How to cut an opening in a supporting wall

Removing a section of wall

Before starting the work, it is necessary to free the supporting wall structure from the layer of plaster, so that the seams of masonry are in view, using a scythe line. But it is necessary to remove plaster with extreme care, because most likely there is a wire under it, the damage can lead to failure of the entire electrical system.

When the seams in the place of the future blank space will be visible, you can begin to work. Bricks should be removed from the top of the lintel. First remove the top row of bricks, which will be the width of the entire door space. Here the lintel is inserted on which the construction will be held.

Then more holes are made above the lintel. In the resulting hole must be mounted beam, which will act as a support. Support the beam with the jack to prevent the construction from collapsing during the work. A beam and jack will hold the weight of the entire wall structure

All the holes are then covered with concrete mortar. After the concrete mixture dries, you can continue to work on knocking out the bricks.

Reinforce the structure should be strengthened if the width of the door space is more than one meter.

To protect the floor from the falling bricks it is necessary to make a plank flooring. The bricks should be removed with a diamond drill to minimize the damage to the wall structure as much as possible.

Violation of the technique of removing bricks can lead to weakening of the structure, its premature wear and deformation.

Please note that the space for the door must be made 10-20 centimeters more than the door or window frame. This gap can be filled with assembly foam.

Is it always possible to cut into a concrete wall?

Works on creation of openings in concrete walls must be performed in strict compliance with laws, building regulations and sanitary norms, considering fire safety. In most cases, when remodeling is not allowed to affect the load-bearing walls.

opening, supporting, wall

To obtain permission to carry out such work, you should think about how to alter the apartment without damaging the building. For this purpose in a load-bearing wall you need to make reinforcement of the opening with the use of metal structures. This applies to the upper floors, on the lower floors to change the plan apartment can prohibit.

It is unacceptable to perform such work without coordinating your actions with the appropriate organizations and without obtaining a SRO permit. Without this permission action will be considered illegal, and damage to the capital structures can lead to cracks in the house and collapse of the walls.

When obtaining this permit, the following points are taken into account:

  • the material of which the house is built;
  • the layout of the apartment;
  • the size of the new opening and the load-bearing structure;
  • the technical condition of the structure and its slabs;
  • The pressure that is exerted on the walls from above;
  • wall thickness and condition.

In a private structure, it is much easier to make a window or door opening in a concrete wall, since there are no lower and upper floors, which could increase the load. But it is necessary to take into account all aspects and details that may subsequently affect the stability of the slabs of the house.

Unprofessional and illiterate redevelopment in a private home can lead to disastrous results, so before punching an additional opening, you need to study all the structural features of the load-bearing walls of the house and find out the following:

  • the design of the house;
  • the area of the new opening in relation to the area of the load-bearing wall;
  • Technical parameters of the house, condition of the ceilings;
  • the thickness and strength of the supporting wall.

How to make in brick walls?

The procedure for creating an opening will depend on what type it belongs to. They come for a window or door.

Cut for the window

To create an opening for the window use the same methodology as for the doorway.

To begin with, a marking is made on the outside of the building. Slots for lintels shall be made and an intermediate support shall be installed. It helps distribute the pressure on the wall.

A wooden bar is used, which is reinforced with intermediate holders. The entire system is fixed with nails. Bricks are disassembled from top to bottom using a sledgehammer.

After clearing the space under the lintel, mount the beam. Brick is dismantled on both sides. For alignment of the construction a power tool with a diamond-coated disk is used.

Read about creating an opening for a window in this article.

Cut out for the door

The technology is similar to the previous one. On the wall make a marker, and it must be the same on both sides. If there are finishing materials on the wall, they must first be removed.

  • Drill holes around the brick with a perorator;
  • if the wall is load-bearing, make temporary supports;
  • supports with adjustment are installed at a distance of 60-90 cm;
  • on the supports lay a wooden bar. it helps to lighten the load and distribute it evenly;
  • pins are inserted into the bar and propped by the adjustable supports.

