How to cut a window in an aircrete wall

The main considered difference from other wall materials is the porous structure and weak self-supporting capacity. embedded plastic and wooden windows need to be fixed by special expanding dowels (conventional ones are not suitable because of the risk of outburst), GOST provides for vapor and water barriers between the frame and blocks themselves, excluding direct contact of outside environment with the package. Preventive measures include reinforcing the opening still at the stage of the walls. This is done by laying of gas concrete lintel or metal angle covered with thermal insulation. If the area is large and the weight of the structure to be fixed, not only the upper part but also the side edges should be reinforced.

To eliminate the risk of accumulation of condensate in the joint areas, all joints are made as hermetically sealed as possible, subsequently it is recommended to cover the joints with pieces of aerated concrete, a thick layer of plaster or special PVC trim. The long plugs or anchor plates fixed with screwed-in self-drilling screws (at least 3 pcs per 2 m length) ensure the mechanical fixation of the pack. Silicone self-adhesive tape and/or a foam layer with a small pore diameter and low expansion properties act as insulation. Optimal results are achieved by laying a three-layer installation joint.

Installation of plastic windows is carried out after the processing of areas of the opening with antiseptic and adhesion-increasing primers. This procedure closes the cells of the blocks and reduces the effect of dust on the adhesion quality of the sealing tape and foam. All materials used in the arrangement of the seam, should have a long service life (20 years and above), saving in these areas is unacceptable. The same applies to plates and self-tapping screws with maximum corrosion protection.

How to saw out a window in foam concrete. How to lay a window foam concrete with his own hands; Foamer for foam concrete

“The steeper the mountains, the lower the Priory.”. In the context of this article, a slope is not a characteristic of the terrain, but the plane of a window opening perpendicular to the wall.

When bricks were used to build walls, the problem of preparing the openings was solved in a standard way. the so-called “quarter” ledge at 60 mm (a quarter of the length of a brick of traditional Russian format) external “spoon” (120 mm thick). facing, or masonry “under the plaster”. Now built of brick rarely. mostly only facing (which also perform the same “quarter” in the facing of the main wall. of cellular concrete, porous ceramic, etc.).п.).

And what if the builder is not wealthy, and decided to build a house of aerated concrete? At the stage of erecting walls, the builder-private developer rarely thinks about how the windows will be installed in the openings, counting on the fact that there are standard solutions for this problem. What “pitfalls” can expect the builder in case of improper implementation of this node?

When installing windows, it is common practice to fill the gap between the window and the slope with installation foam, which is destroyed under the influence of ultraviolet light. Also, due to the significant coefficient of thermal expansion of plastic windows (and such windows are installed by the vast majority of developers), the installation foam takes on the role of the element with the elastic deformation, maintaining the integrity of the window geometry changes. The assembly polyurethane foams traditionally used have properties of elastic deformation, but due to their vapor permeability they are able to accumulate and retain moisture under certain conditions. when the water is saturated with steam.н. “points of saturated water vapor” in the installation foam layer. In this case the foam, soaked during the fall, freezes in winter, becomes brittle and is gradually destroyed. Therefore, the task of prolonging the integrity of the window as a structure is to protect the foam layer from the factors of its destruction. the impact of ultraviolet light and the penetration of water vapor in the foam layer.

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Let’s consider the first factor. protecting the foam layer from the outside. When a builder invites a masonry team to perform masonry of aerated concrete, the proposal to perform masonry openings in the wall of aerated concrete with a quarter is taken as an insult. because the labor intensity of this operation is high, and for the usual cost of masonry aerated concrete installers refuse to perform it. over, if it is theoretically possible for vertical window aperture in AAC concrete wall soffits (why theoretically. AAC concrete installers can rarely make straight soffits), then for horizontal (upper) soffit it is also connected with the necessity to correlate this task with making window lintel. from U-blocks or ready made, and neither of them are better to saw.

What solutions can be applied?? You can install the window in a straight opening, put plaster on the outer jamb and use a plastic slat, which is “cheap and sulfurous. In this case, that it would look natural aesthetically, the gap under the mounting foam should be small, which limits the thickness of the insulation of the internal slope.

And why insulate the slope from the inside?? The thickness of the plastic window does not exceed 120 mm (some manufacturers plastic windows are profile models with a thicker box, serving as an external lining). Accordingly, the thickness of the wall, separating the outer slope from the inside, is not more than 120 mm (mostly 60-70 mm). Of course, this thickness for insulation is not enough (if the street.20, and inside 20), and part of the slope adjacent to the window will condense, which is unpleasant in itself. condensate from the slope will flow on the window sill, and subsequently in the lining of the aerated concrete can get mold and mildew.

