How to cut a window in a brick wall
Window opening in a brick wall
Technologically a simpler variant. Initially, determine the length of the lintel above the door opening. After that, calculate the possible width of the opening expansion. The lintel must rest at least 500 mm on the masonry. If it is impossible to comply with this condition, initially slot a vertical groove along the side of the wall from which it is planned to expand. After that a vertical support (channel) is mounted in the groove, which must rest tightly against the lower edge of the lintel. Similarly fix the vertical support on the other side of the wall. Tighten or weld them together. Only then do the work of drilling and cutting out the wall to widen the opening begin.
Performing works on the doorway is physically hard and very dusty work. Independently perform it is recommended only on non-load-bearing (interior) walls, laid out of bricks or blocks.
When making an opening in the foundation and the basement must take into account the proximity of the ground, so in this case has its own peculiarities. about this in the article: How to make an opening in the foundation.
Tools for installing windows of PVC profile
Installation of plastic windows requires a set of tools and consumables. Plastic windows in a brick house can be installed on the anchor plates or bolts. Their size depends on the depth of quarters in which the product will be attached, as well as the quality of the brick from which the walls are laid. It can be ceramic, gas silicate, foam concrete, etc.п.
If installation is performed in a secondary housing, before you install the window, you must first remove the old frame from the opening. This will require:
- Removing the sashes from their hinges;
- removal of the old;
- window sill and sill removal;
- Removing the tar and caulk that was once used to insulate the opening;
- Stripping old plaster, if necessary. aligning the geometry of the opening.
You will need a small-sized crowbar for the disassembly. If the frames are quite massive, a hand saw or jigsaw can be used to ease the process of breaking. To drill holes for fasteners you’ll need a peorator, for fixing the frame on the anchors. an electric screwdriver. You will also need a construction knife with interchangeable blades, a level, and good quality building guns for foam and sealant.
How to cut a window in a brick wall. How to cut a window in a brick wall: preparation process and installation
Let’s say you need to cut a couple of new openings. Let one be the new window in the side wall of the back room, which formerly served as a utility room, or storeroom, and in which there were still no windows. Let the second opening be the new door to the large china closet you have arranged under the stairs.
The window opening must be made in a solid brick wall that is 22 cm thick. We need to mark the total size of the new opening in the brickwork outside the house, checking with the drawings to know the exact position of the opening and its dimensions. To cut one brick out of the masonry, you need to knock it out of the center of the marked area with a chisel and hammer. Fortunately the masonry is set with lime mortar, so it should not be too difficult. But this actually means that it is easy to break the fastening of the other bricks, so you have to work carefully (Fig.1).
It is necessary to use a building support on top, in order to support the top of the cut-out doorway from the inside. so that it doesn’t collapse. The first task is to cut a row of bricks horizontally and thereby create the top line of the future opening. This ‘gap’ extends from one side of the new window to the other and is about 22 cm deep. Then cut another row of bricks directly below it, but only to the width of the window. The reason why only two rows of bricks are cut first is that before they cut the rest of the opening, the builders want to first put in new lintels for the windows and support the brickwork over the gap (Fig.2)
From the outside, the brickwork over the gap tends to settle immediately, to fall into the freshly cut opening before the builders can put the cement lime mortar, so the builders use a hidden lime mortar detail. Lay a galvanized steel angle, covering the entire width of the cut opening. The width of this steel piece should be twice as thick as the thickness of the brickwork, and it should be placed so that its lower edge could support a number of bricks on the outside of the house. Then this part of the wall is well strengthened with the help of alternating spoons (struts) and dowels (dowel bricks, lintel beams), which are laid on this steel piece flush with the existing interlocking masonry (Fig.3).
On the inside, cement lime mortar will be put over the top of the opening. The width of this lime mortar layer will also be half the thickness of the wall. The cut gap is tightly propped up with the help of the c
How to make an opening in the wall with your own hands
Today we will talk about the opening in the wall with his hands. It would seem to be a simple thing, but when faced with this problem, you have to wonder how to do it right, and what tools to choose. So, I decided that this article will be useful to someone, and I devote my efforts to this topic. In it I will answer a number of questions that will arise immediately before the penetration of the opening, and some even after it.
This topic is quite broad, because before making an opening in the wall, you need to decide on the form, and how to do it? And this is a separate topic. You can learn about all of this in detail in the article below.
If for any reason you need to make an opening in the wall for a window or door, this article tells how to do it. First of all, you need to determine where you will have a window, its size.
And then do a precise marking on the wall. a copy of a window or door. With an allowance of 5-6 cm larger than the size of the bow itself. You will have a reinforced concrete lintel over the opening.
And its length should be 30-40 cm more than the width of the opening itself. The upper limit of the height of the window unit will be the bottom of the lintel. This must be remembered when marking.
You will also need two lintels of sufficient length, section 20×10 cm, a hatchet with a diameter of 15-20 mm and a length of 60 cm, a large chisel, a heavy hammer.
This is in case if you do not have a pen and have to work in an old-fashioned way. First, punch through the corners of the marking with a hatchet. This will make future work easier.
