteristics are vibro.pressed products. durable, dense, durable, having an exact geometric shape.
- A specific goal. Product BR 100.twenty.8 (length. 1 m, height. 20 cm, width. 8 cm) are recommended for laying borders along garden paths for installation along medium load roads. Br 100.thirty.15 (length. 1 m, height. 30 cm, width. 15 cm), for highways. Br 100.thirty.18 (length. 1 m, height. 30 cm, width. 18 cm). In the manufacture of massive borders for roads, they are reinforced with steel reinforcement.
How to install borders before or after laying?
It is difficult to answer this question unambiguously, since each of the options has its own pros and cons of.
- Install immediately. This option is good for beginners. The boundaries clearly determine the area that needs to be improved, and simplify the task of observing the boundaries. To preserve the elements of the road surface, it is necessary to calculate the distance between the borders, which should be multiple of the width of the road surface. When calculating, it should be borne in mind that between the elements of the road surface there is a gap of 2-4 mm. It is better for beginners to use the dimensions of the already finished track.
- Fastening after paving. This choice allows you to rationally use the tile and not cut it.
In the process of cutting tiles, it is necessary to use protective glasses.
For cutting paving slabs, you should prepare a special place. This condition is due to the fact that the smallest dust, getting to the surface of the elements, is quickly eaten into them, which spoils the appearance, especially when using colored bars. If they are moisturized, the unwanted process intensifies. Therefore, it is necessary to secure the finished tiles as much as possible from the dust that occurs during cutting.
The most important stage of preparation is marking tiles for cutting. It is carried out using a metal line, transporter and construction pencil. With ordinary laying of a standard size paving stones, markings are made before laying, after thorough measurement of the covered area and calculating the length of the necessary pieces of bar. Marking elements when performing patterned masonry is usually performed in fact, t.e. In the process of laying in the event of such a need, and the size is removed directly from the location.
When marking, it is important to draw a fishing line for a trimmer so that the cut piece clearly stands in the intended place. To do this, lay the technological gap of the order of 3-5 mm, which will allow the element to enter the remaining space for it; at the same time not to create cracks visually visually.
Before cutting paving slabs
corner grinder or guillotine, at least in any other way, in an ineffective order, you need to ensure the protection of the master. In an unpleasant case, it is difficult to guarantee the safety of work and the lack of risk of injuries.
- Protection tools (in particular, if the method of cutting tiles is chosen, which involves the occurrence of a huge amount of dust, a huge speed of rotation of parts, etc. D.). Glasses, respirator, special clothing made of very dense material will help out. You are from dust and injuries.
- Special headphones for protection against very sonorous noise.
- The study of the rules of working with the chosen inventory as a whole is common: do not bring your fingers to rapidly rotating mechanisms, carefully work with the power tool, closely inspect the devices and parts to work, do not use broken or faulty devices. Each method implies its own set of rules: for example, if the paving slabs are cutting with corner grinders, then the tool must be held with both hands by the side handle, use the protective screen from dust and sparks, provide electrical safety, etc.D.
- In the process, see details and mechanisms. Guillotine knife, grinding circles must be changed, only in this case, if it is fully consistent with the standards of property.
Topic: What kind of tool can be sprouted exactly the curbstone?
In a summer cottage, they decided to make paths with his wife, we will use the curbstone stone as limiters (the left and right edge of the path). Everything seemed to go, as it should, until the path began to “turn”. It is necessary to somehow cut the border stone into smaller parts evenly. The question is how to do this, more precisely than. The diameter of the disk of the corner grinder does not allow you to saw it all over the depths of the curb stone. Tell me how to get out of the situation?
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You did not indicate the height and width of the curb stone, which must be cut. It is possible to purchase a universal disk for an angular grinder with a diameter of 150-180 mm. And if this is not enough, then it is necessary to use a professional cutting machine with a disc more than 180 mm.
Yes, indeed, it would be easier to advise something, knowing the size of the border. If the corner grinder does not work, then try to take special diamond discs by concrete (with slots). And again, it all depends on the thickness of the curb stone.
At home, you will be able to cut the curb stone only with a large corner grinder with a diamond circle. In this case, undercut concrete is easily cooked and cleaned. A larger disk on a standard angular grinder cannot be placed.
If there is a corner grinder in stock, then buying special equipment is impractical. Need or buy a more disk with a diameter. or apply the tapestone method. This is when I drank more than two.thirds, the bar is placed under the bottom with the same radius of the cutout and sharply knock on a wooden clay. It turns out of course not a very even edge, but it is precisely buried in the ground.
You can put a large disc into the circular and so try to carry the curb stone, only you need to call the subpersoners T.to. One person will not cope with such sawing for sure. There are still (cost more) diamond saws, they look like circular.
Types of borders
Initially, the borders were used to distinguish between the roadway from sidewalks. Today they are increasingly used to form the boundaries of pedestrian and road paintings. At the same time, the borders perform the functions of containing paving cladding, which without distinguishing elements simply “parted” to the sides. Of course, no small importance is a decorative filling of space. Therefore, today manufacturers offer borders of different colors, shapes and sizes.
Chapter 12 | Marking & Cutting. Concrete
As for the main classification, the separation is carried out according to the material from which these products are made. There are not many positions:
- Concrete. There are purely concrete products on the market and with a reinforcing frame inside. The latter are more durable, and their service life is quite long. They are made from the concrete solution of the M400 brand, which guarantees already high strength.