The entire structure is fastened with nails. Read more in this article.

Peculiarities of piercing in supporting walls and partitions

There is a difference between creating an opening in a load-bearing wall of bricks or in a partition. Depending on this factor, the thickness of the wall and the number of bricks in the masonry increases.

opening, supporting, wall

It is much easier to make an opening in a partition than in a load-bearing wall. The method of cutting and knocking out the brick will be the same, but the difference will arise in the process of installing the lintel and support bar.

The thickness of the wall usually does not exceed 120 mm, and if the brick is laid poke outward, its thickness will be 250 mm. If the material was laid by the method of well masonry, its thickness will be even greater. To determine the type of wall in advance, it is necessary to use a peorator and a drill bit, making a hole at the site of the opening.

See also  How to drill a concrete wall with a drill. Choice of tool

Reinforcing

If you make an opening in the wall of a high-rise building, it must be strengthened, so that the bearing capacity of the building is not reduced.

This can be done in several ways:

The easiest way to reinforce the opening is to use metal channels. When attaching the channel, it does not always fit tightly, so the voids that appear must be caulked with mortar.

When using corners, they are more tightly fitted to the finished opening; elements of the reinforcing structure are connected to each other by welding.

The most frequently used combined option when the top of the opening is reinforced with a metal channel, and its sides are strengthened with a construction of metal angles.

Since the load-bearing walls are subject to enormous loads, changing their design and intensive mechanical impact on the structure of these elements can lead not only to the destruction of the ceiling, but also jeopardize the integrity of the house. In this regard, the arrangement of openings and cutouts in load-bearing structures is generally not allowed.

Nevertheless, the effective and safe execution of this work is quite possible if you strictly follow a certain order of action and observe the technology. So, how to accurately plan and make the right cut in a load-bearing wall? Before performing the work, first of all, you should decide on the project that the master plans to implement, depending on the specific goal that he has set for himself.

  • To make a simple new opening in a supporting structure.
  • To implement a more complex type of opening with sawing arches with different forms of curves. The most problematic to perform such work with a wall made of brick, because in this case you will have to take into account the joints of masonry.
  • Partial relocation or expansion of the old opening by cutting out a fragment of the load-bearing wall adjacent to the existing aisle. This option seems to be as uncomplicated and safe as possible.

If the master has little or no experience, it is better to consult with professionals in advance. The fact is that when designing and arranging openings in load-bearing walls, it is necessary to calculate many factors, including:

  • The ratio of the size of the opening to the wall area;
  • The endurance of the material of which the supporting structure is made;
  • thickness, degree of preservation, the overall condition of the wall;
  • the number of floors and the placement of floor slabs;
  • estimated load and its critical points.

How to make an opening in a load-bearing brick wall at home?

The need for laying or expanding openings in a panel or brick house occurs during redevelopment, the combination of apartments or repair work, their implementation proceed only after approval of changes in the housing inspection. Particular attention is required to loadbearing structures, their involvement directly affects the distribution of loads and the integrity of the building. Dimensions, location and the need for reinforcement in this case are regulated by SNiP, SanPin and GOST, deviations from the standards are not allowed.

Requirements for load-bearing walls, permissibility of changes

In contrast to non-load bearing and thin partition walls, they take the weight of all upper masonry and floor slabs and distribute it to the lower ones. In panel MFBs, most internal walls. bearing, the only exception is Khrushchev, but the exact functions can only be found out from the plan of the house. This information is specified in the technical passport or house book, in its absence an approximate assignment is determined on the basis of circumstantial evidence. All external walls, adjacent to the adjacent apartments and staircases with a thickness of 38 cm or more are considered loadbearing walls. The floor slabs are placed on them with their smaller side, there are no additional beams or lintels to take the weight loads.