After that, you will need to install the lintels.
They will act as a fixer and will not let the unnecessary part of the wall collapse. For them it is necessary to punch holes in the edges of the opening. Then we make a notch with the chisel and go deeper.
For convenience we can knock out the extra horizontal row of bricks. Cutting a horizontal gap the full length of the lintel and a depth of more than 20 cm, we set it. Place mortar under the edge of the lintel from above.
And from below you need to insert small wooden inserts, they will adhere to the lintel. Do the same on the opposite side of the wall.After that you can continue working. Now we finally break down the wall, widening the opening.
The sequence of work is the same. Bricks must be removed from above, from under the lintels. Stock up on wooden inserts.
How to make a doorway (arch) in a brick wall with their own hands.
Very often it happens that the layout of the apartment is not quite comfortable for human habitation.
Sometimes you need to build additional openings (arches) in the wall to give the apartment an original look.
But how, for example, professionally make an opening in a brick wall that nothing fell down and did not have to later engage in major repairs? It is about this that we will tell in this article.
Work with care. Improperly made openings can deform door frames, windows, walls, and (worst) undermine the structure of the house!To begin with, you need to determine exactly what you need an opening for?
Different openings require a special solution. The opening for the new door must be 10 mm larger than the door frame and 6 mm higher. This is the ideal calculation.
For the window, you need to make similar indents. Masters are advised to make a line for the trimmer of the opening so that it coincides with the line of cement masonry.Small openings around 0.9 m do not need any temporary supports. Bricks in such openings on their own can support their own weight.
Creation of large-scale openings should be treated with great care. Let’s consider in detail the technology of creating an opening in a brick wall.
Using a large triangle, put the points (holes and lintels) of the intended opening. If you are making an opening in an exterior wall, it is best to mark from the outside. If there is plaster or whitewash on the wall, be sure to remove it at the corners of the future opening.
This will help you correctly position the masonry at the chosen height.
Do not forget that the top edge of the lintels must be in the bottom row of brickwork. Put on the wall with a knob the location of the crosspieces. And then add 15cm to each edge of the lintel to reinforce it with supports.
It’s best to install the adjustable uprights 60-90 cm from the wall. Put a wooden bar on these supports, this way the load will be distributed. The studs need to be increased until they begin to rest on the ceiling.
Mark the position of the beams on it at 20 cm (or better to be guided by the height of the two bricks, which are located above the supporting beam and 15 cm to the center from its ends). Drill on the wall to transfer the marks for the studs to the other side. Use a chisel, a big hammer.
The work must be carried out on both sides of the wall.
It is best to make the holes rectangular, so that the studs will go in unobstructed. The studs are made from bars of size 7.Make the holes 5×10 cm and make them long enough to overlap each side of the wall by 60 cm. They must rest against the brickwork, so before installing the studs, the vaults are cleared of cement.
Insert the studs in the through holes. They should look out on both sides equally.
The studs (protrusions) should be supported by adjustable supports on both sides.
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How to install the lintel, changing the parameters of the opening?
Often there are very small openings, which subsequently expanded. Sometimes in order to make a door, it is necessary to break down a wall of several layers, such as a brick wall. Then the strengthening takes place in two stages: in the supporting structure and brick. Independently perform this work is quite difficult, usually lintels are bought. But they can be made with your own hands.
There are several varieties of lintels:
- Beams that support horizontal supports.
- Structures with only masonry on top.
- Interior lightweight beams.
- Structures equipped with shelves for the upper loads, called lintels.
Depending on which room the future door will be in, and it is worth starting the work. For cladding, the fastening will be done by means of an angle. It must be more than 80 mm. Fix it so that it is not visible in the masonry of the former window opening. When dismounting, make sure that the parameters remain as even and symmetrical as they were. The angle must fit tightly according to the dimensions of a 1/4 window of 50 mm.
There are 2 types of products, depending on their installation in the former window opening. Sometimes the lintel is poured immediately over it, and sometimes it is attached later. convenient in the construction of the first type, it is also cheaper. This will allow you to fit the price of the door in the budget without cost, because the design will not need to move a special crane.
Now make the formwork by means of wooden bars 20 mm thick. Connect them through the use of self-tapping screws. On the base is placed a row of boards horizontally according to the size of the cut through window, and on top. the armature. The second step is to knock down a vertical row of boards with self-tapping screws.
How to install a lintel, changing the parameters of the opening?
Often there are very small openings that are later expanded. Sometimes in order to make a door, you need to break down a wall of several layers, such as a brick wall. Then the reinforcement is done in two steps: in the supporting structure and brick. Independently perform this work is quite difficult, usually lintels are bought. But they can be made with their own hands.
There are several varieties of lintels:
- Beams withstanding horizontal supports.
- Designs that have only masonry on top.
- Interior lightweight beams.
- Structures equipped with shelves for overhead loads, called transoms.
Depending on what room will be the future door, and should begin work. For cladding the fixing will be done by means of a corner. It should be more than 80 mm. Fix it so that it is not visible in the masonry of the former window opening. When dismantling, make sure that the parameters remain as flat and symmetrical as they were. The angle should fit tightly according to the dimensions of the 1/4 window in 50 mm.