- Stone. That is, they are cut from whole stone, giving the required shape and size. They differ in high strength and price. In this case, the natural texture and color give the product a special appearance incomparable with any other material.
- From artificial stone. In fact, this is a symbiosis of the previous two positions. That is, the basis of the product is a concrete solution, filling and decorativeness. stone baby. Such borders after filling are polished, giving the naturalness of stone filling. This one does not differ from the first two materials, but cheaper than stone modification.
- Clinker. From clinker brick, it is distinguished only by shape and size. The production technology is the same, so the curb of this category has a peculiar color, incomparable. In the photo below, this option is shown. Please note that technological holes are left from the ends of the borders. They are used to connect the elements with each other, inserting metal rods into the holes.
- From the polymer-sand composition. Production technology is exactly the same as the tiles of this material. That is, with mixing the components, heating the semi.finished mass and molding it into products. Often, expanded clay is added to the recipe, which reduces the mass. Of all the proposed options, the polymer-sand is the cheapest. But he has several drawbacks: when heated, expansion occurs, scarce in terms of the number of shapes and colors, not the highest strength characteristics.
- Rubber. They are made, like all similar rubber products, from crumbs, which is a product of processing of car tires. Rubber borders. moisture.resistant material, easily tolerates strong heat and low temperatures, but belongs to the category of “fire hazardous products”.
- Plastic. This type of market appeared relatively recently. He did not receive much popularity, because plastic. the material is not the most durable, moreover, under the negative effect of sunlight, it quickly fades. But its low price makes competition to other varieties. The only thing I wanted to note is a huge variety of offered colors, shapes and sizes. We’ll talk about plastic borders separately, it costs that.
The technology of laying curbs
We move directly to the topic of our article. the construction of a path of paving slabs with a border. Construction begins with the marking of the track itself, where its width is fixed. To form borders, you can use wedges that are driven into the ground and tied with a twine. And you can use the usual chalk powder, which is poured with a strip. Then they dig the soil to a depth of 50 cm. The bottom of the trench is aligned and compacted if the soil with large impurities of sand on the suburban area. If the soil is clay, then you do not need to carry out a tamping.
Next, a pushing or gravel is carried out. The thickness of the poured layer is 15-25 cm. It is also aligned and compacted. For adding, it is better to use crushed stone of the middle fraction with granules from 5 to 20 mm.
As soon as the base is ready, you can proceed to the installation of borders. If the latter is ready.made product, which was mentioned above, except for plastic models, then installation is carried out on a concrete solution with small fillers. That is, along the border of a dug trench, concrete is laid up to 10 cm thick, a width of the width of the border for 5 cm on each side, on which the curbs immediately lay. The main thing is to set the installed element of the garden track horizontally or parallel to the slope along which the alley is carried out. Necessarily all elements are aligned with each other to create a single surface of the border.
Please note that the curbs located on different sides of the garden path are laid in parallel. And they must be aligned on the upper planes with each other.
As soon as the borders are installed, between them they are filled with sand with a layer of 10-15 cm. It is aligned and compacted. Then you can proceed to the installation of the paving slabs itself. There are two options:
- On a fastening solution, for which you can use the concrete mixture of the brand M200.
- On a dry cement-sand mixture, in which the ratio of the components is 1: 5, respectively.
Each element of paving cladding is set in the same plane with all the others, for which they use the level and rubber clay. As soon as the whole path is covered with paving slabs, or pure sand, or cement-sand mixture is covered on top. It is sweeping it with a brush to fill the gaps between the tiles. Then the path is watered leetich with water so that the sand falling into the gaps gives a shrinkage. As soon as everything dries, the garden path can be operated.
Today, the introduction of various types in construction operations made them more effective with increasing the speed of work. The scientific and technical process did not bypass the side and laying of paving slabs. Many companies offer mechanized styling using a special mobile machine.
Installing a border on a sand.cement mixture or concrete
On soils prone to heaving, it is necessary to install a border stone on a pouring of sand and crushed stone, over which a concrete layer is laid, a border is laid in it. With this installation, the borders have been standing for years without problems. The procedure is this:
- With the help of pegs installed in key places and laces stretched between them, marking.
- The trench is dug up by the marking. The width should be such that there is a distance of 10-15 cm on each side on the sides of the installed stone. The depth is chosen so that the layer of compacted crushed stone at the bottom is at least 10 cm, on top. at least 5 cm of the sand.cement mortar, and the curbstine itself towered above the surface of the path by at least a few centimeters (how much specifically depends on your desire).
Subject to this technology for installing curb stone, the probability that when hearing it will move very low.
How to put on sand
If soils are not prone to heaving, you can do without concrete. So you can put only shutters. a border for pedestrian paths or a fence for a flower bed, flower garden. With all this, this installation method does not guarantee that the track will not be destroyed. Installation technology similarly described above to the place where the concrete solution needs to be laid.
Scheme for installing a border with a drainage gutter
Only crushed stone is laid under the cutter and is well trimmed. The thickness of the layer should be at least 15 cm. After the curb stone has been inserted in level, the gap between the sides of the stone and the walls of the trench is filled with the same gravel and is well trimmed. With this installation method, you can turn the fence even if you step on it at an unsuccessful angle. But as a temporary option. for several months. this installation method is suitable.