Contrary to popular opinion, openings in loadbearing masonry may not be made or enlarged. But taking into account the direct threat to the security of the building operation, such work requires a serious approval, the changes to be made are to be substantiated by the calculation, all structures are to be strengthened with metal. The simple project is not enough: You check the current condition of the house, determine the degree of wear, the presence or absence of defects in the floors and foundations, the data of previous alterations.

The price of work

The final cost of work on the creation of the doorway is influenced by several factors. For example, if the opening is done at the construction stage, the cost will be different, as the craftsman just need to lay out a masonry hole for the door.

If you need to cut an opening, then the work is complicated by the type of wall. capital or partition, the type of brick, the thickness of the wall: all this directly affects the final cost.

By Layout

To lay a doorway in St. Petersburg to pay from 1700 per 1 square meter of brickwork. When the thickness of masonry 120 mm will take from 1000, and if the thickness is 250 mm, then per square meter. In the city of Temryuk masonry apertures cost from 1000 to 2800, depending on the thickness and complexity.

For the carving

Most contractors indicate the price for the work, provided that you have to cut an opening of at least 10 squares.

For example, to cut a square with a thickness of 6-8 cm they charge from 1200, while if the thickness is equal to 3 bricks, then you have to pay from 6000.

For the same work in St. Petersburg will have to pay from 5000 for a diamond cut wall of 100 mm thick brick. In Ekaterinburg they will ask for the service starting at 7,000.

Responsibility

Sometimes, apartment owners punch a new door in the load-bearing walls of panel houses without prior approval and registration of this procedure. If such an illegal redevelopment in the apartment is subsequently revealed, the property owners will definitely be fined. The amount of money for an unauthorized doorway in a bearing wall, including in a panel house, is unlikely to be a small sum. However, if the housing commission discovers that any changes introduced into the apartment layout have weakened the residential structure, the owners will be forced to return everything back to the way it was before. That is money for repairs in this case will be spent for nothing.

See also  How To Cut The Corners Of The Ceiling Plinth With A Miter Box

over, it may turn out that the apartment owner himself to correct the consequences of his ill-considered actions properly can not. In this case, he will have to contact the organization that was involved in the design and construction of the house. Builders can ask for a very large sum of money for the restoration of the wall or refuse to do the job at all. In the latter case, the apartment by law can even be put up for auction.

Construction of houses

Repeatedly in my life we are faced with the reconstruction of apartments or houses. And often this process is accompanied by the construction of new entrances. But what to do when behind the layout of this passage is in a load-bearing wall? This task is not easy at all. Missing a mistake, can affect the construction of the room as a whole. The situation is complicated if a person decides to do all the work with his own hands, but in no case should not be discouraged. You just need to consider some of the subtleties of working with a load-bearing wall.

Redevelopment Approval

Before you start the work you should get the approval of the corresponding instances. The following factors influence their answer:

  • the construction of the dwelling (so that the opening does not completely destroy the room);
  • the wear and tear of the walls (walls, like people, have the properties of aging and losing their former strength and durability)
  • The type and thickness of the wall;
  • the placement of the opening (it should not coincide with the joints of the slabs and the wall);
  • the size of the opening in relation to the area of the wall;
  • the space between the opening and the adjacent walls;
  • the space between the highest edge of the opening and the slab;
  • The width of the opening;
  • the number of floors above the opening.

Only after receiving a positive response from the appropriate authorities, we proceed to the direct work.

Choice of tools

The first order of business in any construction work is the preparation of equipment. Professional builders use a concrete cutter, a tool to work with supporting walls with his hands chipping hammer, also useful peorator. In addition, you will need:

  • sledgehammer;
  • equipment for marking;
  • welding;
  • studs or bolts (depending on the profile);
  • nuts;
  • washers;
  • channels;
  • grout.

Preparatory work

Make sure there are no electrical utilities behind the wall or disconnect them.