There are 2 types of products, depending on their installation in the former window opening. Sometimes the lintel is poured immediately over it, and sometimes it is attached later. The first type is more convenient to build and is cheaper. This will allow you to fit the price of the door in the budget without cost, because the design will not need to move a special crane.
Now make the formwork with wooden planks 20 mm thick. Connect them by using self-tapping screws. On the base is placed a row of boards horizontally according to the size of the cut window, and on top. the reinforcement. The second step is to knock down a vertical row of boards with screws.
The final components of the work
Reinforcement should be tied with wire strings. In this case, the craftsman can do without welding. And for strength, apply the supports, as they will have to withstand the concrete.
It is important to ensure that in the space left by the facing masonry and the lintel. Mineral wool 1 dm thick will serve you well. And on top of it will be a layer of concrete.
The window faced the street, so the protection from the cold should be the maximum and the redevelopment.
It is worth laying brick on top of a layer of wool, and then spraying mounting foam to prevent drafts from entering through the gaps in the door. Today it is possible to take a 3 cm thick polystyrene foam for insulation.
To prepare the concrete for fixing the door, you need the presence of sand, cement, crushed stone. Pour the concrete with rebar. To do this, dip it into the mortar. After that, usually wait a day, then remove the formwork.
Remember that paint or excess plaster may remain in place of the window. Then it’s time to insert the door frame instead of the window. With screws or dowels screw it down. But before doing so, measure with a level to make sure everything is level. Fill all excess space with foam for installation.
So, if you are bored with the existing plan of your apartment or house, you should change it. With some skills in handling some of the construction equipment can easily be done without assistance.
How clichéd it sounds, but people do have different tastes. Some people like to combine everything under one high ceiling, and the boundaries of functionality to highlight only the color scheme, or limit the furniture, some people prefer the walls between the rooms with mandatory doors and almost no locks on each.
Why all this, if we are talking about cutting a window in the wall, you may ask? But it is to the fact that the problem of having to cut through a new window or door arise most often when the new owners carry out the redevelopment of the room.
How to cut a window in a brick wall: the process of preparation and installation
How clichéd it sounds, but people do have different tastes. Some people like to combine everything under one high ceiling and functional boundaries to highlight only the color scheme, or limit the furniture, someone likes more the walls between the rooms with mandatory doors and almost no locks on each.
What’s all this about, if we’re talking about chopping a window in the wall, you might ask. But it is to the fact that the problem of the need to cut through a new window or door arise most often when the new owners carry out redevelopment of the room.
And yet to the chopping
Although it is easier to plan such things in advance.
The process itself, though seemingly simple, is not so simple. The fact that many buildings have stood for many years, the components of which the building stood in a working position, stood. And any rude intervention can lead not only to the removal of material, but also to the collapse of the wall.
So we will make everything very carefully. For a start, let’s gather materials, tools and devices.
- All levels, which are: a building simple and water (water is mandatory for houses of old construction, where due to shrinkage processes, the level of masonry may be far from horizontal), ideally the laser level, plumb;
- The entire mason’s kit (trowel, trowel, mixer attachment for preparing working mixes);
- Measuring tools (tape measure, large angle, folding meter);
- Hammer, chisels of several kinds, and scrapers if available;
- Peorator and angle grinder with a wheel on the stone (in this case, the angle grinder should be professional with a large wheel), drills for through drilling the wall with pobedite or diamond tips;
- Supports for fixing the studs, as well as the studs themselves and planks at least 50 mm thick for single-level alignment of the supports.
For your information! So affectionately called studs are very far from what we imagine them to be in everyday life. Actually, these are quite powerful beams, the main purpose of which is to create a supporting structure for the wall to prevent the collapse at the time of the excavation of the material for the window.
The preparation process is important
Cleaning the wall and marking out the water are the most important preparatory steps.
There are several important steps in this process:
- Stage one is the complete removal of brick wall sections of wallpaper, plaster and other coatings;
- The second step is to mark out a place for the window, the window slab, as well as places for the studs to pass outside.
- With a hammer and chisel you need to completely clean the brick wall from layers of plaster in the area of the proposed window with the calculation of at least an additional 15 cm around the perimeter of the proposed window, for convenience. You will also need to clear a place for the floor beam and the already mentioned studs.
Note! At the stage of clearing the wall you will need to think about the size of the window in a brick house. Usually the size of windows in brick houses in the private sector are ordered under the template, all the same, so in this case there will be no problems. Window sizes in a brick khrushchevka can be several types, but considering the fact that the walls there are load-bearing to get permission to install another window is quite difficult and almost unrealistic. Therefore, the question: the size of the windows in a brick-paneled house can be considered only in the context of replacing wooden windows with plastic ones.
- At the second stage of preparatory work there is a marking of places directly under a window, under a beam and under studs. Here also takes place the inspection and transfer of electric wiring, if necessary, as well as assesses the possibility and the need to connect the radiators of heating. Also, particular attention is paid to the state of masonry bricks, and if it has a beveled look, it could indicate that in this place the building has the maximum shrinkage and arrange a void here for a window may not be appropriate.