What can be insulated slope? For installers-builders it is more convenient to carry out “dry” processes and that is why sandwich panels filled with polyurethane are popular. Not everyone is happy with the aesthetics of the “plastic” slope, exacerbated by the need to use plastic profiles. corners, etc.п. Insulated plaster slopes are more aesthetic but also more laborious. Returning to the first option of external slope. with a slat, we can say that it can be paired with only a thin sandwich panel which will not provide the condition of condensation inside the wall.

The solution. all the same “quarter”. Only this quarter in the wall opening from aerated concrete is advisable to perform after the masonry, first correcting the mistakes of installers of aerated concrete.

Quarters are made of the same aerated concrete. sawed strips of blocks of thickness 100 mm (blocks of other thickness will not turn out as smoothly, although this option is possible). This operation can be done manually with an aerated concrete saw, or it can be done with a machine, such as a scroll saw or a circular saw with a pobedite blade.

The option of using special machines to cut aerated concrete for a private builder looks too speculative. Blanks of aerated concrete are glued to the opening from aerated concrete on the glue (cement), and plastered with additional reinforcement of alkali-resistant fiberglass mesh, so as to overlap the glue joint at least 50 mm. This method will ensure structural integrity, the slope “will not come off”. With this type of arrangement of the aerated concrete opening, it is possible to use sufficient layers of thermal insulation on the inside of the linings.

For some styles of facade implementation, such as imitation half-timbered houses, it is possible not to make quarters, and close the outer part of the slope with a board, imitating the vertical overlay along the window frame post. It is also possible to simply execute external platbands and external jambs from a tree, plastic, metal profiles. as far as the width of aesthetic outlook allows.

It is also possible to make exterior trim without making a quarter. In this solution, the windows are installed in line with the facade, and the mounting gap is closed by the casing, which can be made of wood (for color. with shutters), and aerated concrete (but this structure is not tear-off).

With all the variety of choices, the “golden mean” in a house with walls of aerated concrete under stucco is to make the outer quarters of aerated concrete. From the point of view of thermal engineering, such a design has virtually no disadvantages, and at the same time aesthetically, although not pretentious (if no architectural elements are used, such as platbands), but also will not cause reproaches for tastelessness.

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The following video briefly describes how to reinforce aerated concrete quarters.

Depth of support

For the reliability of the whole construction it is very important to correctly calculate such parameters as the area of support, length and width of the reinforcing elements. These components are determined based on the width of the window opening, as well as the height of the masonry above it. Depending on the type of lintel, determine the depth of support for the lintel on the gas concrete wall or the minimum length of its insertion into the masonry. The most popular options are:

  • Reinforced product of high-strength cellular concrete for an opening of up to 174 cm. If the device is used for a supporting structure, then the minimum support value is 25 cm.
  • Reinforced concrete product. For a window opening up to 300 cm wide, the supporting U-shaped lintel is led into the masonry by 25 cm, the monolithic structure for an opening up to 200 cm is led by 35 cm. The second variant, unlike the first, requires additional outside insulation.
  • Of metal elements. For window opening widths up to 200 cm, 20 cm into the masonry. Do not push the lintel deeper into the wall.

The option without lintels is also used in practice. In order to implement the conceived, you need to comply with several requirements:

window, wall
  • The width of the window opening does not exceed 120 cm.
  • The height of masonry over the box is no more than 2/3 the width of the opening.
  • Temporary formwork is installed.
  • Several rows of reinforcement are built over the reinforcement.
  • The voids are filled with glue for aerated concrete.

Standards

Renovation of the housing stock is not happening as quickly as we would like. The standards for Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev windows are still generally accepted today. These homes were built thoroughly. Many such objects have thick brick walls, high ceilings and rooms with a large meterage.

Standards for window openings with quarters have the following dimensions:

The conceptual style of the project should not be violated by inappropriate dimensions and the wrong number of window openings. Experts also take into account the height of the ceilings, the total number of floors, the area of each room, and other architectural features.

The appearance of the facade of the building largely depends on the exterior finish and shape of the windows. The outside can be finished with any materials. think at least of the exquisite classic ceramic facades of panel houses.

If you remember the stages of construction, the period from 1930 to 1960 was a time of beautiful houses decorated with red bricks, stucco facades with monumental sculptures. In the period 1950-1985 the brick building was replaced by the panel construction. Wall plasterboard was often used in prefabricated buildings. Gypsum plasterboard was widely used in prefabricated houses.