Mark the contour of the opening. Due to the fact that the bearing walls are thick, they have to dismantle on 2 sides.

Drill through holes using a 12-millimeter drill in the corners of the contour. They will help guide during the marking of the opening on the other side.

How to Cut a Pass-Through in a Load Bearing Wall | Ask This Old House

Install lintel

The lintel is the most important component in the whole process. The load on the bearing walls, will be transferred to this part, so the safety of the whole house depends on the correctness of its installation.

opening, supporting, wall

For installation, first of all knock down the plaster and knock out a notch on the upper mowing line of the opening, in it we will lay the channel. The length of the cavity is: the width of the opening plus one meter. The profile must fit snugly into the place prepared for it. Clean the remains of the brick with a wire brush and rinse with water.

For tightening fasteners we drill holes in the profile with a pitch of about 3 cm (no more). When everything is ready, wet the surface and apply cement mortar, and immerse the channel in it. Drill through the wall, referring to the prepared holes. On the reverse side, thanks to the previous stage of the work, we easily mark and punch out the same niche. We put the second profile (with holes drilled in it, as in the first one) and fasten the two channels with bolts, washers and nuts at the ends of which we put. Fill the gaps in the profiles with concrete or bricks.

In addition to the above method of installing the lintel, there is a second one. For it we need two beams with L-shaped profile. This design is called a precast concrete lintel. Such profiles do not need to tighten the studs (bolts). After clearing the grooves in the lintel support, on both sides we put a thick layer of cement mortar. Then we proceed to install the reinforced concrete beam. When the mortar dries, we can begin to cut the opening.

Cutting the opening depending on the material

Many people are worried about how to make an opening in a brick wall. In fact, of all materials, this process will be the easiest with bricks. Having removed one row, all the rest will go without any problems. A completely different situation is with concrete. We will have to work long and hard with a peorator.

Make an opening in the concrete load-bearing wall, to facilitate the work will do the following:

Divide the wall area into several small squares.

According to the drawn contours cut the concrete with a grinder or drill with a peorator (this will take more time).

Some elements of the wall are knocked out with a sledgehammer quite simply, and in others you will need to dismantle the fittings.

Who wants to see how to properly pierce a load-bearing wall video is at the end of the article.

Once the opening is ready, it must be additionally reinforced. Between the two channels we weld a solid strip of steel, about 6 mm thick. Another option: we weld the plates at 2 cm intervals. Place the channels on both sides of the opening, or if they are not available, the channels will also work, but you will need niches for them. They are welded to the upper rung of the opening. Also, each pair of angles connect together using steel plates and fasten them with studs (for them, the angles or channels, you must drill holes in advance). If you think that this strengthening is not enough, then to make the load-bearing wall more durable, install the bottom horizontal lintel, it is welded to the racks.

The door from the window

It often happens that the door is planned to make in place of the window. This operation does not require much effort.

In order to make a door from the window of the load-bearing wall with your own hands, we will need:

  • Steel angles (be sure to 90 degrees);
  • channels;
  • reinforced concrete beams;
  • Power peorator;
  • ruler;
  • angle grinder;
  • hammer;
  • grinder.
See also  How To Drill A Concrete Wall Correctly

The first thing to remove the window. In its old place may be remnants of plaster and paint, remove them with a grinder. After getting rid of the bottom lintel, if it is made of brick, we just pierce it with a sledgehammer, if it is made of concrete, we cut it as for a usual opening. If there are metal fragments in the partition, get rid of them with an angle grinder. The plasterboard partition is disassembled piece by piece (the first thing to do is to eliminate the self-tapping screws).

Get rid of the debris and begin installing the lintel. The installation of the lintel follows the same technique as for the doorway from scratch.

Given that we do opening in a load-bearing wall, it is desirable to fix overlapping structures using long vertical struts throughout the house.