Advice! When marking the wall, take into account that if you open the sandwich system, you need to think about further insulation, or at least the sealing of the joint. That is necessary to calculate the increase of window opening just on the width of the insulation. And when planning a place under the lintel, you need to remember that the structure itself should go at least 15.20 cm from the opening in the material.
Work on the wall
Now move on to work directly with the wall.
In this case we carry out the following step by step:
- In a brick wall is drilled through holes so that the bottom of the brickwork will be on a wooden beam (sometimes between the beam and the brick are exposed metal corners). The brick is knocked out carefully with a hammer and chisel so that the square cutouts are created. The work takes place both outside the building and inside, where possible, the brick is cut angle grinder, where this opportunity is missing, drilled brick body, and then knocked out with a hammer and chisel the required size;
- Then the so-called studs are installed. In this case, beams are laid in the tunnels and are supported by posts, which in turn are fixed on wooden platforms. When aligning this structure, take into account the fact that the distance from the posts to the wall should be at least 60 cm, all of them are leveled and only then fixed to the posts and the posts to the platforms with nails in the special holes for fixing;
- Now you need to prepare a place for the floor beam. In this case two techniques are applicable:
- simple, using two channels;
- complicated, using a combined lintel.
- The first technique involves disassembling the brick, taking into account the previous recommendations under the channels, which are installed on the ribs. In this case, the brick is removed from both the outside and the inside. In the channel itself is drilled holes, not less than 5 to fix the two fragments to each other with bolts, the same holes are drilled in the remaining layer of brick. And then the channel is tightened with bolts. This connection will be strong enough and durable. Fixing the channels in the wall can be made with cement mortar, which can build up the wall at the joints, you can pour foam concrete, which will be somewhat easier. All further work can be carried out after the full readiness of the channels and hardening of the filling;
- The second technique is more complicated, as it involves the installation of a reinforced concrete structure and a metal angle. Reinforced concrete construction may be ready-made, as well as made by one’s own hands with the use of reinforcement and cement. The only point to consider is that the structure must be prepared in advance. Notch is prepared in a different way than under the channels, the cement beam is placed closer to the inner layer, and the metal corner is derived outside, with the corner itself goes to the beam, forming a niche. Since the slab consists of different elements, a hydrobarrier is put on top of them, and then insulation or decorative facing bricks can be put on the corner. But it is possible to seal this combined beam in the same way as the channel. with cement mortar. Readiness for further work is carried out after the mortar hardens and the partition rests.
How to make an opening in a brick wall
The situation when you need to make an opening in the wall, there are quite rare. Mostly it happens when the tenants are fed up with the layout of the house or apartment. Most often, openings are distributed in the design of the building. But if such a problem has become urgent, you need to think carefully. Break a brick masonry can anyone, it is important only to follow certain rules. This will help to avoid the formation of cracks in the wall and other unpleasant consequences. Incorrectly cut through the hole most often leads to deformation of the walls, in rare cases. to damage to the entire structure.
To make an opening in the wall, it is necessary to properly disassemble it. To do this you need types of walls and types of masonry.
Brickwork is of the following types:
In the first case, bricks are laid with the spoon outward. The second and third cases involve variable masonry: one row outward with a spoon, the other. with a dowel. With well masonry wall has two rows of masonry, forming a kind of well. This space is filled with construction debris, slag or gravel.
- partition. This is the thinnest wall, most often has a spoon masonry,
- supporting. This is the thickest wall, having in most cases well masonry.
Regardless of the purpose of the opening, door or window, you must have for work:
In addition will certainly be required materials such as
How to make a door opening in a brick wall
To properly penetrate the doorway does not require professionalism, you only need to determine the type of brickwork. The available documentation of the house will help to understand this issue. Otherwise you will have to use a peorator. The work will require a core cutter with a diameter of 100 mm. In the place where it is planned to make an opening, holes are drilled. A hand should pass freely through them. The type of brickwork is determined by feeling the space of the wall.
Breaking through brick walls is always accompanied by a lot of dust. Therefore, you should not start work without special protective clothing:
When breaking through the opening, the wall is sprayed with water from an ordinary sprayer. This contributes to the settling of the resulting dust.
Any opening, regardless of masonry or the purpose of the wall, must necessarily have a shape of the letter “T”. A rung is inserted into the upper part to hold the brickwork. If the opening is made in a partition, an ordinary wooden board can be used as a rung. In a load-bearing wall, a reinforced concrete beam is required for this purpose.
The partition has a small thickness, so it is not difficult to make an opening in it at all. The work process consists of the following steps:
- Using a ruler and square a proper marking is made. It is important to remember that the opening must be slightly wider than the intended door.
- Plaster, whitewash and wallpaper should be removed from the marked area of the wall so that the brick is clearly visible.
- The cuts are made along the marked lines. This requires an angle grinder, which has a diamond disc. The diameter of the disc should be at least 200 mm. The cut marks will serve as a rim for the future opening.