The rooms in such houses were small and the ceilings were low. Standard window aperture also changed its size depending on which wall (brick or panel) this aperture would be made.

window, wall

The “Brezhnev” houses had a slightly improved layout. The houses were mostly nine stories high, with warm apartments, an elevator, and a garbage disposal. The size of the windows in the houses was determined by the State Standard Specification Series. The biggest window openings were in the 600 series.

Standard dimensions of windows in modern new buildings are regulated by State Standards, but the width and height of openings differ considerably. Modern state standards also take into account the area of the premises. That is, the required level of light is obtained by the difference in openings.

Window openings of apartments in apartment buildings are part of the bearing walls of the building. To change the design in such a house is categorically forbidden.

At the same time, manufacturers of plastic windows are not limited to standard sizes and shapes, as non-standard window openings may be present in frame houses, houses of aerated concrete. Nuances are associated with the structural features of the profile, as well as the weight of the insulating glass unit.

The installation of plastic windows is a large-scale phenomenon, which is observed everywhere. Standard plastic block only approximately fits the existing openings in the house, so the replacement of the construction usually begins with a visit of a measuring engineer. The size of the window openings of private homes and do not differ from state standards adopted for residential buildings.

GOST requirements still need to know, they will serve as a guarantee of safety in the apartment. In addition, any deviation from the standards leads to an inevitable increase in the cost of the product. Typical models may not make the apartment warmer, but will cost less.

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The main stages of installing a plastic window into the wall of aerated concrete

To begin with, when installing a PVC window it is impossible to answer the question which of the two methods of anchoring is better. The only thing you can say is that in case of installation with plates, you will work much faster.

The main stages of the installation of PVC window:

Making an AIRCRETE Garden Wall & Height Test

It is desirable to make a fixation on the diagonal, that is, first fixed one upper corner, then one lower corner on the other side.

The final stage of installation of PVC window can be considered its fastening in any place, after diagonal fixing. Next, the installation will be carried out sill and sills, followed by sealing.

Step by step installation of windows into the gas concrete house with your own hands

Aerated concrete is currently becoming an increasingly popular material. It can even be used to construct residential buildings. Aerated concrete not only has sufficient strength, but also has a number of advantages. a small weight, good insulation properties, and so on. This explains its growing popularity. If you decide to build a house of aerated concrete, then one of the important phases of the construction work will be the installation of windows. It is quite possible to do it with your own hands. True, in this case you can’t do without an assistant. After all, it is not so easy to manage alone with a rather heavy window.

Opening in a load-bearing wall: how to do it without compromising the strength of the building

Bearing walls are so called because they carry the load of the ceiling, upper floors and the roof. It can be very significant, so any violation of the integrity of the structure leads to the risk of collapse or recognition of the building as emergency. For this reason, an opening in a load-bearing wall without its preliminary reinforcement can not be done, and in most cases it is generally prohibited by law and construction norms, especially if we are talking about high-rise buildings.

preparatory works

In order to properly perform the installation of plastic windows in the aerated concrete with your own hands, it is necessary to prepare everything in advance. Even a relatively small window weighs a lot, and one person can not cope with the work on its installation.

Before the start of work, even when it is planned to use as fixing plates block the weight of the window construction should be as light as possible.

To this end, the sashes are removed, all work is performed in a certain order:

  • The pads are removed from the sash hinges;
  • Sashes are ajar (handle is turned into the opening mode);
  • On the upper hinge pulls down the pin. This will require some effort;
  • The sash can now be tilted toward you and removed from the hinge at the bottom.

If it is decided to anchor the frame, the glazing must be removed. Glazing beads are removed with a simple spatula. Take out the vertical element first, then the horizontal lower one. Then the second vertical element and the remaining top glazing bead are taken out.

Installing the glazing beads is done in a different sequence. First install the vertical elements, then the horizontal ones.

When removing the upper glazing bead, care is advised. the glazing bead weighs quite a lot, it is sometimes not retained. It is better to have a helper nearby.

What are lintels for aerated concrete and how to use them

Installation of window and door openings in the walls of aerated concrete needs additional reinforcement. To do this, lintels are used, linking the upper edges of the sides. There are different types and configurations, differing in price, method of installation, efficiency and speed of laying.

Lintels can be load-bearing and non-bearing. Products made of aerated concrete of the latter type, are structurally reinforced. Bearing. due to the calculated work of the longitudinal reinforcement located in the tensile zone.