Arch in the load-bearing wall

Sometimes instead of a doorway, the owners put an arch. It looks much more beautiful. But in working with the arch there are many nuances. For example, to make it in a brick house can only a professional, because it requires a ratio with the location of the joints of masonry. Things are different with the panel house. This option can be done independently.

The first thing we do is to cut a U-shaped opening, which we reinforce with profiles, into which we will inscribe the arch. The next step is to measure the door opening.

After measuring, we proceed to the creation of the frame:

We make a frame, on which in the future we will mount a curved strip, for it we use a profile 27 to 28.

We choose scissors for metal, it will be more convenient to work with those that have a spring mechanism (this type of handle themselves are leaning back after compression).

We cut the profile, 2 sides out of three, it is necessary that it acquire an arched shape (the steeper you plan to bend, the more often we make the cuts).

Turn the profile clockwise sideways thus placing it inside the fixed right front of the arch (the 2nd one must be on the other side).

We make cuts on the top and middle part every 50 mm.

The frame is ready, but it needs to be strengthened. Install the crossbars made of 60×27 profile, securing them with short self-tapping screws.

Next we need to make the front parts of the arch. For this you can choose any material, but in self-made, the best option would be plasterboard. The front parts have a semi-circle shape. For reception of an ideal form, from improvised things we will make a compass. We will take a thread and fix it in the center of a semicircle, measure the radius (the width of the opening divided by two) and fix the second end with a pencil. Draw, cut out and fasten to the frame. Our arch is ready, we can safely plaster or paint it.

Connecting the room to the balcony

Always make a balcony in a bearing wall, this is the main problem. Getting permission to connect it to the room is very difficult. In addition, it’s worth bearing in mind that the balcony is a fire hazard zone. It’s the easiest place to remove a person. So before you decide to take that step, think it over carefully.

If the decision has not changed, and you have received permission, then start the following work. The first thing to do is to glaze the balcony. Next, we remove the wall, but since it is a load-bearing, be sure to install a lintel, which will take the entire load. Also, during the work will need to raise the floor on the balcony. The last action will be to insulate the balcony.

It is worth adding that this process is very time consuming and for safety it is better to consult a professional.

Closing the old opening

Very often, after creating a new entrance, the previous entrance is no longer needed and must be caulked. In the case of the internal partition there is the possibility of laying with gypsum board, while with the external one, in addition to the capital laying, there are no other options. For sealing we use materials such as bricks or foam blocks.

First we’ll prepare the hole. Remove plaster (and if present, paint) to the base itself. This process is done throughout the wall, not only in the slopes. We make hollows in the brick aperture, which will be necessary for binding with the fresh masonry. Remove half a brick in every fourth row. We drill one-sided holes in the ends of the concrete wall and hammer into them metal bars with a thickness of 7-9 mm. It is essential that the holes are in between the rows of future masonry. Cover the threshold of the opening with waterproofing, it will be used as roofing felt.

Before laying each subsequent brick row, a string must be stretched horizontally between the two opposite walls of the opening. It is necessary to avoid mistakes during masonry work. To be completely sure it is also worth a building level. Knit the bars peeking out between the rows with rebar (a masonry net will do).

After you have filled the opening with bricks, wait a day and start plastering. Prime the areas, which are free from plaster, and the masonry itself. On the primer attach a mesh of steel (for greater strength) and plaster again. The allowed amount of plaster to be applied depends on the roughness of the walls.

It is much easier to fill the inner part of the opening. First, install the batten (use a profile) on one side of the old aisle. Having plastered the first side, you can proceed to install the opposite side. We put the acoustic insulator (compulsory condition) and paneling. Finishing works will be completed.

Making a new doorway in a load-bearing wall is difficult enough, but after looking at your updated room, you will realize that it was worth your efforts. This process is possible even with your own hands, without the help of professionals. The main thing to follow all the recommendations for working with supporting structures, and you have no problems. And always remember, in this case in the first place. Safety.