- It is best to knock out the first brick with a peorator with a core cutter or large-diameter drill. Drill holes through the joints of the brick.
- Using a chisel and hammer, a few bricks are knocked out.
- First the hole for the partition is punched. A wooden plank is inserted into it and filled with cement mortar. Ignoring this process will lead to cracks in the wall.
Making an opening in the wall
Punching an opening in a load-bearing wall has minor differences and consists of the following steps:
- Drawing a marking. It is best to use special instruments for this purpose, but a large angle and a meter ruler will do. The marking is made on the outer side by removing all coverings up to the brick. This is necessary for the proper installation of supporting lintels.
- Holes for supports. Work at this stage requires particular accuracy, because the holes must be rectangular in shape. Therefore it is recommended to work with a hammer and chisel. The result should be the outline of the future opening.
- Installing the supports. Use reinforced concrete beams as supports. They are inserted into the prepared holes and filled with concrete mortar. It is important to wait for the concrete to harden completely.
- Remove the wall. Break the wall down with a hammer and crowbar. Drill holes in several places of the opening to weaken the masonry.
- The protruding bricks are carefully chipped or sawn off. Remove construction debris and plaster residue from the opening.
- Reinforcing of the opening. The opening made in a load-bearing wall, is subject to mandatory reinforcement. For this purpose, steel channel is great, but the rounded edges and bevels prevent a snug fit to the wall. You must therefore bring the edges of the channels to the ideal shape by edging or pouring the resulting cavities with concrete. Metal angles are a great alternative to channels. This material has excellent technical characteristics and smooth angles. To strengthen the opening two identical elements are taken, in which the horizontal holes are made in advance. The protruding part of the angle or channel is directed toward the wall above the opening. After that both elements are bolted together.
Making an opening in a load-bearing wall, you should not skimp on the material for reinforcement. The slightest deviation or error leads to the subsidence of the floor. This is dangerous to health and life.
Making a doorway in a brick wall, it is important to take into account two things:
- The size of the opening must comply with building regulations. The standard width of the opening should be 70-200 cm, and the height. no more than 210 cm.
- To distribute the load on the doorway evenly, you need to make it in the center of the wall or with a slight offset.
How to widen a window opening in a brick wall
Standard apartment layouts do not always meet the desires of their owners, and often there is a need for redevelopment. Changing the size and boundaries of rooms often means moving or enlarging doors and windows. This type of work requires not only an accurate calculation, but also the use of special tools.
The easiest, but not the most effective way is to punch holes and widen them with a piercing machine or an electric hammer. But this method is very labor-intensive and requires a lot of physical effort. In addition, the process generates a lot of dust and debris. Much more effective and fast, and less noisy diamond cutting of doorways and windows. This is the technology that is increasingly being used in remodeling.
Door openings in load-bearing walls: Dust-free cutting of wall openings, expanding and relocating
Getting to remodeling, you need to consider the building codes, as well as peculiarities of the building. Transfer or expansion of the door opening in the load-bearing wall should not cause weakening of the house structure, and lead to deformations. That is why the project of any redevelopment must be coordinated with the supervisory authorities.
When making an opening in a load bearing wall you must take into account the load changes and, if necessary, perform reinforcement. This can be achieved by additional reinforcement of the new opening, by reinforcing the steel constructions, and in some cases by using cantilevers. Often the work requires a temporary reinforcement structure that reduces the loads at the site of the new opening.
The most efficient way to cut openings in load-bearing walls is to use diamond cutting tools. Of course, the noise level of the diamond cutting is lower than that of the torch, but it is still there, and in connection with this work is better to work during the daytime on weekdays, so as not to create discomfort for your family and neighbors. It is not possible to get rid of dust completely, but its quantity can be significantly reduced by using an industrial vacuum cleaner together with cutting tools. Do not forget about personal protective equipment: dust mask, goggles or mask and earphones to protect against noise.
Particularly difficult are curved openings, such as arch-shaped openings. The wall is cut in separate segments, as much as possible coinciding with the shape of the future opening. But a perfect overlap cannot be achieved using only cutting tools. The final look of the arch is given by plastering or plasterboard sheets.
Punching through brick walls: how to cut and enlarge a window opening with diamond cutting?
Each construction material has its own peculiarities. Expanding a door opening in a concrete wall allows obtaining an even cut along its entire length, which cannot be said about masonry. When working with masonry must observe some precautions to avoid additional deformations.
Before you expand a doorway in the brickwork must make reinforcements directly above the door. To do this, knock out a row of bricks about 150-300 mm wider than the opening and lay there lintel. After that carefully mark both sides of the wall. Cut into the wall more than half on each side and then carefully remove the cut out area.
For greater ease of production of works, the opening can be cut in several stages, dividing the dismantled area into several smaller ones. This will simplify disposal of debris after work is completed.
Expanding a window opening in a brick wall is performed in a similar manner. But in this case you need to perform the work at height. To do this must comply with safety regulations high-altitude work and the use of safety equipment. If you have no experience in such works, it is better to refuse to perform them yourself, and invite industrial climbers.
Diamond cutting and reinforcing openings
What are the benefits of diamond cutting in concrete?
First of all, it is a low level of vibration and noise during work. This effect is achieved thanks to the impact-free technology and the high rotation speed of the cutting wheel. Safety of diamond cutting is also important. during the process there is no scattering of concrete splinters, and the amount of dust rising into the air is minimal.
The equipment used in this technology is very accurate, so all the specified parameters will be respected without the slightest deviation. The wall will be cut exactly as marked and the angle will not be disturbed. Also the risk of cracks when cutting concrete or brick walls is reduced to zero. So it is safe to use this method in domestic premises.
Is it really that important to have a work permit?
According to existing legislation, the creation of openings and apertures in the walls, which are load-bearing, requires the preliminary development of the project with obtaining documentation for it. And the work can not begin until you are in possession of a technical opinion proving that redevelopment is possible. Diamond cutting openings in the bearing walls, without permission, at best risk a fine from the supervisory authorities.
One of the design stages is an engineering survey, the purpose of which is to clarify the technical condition of the building and its structures. In the process, you will have to provide access not only to your apartment. The engineer should be able to look at the apartment below and above the riser. in terms of already made alterations. Based on the information received a decision will be made whether it is possible to make an opening in a bearing wall.
What are the stages in the process of cutting the door openings?
To make a door opening in a load-bearing wall, you will need to do the following work:
- Marking the wall.
- Drilling test holes in the wall.
- Waterproofing of the floor in the room where the work will be carried out.
- Cutting along the perimeter or cutting along the perimeter into transportable parts. if the house is paneled.
- Installation of the metal structure reinforcing the opening.
- Breaking down large pieces of wall with a concrete breaker and removing them from the working field.
How to cut an opening or a window?
If there is a need to cut through and mount a new partition in a load-bearing wall or simply expand the span for a door, when dismantling work, it is important to follow certain rules:
- Before you start expanding the opening in the brick wall, you need to strengthen the slab with special support structures. shoes. After to the thick planks attach a beam and put it on the shoes, thus we get a load-bearing beam.
- If the doorway in the load-bearing wall is wide, it is recommended to place the beams along the wall on both sides to strengthen the structure.
- For the new passage to be reliable, it is recommended to use a concrete surface as a base for fixing.
Tools, preparatory work
Cutting a brick wall is carried out using a peorator, a jackhammer, powered by electricity. Such a tool without problems pierces a hole in the partition, with a minimum of physical effort required. However, sometimes the cutting of the hole is carried out with a sledgehammer, chisel, other hand tools.
Often the cutting of openings in brick walls is carried out with an angle grinder, on which a diamond disc is installed. In this case, cutting through the walls in half a brick is carried out, because if you use a rougher tool, there is a high risk of new cracks and a rapid increase in the size of the old ones. If there is wiring along the brick wall, you need to detect it and remove it. To cut the opening safely, it is worth clearing the wall of plasterboard, wallpaper and other finishing materials.
Cutting a door opening
Before you start cutting down the wall for the new door, you must first lay the doorway in the old place. The doorway is filled with building materials. bricks, mortar, and finally, the plaster is sealed. Cutting brick walls is carried out in stages:
Cutting the hole in the wall is carried out after the preparatory work.
- First, the brickwork should be cut a grommet, into which the lintel is placed. Next, the resulting hole must be sealed with mortar.
- On the sides of the brick wall it is worth installing reinforced concrete supports.
- When the mortar has set, you can begin to cut a new passage.
- The bricks are disassembled, and the protruding parts are filed down.
- The next step is to finish the door and brickwork.
If a new entrance door is planned in another place, it is recommended to make a span of standard dimensions. the height is 2070, and the width of 900 mm.
Cutting a hole for a window
The need to make a window opening occurs rarely, since the initial placement of windows in a brick house is strictly planned. However, if the installation of windows is necessary, it is important to observe strict rules. Since the window is always made in the outer walls, before cutting a new hole, it is recommended to first make a reinforcement of the opening in the load-bearing wall. For reliability, it is important that the top of the window is located on the channel. The sequence of opening is as follows:
Install a reinforced concrete lintel at the top edge of the future opening.
- Around the planned upper edge, a span is punched, in which a reinforced concrete lintel is inserted.
- Install an intermediate support, which will take the load during the work.
- The required size of the span is dismantled.
- A new window is installed.
- The window opening is reinforced.
How to make or overlap a window opening in masonry
Everyone knows that the preservation of heat in the house very often depends on the windows. All new buildings are built with modern heat-saving windows. How warm and comfortable it will be in the new house depends on their proper erection. Window openings in masonry must be planned and calculated in advance, all dimensions are reflected in the project drawings of the erected building. Keeping your home warm depends a lot on how well the windows are installed.
Installation of all window structures in brick walls should be done with great care and with the obligatory observance of all technology.
The tool needed to conduct the device of window openings in masonry brickwork:
- Plumb line.
- Bricklayer’s trowel.
- Bricklayer’s hammer.
- Bar level.
- Mason’s cord.
- Measuring tape and a folding ruler.
- Bricklayer’s box.
Installing window openings in a brick wall
It often happens that builders start to install plastic windows on the lower floors of the house, while the bricklayers just finish laying and arranging window openings on the upper floors. In this case, no deviations in the size of the opening from the existing drawings, not even 1 cm.
For good insulation in the window opening of the facade cladding masonry is made with an overhang of bricks relative to the rough masonry (ledge under the windows). Therefore not to miss with the sizes, it is necessary to have idea about how installation of double-glazed window in a window aperture is carried out.
The windows are usually made after two sets of five rows of masonry, and under the window sill there should be another butt row. So the window opens on around the 14th course of brickwork. When laying the wall with the window opening, the bricklayer must immediately take note of the dimensions in the drawings. Laying of the first row of facing should be made so that all the edges of the opening coincided with the vertical seam of the wall or go under the middle of the brick.
The width of the opening should be a little wider than indicated in the drawings on the height of the opening. In any case, you can not do them already. Adjust the height of the opening by adjusting the thickness of the joint.
To cover the window openings you usually use a 120 corner piece. It is pre-cut to size (you need to leave a gap of about 10 cm) and painted. The installation of the angle is made on the level strictly horizontally. For this it is necessary that the facing masonry of all rows should also be strictly horizontal.
Often in the construction of cottages make windows with semicircular, arched and even round shapes. The laying of such structures requires a highly skilled performer. To cover the window openings use metal corners, homemade or prefabricated concrete lintels and monolith on site.
What to do if the wall is already built, and you decide to make another window? Or maybe you wanted to remodel your apartment and make a window in a brick wall between two rooms? There is a way out. A window can also be made in such cases.
A tool needed when creating window openings in an existing brick wall:
- angle grinder
- construction level
- tape measure
When we put additional windows in order to improve air circulation or as a new source of light, do not forget about the caution. The window section is designed during the construction of the house. It is allowed to make holes in the finished wall. The opening can be bricked in different ways. It is important to properly reinforce the structure without upsetting the balance of load distribution on the load-bearing elements. In addition, the process of constructing window openings must not interfere with technical safety. It is important that the construction work is compatible with the standards of the utility systems located in the house.
You probably understand the danger of removing intermediate bricks from the wall. the situation is similar to the movie “Operation Y”, when G. Vitsin took out the bottom pot from the vertical pile. Here is the same situation and no instruction will give you a guide to this type of partial dismantling. To understand how to correctly dismantle a wall to make an opening in it, you need to understand its construction.
Types of brickwork
- The brick is a volumetric rectangle with three main sides, which, according to GOST 530-2007, are called spoon, butt and bed. In Russia, a single product standard is adopted, so the red brick (ordinary or refractory) has the following dimensions: single. 250x120x65 mm, half. 250x120x88 mm and double. 250x120x103 mm. And here is a double silicate brick M 150 is slightly different and its dimensions are 250x120x138 mm.
- In construction, the thickness of masonry is usually determined not by the metric system, but by parts of brick or stone. Therefore the wall can be full stone (full brick), three-quarter stone, half stone, quarter stone, as well as two stone, two stone with a quarter, and so on.
- First, a little theory about masonry. above you see three ways of tying masonry. spoon, chain and cross. The first way, when all the bricks are lying with the spoon on the outside says that the depth of its 120 mm. If you see a side in the masonry, which is called poke, then the thickness, of course, increases to 250 mm, but this is not in the partitions, but in bearing or semi-bearing walls (see. Also Is it possible to build a bath with your own hands out of bricks).
A brick wall in section. Well masonry
- Well masonry is so called because it has wells in the interstitial cavity, which are filled with some kind of insulation. In older homes, it is most often slag, which serves as insulation, but sometimes it can just be construction waste and even soil (such were builders). In modern buildings, as a thermal insulation in such cases, most often use foam insulation or carbamide-formaldehyde foam (CFP).
- But not always well masonry consists of two partitions, more often it is reinforced with another one (see “The wall opening”). photo above) or even two rows of bricks. Naturally, in such a situation, the task is more difficult because of the depth of the obstacle.
Tip. To make it easier for you to cut an opening in a brick wall, determine what kind of masonry is there (how many rows and what kind of filler). To do this, you will need to pass the wall in several places with a perorator, with a crown cutter at least 100 mm in diameter, so you can freely stick your hand in there or illuminate with a flashlight.
Cutting an opening
- To make a cut in the wall of a brick house for a door or window, first of all you need to mark this place with chalk. One should take into consideration that the opening should be necessarily a few centimeters larger than the door or window frame, because after the installation the installation foam is blown into this gap, which serves as additional fixation, as well as insulation of the gap.
The upper part of the opening is widened under the beam
- Look at the photo, and you will see that the opening is made in the shape of the letter T, where the crossbar is created for the beam that will support the masonry overhanging the top. As this beam in the walls use a wooden bar, and in semi-bearing walls. a board 50 mm thick and if you disassemble these structures, that’s exactly what you will see there. Reinforced concrete beams are used for openings in load-bearing walls (if you’ve ever had to make holes for cornice brackets on a load-bearing wall, you’ve seen it for yourself).
- First let’s try to make an opening in the partition at half a brick or a quarter brick (this is the usual thickness of partitions). It is certainly easier to disassemble a partition, but with this example, you can learn how to disassemble more complex (load-bearing and semi-bearing) structures. Simply on such partitions the principle of brick removal will be clear. (see. Also Real to build a tandoor out of bricks with your own hands)
- Along the vertically marked lines it is necessary to make notches with an angle grinder using a disc with a diamond spray. Only for this purpose it is better to use the powerful angular sander with a disk 230 mm or even 250 mm. it will be easier for you to disassemble a wall. In any case, the disc diameter should be at least 180 mm, although this is not enough.
- You may need to make the cut along a horizontal line, right through the bricks. this happens when you need to make an opening with precise dimensions. Of course, the ideal would be when the disk cuts the brick completely, but more often than not this does not happen, except for on the partition in a quarter brick. That’s why the cut itself often serves as a kind of edging for the even edges of the opening.
Expanding the opening
So, removing 6 cm of partition. which is the size of a quarter brick. does not involve any measures to provide support for the lintel. It is quite another matter when it comes to expanding a window, combining two openings into one, or even cutting an opening in the masonry where there was none before.
- Facing a window opening with bricks is not always done in a house under construction. Sometimes the building is simply rebuilt, overhauled, and the expansion of openings becomes an integral part of the work. Therefore, this chapter will provide a brief instruction on this topic.
- When you enlarge the opening significantly, not only the window unit is dismantled. To make a new, longer lintel, the old lintel most often has to be removed. The number one problem you must solve is to make sure that the new lintel will be properly supported.
Reinforcing of the opening, cut in the masonry, with a steel lintel
Notice! When the carrying capacity of the old masonry is in doubt, then along the length of the future lintel whole fragments of masonry can be immediately removed, and the sides of the opening are laid with new slopes. If everything is normal with masonry, then the side walls of the opening are simply hemmed. In this case, under the new lintel. first from the outer side and to the middle of the wall, grooves are cut, and their supporting part is smoothed with high-strength cement mortar.
- After the hardening of the surface of the spots, install a beam in the grooves, wedge it and arrange supports. Then all the same is done from the side of the room and after that the partition is disassembled, supporting pillars are removed, cavities that were created in the wall are closed, and the new window frame is mounted.
- Of course, to make in such a situation beautiful lintels from bricks, it is impossible. it is done in the process of building a house. When expanding the openings, either reinforced concrete products or steel rolled metal are used. In private construction, the second option is most often used, so it is on it that we focus our attention.
Masonry brick window opening
- After the metal girder is installed, it and the brickwork above the window opening are wedged in, and only then does the dismantling of the old soffits begin. Similarly, the lintel for the new large opening that joins the two small old windows is installed. Only here, in addition to the side slopes, it is necessary to support the central partition.
- After the grooves for the new lintel have been cut and the heels grouted, the partition between the two openings is trimmed. After the lintel beams have been installed, take it apart completely, removing the props and stanchions at the same time. If the wall is thick, the lintel should consist of three beams: two on the outer contours, and one central, which is inserted from the side of the opening, from below.
Then all this is tightened with cross-bars and the window opening is clad with bricks. Please note that the new slopes are laid with M50 mortar, tying them to the existing wall in every possible way.
In this case, most often perform one of today’s most popular framing variants of the opening, which is called “a quarter”. In any case, it is the simplest option.
The laying of decorative elements
The framing of openings in a quarter brick, can be performed both in the construction of the wall, and in the process of replacing windows. To execute quarters on a rectangular window, it is easier to do it on a steel lintel, and it is more convenient, if it will be the corner in the size 120120 mm.
Metal, by the way, should always be coated with a rust preventive prior to installation.
- If you need to give the window a spherical shape, then instead of steel rolled wooden templates are used. the brickwork above the window opening is made according to them.
Masonry window aperture made of bricks
- To make a quarter, the brick is put forward beyond the general plane of the wall, with the forehand, by 5-6 cm. This makes up a quarter of the length of the brick, which gave its name to this architectural element. By the way, with the advent of plastic windows, it began to be performed not just as a decoration. A quarter on the opening allows to cover the joints between the masonry and the window frame, thereby improving the quality of insulation of the opening.
- The presence of quarters on the opening is a great option not only from an aesthetic point of view. They allow using any sealant and thermal insulation materials for caulking the gaps between the window frame and the partition. Although, in order to highlight window openings in relief on the facade, there are other, more decorative ways of laying bricks.
Simple framing of window openings against a decorative masonry wall
- To move forward in the construction of masonry, not only the dowel side, but also the spoon side. The brick itself can lay not on the rib, but vertically. The position of the bricks, as well as their color and even shape, can alternate, creating an ornament similar to cogs or a chess field.
What to say: an experienced bricklayer can lay out not only the window areas, but the whole wall in general, as it is fashionable to say now: in “3D format. This is exactly the kind of art, without exaggeration, we see in the picture above.