How to Cut on a Panel Saw
Even the most expensive and high-quality equipment needs to be set up and calibrated. Otherwise, you cannot count on a good result. We will consider how to set up a format-cutting machine, increase efficiency and make the work process as comfortable and productive as possible.
Basic concepts of the work of format-cutting machines
If we take a drawing of a format-cutting machine, then the following elements will be displayed on it:
- A housing that consists of legs and connecting bulkheads,
- Folding bed, one-piece,
- Carriage for sawing,
- Locking side strip,
- Main saw blade
- Additional saw blade
- Power supply system
- Control system.
Setting up a format-cutting machine involves fine adjustment of all these elements. In addition, special cutting requirements are put forward for each material.
No less important is the room in which woodworking is performed. It must comply with established standards:
- The area is two times larger than the area of a format saw machine in a fully unfolded form,
- High-quality ventilation, always mechanical
- Perfectly flat floor
- Height not less than 3 m,
- Lack of sharp corners, columns and other architectural forms.
Next, we consider in detail the configuration of the elements of the cutting machine.
Installation and first launch of a format-cutting machine
The principle of operation of a format-cutting machine involves drawing the workpiece along the bed with subsequent sawing:
- The main saw blade is always set at an angle of 90 degrees. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said about the legs and the body of the format saw machine.
- If what. Then walks from the legs, a backlash from 1-2 mm to tangible 2-3 cm is formed. In this case, free space is formed between the bed and the workpiece.
- The result is a curvature of the cut. In the best case, the edges of the part will be uneven, in the worst. The drive will bend and it will burst, which will inevitably lead to serious injuries.
- The additional saw blade is even more sensitive to uneven floors, as it is used for cutting corner cuts. The more backlash, the more curved the edges.
In order to properly install the machine, you must perform the following steps:
- Take a two meter level and rule
- Level check the angle of the floor, it should be strictly 90 degrees,
- The rule is to check that there are no drops and small irregularities, the surface should be not only smooth, but also smooth.
- If height differences or slopes are found, the floor should be covered with a screed.
Local alignment is strictly not allowed, as sawed legs or the installation of linings under them. Given the significant mass of the unit, any linings are sold literally for a day of work. With a file, everything is even more difficult, since it is almost impossible to accurately guess the size.
As soon as the format-cutting machine is installed, we proceed to the first launch. We are talking about the correct connection of the engine. Although in most of the instructions idling is advised to be carried out only for gas engines, it is also relevant for electrical equipment.
Distribution induction coils do not need to be debugged, but all friction parts must be in place and run well in oil. If you immediately start work, the first few details will be spoiled. Idling is carried out according to the following principle:
- Turn on the machine
- Let the motor warm up for 5-10 minutes,
- Start the first speed and let the unit run for 10-15 minutes,
- Run the second speed for 5-10 minutes,
- Run 3 speed for 5-10 minutes, if any,
- The additional saw blade always works at high revs, so it is started immediately and turned off after a full idle run.
After a blank run, at the beginning they do not give a full load, but check the system. To do this, take unnecessary trimmings and drive them through the saw blade, if the seam is even, then everything is set up correctly and the equipment is ready to work. If chips or curvature of the cut are visible, then the reasons need to be sought already in other elements of the format-cutting machine. And the thing is most likely in the incorrectly selected saw blade.
Overview and characterization of saw blades for format cutting machines
Disks are divided into:
- Large teeth 10-12 pieces,
- Medium teeth 20-24 pieces,
- Fine teeth of 40 or more,
- Specialized 40 or more teeth with a special sharpening.
1. Since format-cutting machines are suitable not only for sawing chipboard, MDF and other materials based on wood chips, the use of large teeth is appropriate when working with wood up to 5 cm thick. Thicker workpieces must be processed already with specialized equipment.
2. Middle teeth are also used for wood, they provide better cuts, and apply to workpieces up to 2 cm.
3. Saws with small teeth allow you to get a perfectly even cut and a strong, beautiful edge. Their disadvantage. This is an increased effort. Although on format saws, the workpiece is finished with a carriage, the load on the motor increases markedly. Therefore, you need to monitor overheating.
4. Specialized saws have a straight sharpening. Trapezoid, which implies. The first tooth makes a smooth cut, the second expands it. This technology is used specifically for processing materials based on sawdust, as it allows you to maintain the integrity of the structure. After sawing, the edge is immediately ready for lamination.
How to Cut on a Panel Saw
It is the disks of the fourth category that are included in the set of spare parts for format-cutting machines. But this does not always happen. Most Chinese and some European manufacturers save and replace chipboard discs with cheaper conventional small-tooth discs.
An extra disc always comes with a middle tooth. Sawing at an angle is more difficult, therefore, a larger tooth compensates for the load on the weak motor of the scoring saw.
The next important point. Preparation method. There are:
- Monolithic wheels
- Carbide wheels.
1. A monolithic disk is made of a solid steel bar. This technology is the cheapest, but the discs are not of high quality, quickly erase and easily prick.
2. Expensive carbide wheels not only provide a more accurate cut, but also last much longer. The basis of such disks, as in the previous case, is monolithic, but carbide cutting inserts are soldered to the teeth. They practically do not need sharpening, they are not erased and by the time of operation they are 4-5 times superior to monolithic disks.
Setting up a cutting machine
Smooth base and proper drive. This is not a guarantee that the part will be cut evenly. It’s about adjusting the speed and choosing the right mode.
Most format saws have 3 speeds of the main saw blade and one. Scaffold, and from it we will begin.
The higher the rotation speed. The more accurate the cut. But at the same time, it is important to understand that large revolutions give a large load on the engine. The standard saw engine has a power of 750 watts. This is quite small, since even most manual jigsaws are designed for 1-1.5 kW. Therefore, the higher the revolutions of the cutting disc, the thinner the workpiece should be. For example, take a rotation speed of 9000 rpm. With these indicators, the maximum thickness of the workpiece should not exceed 1.5 cm, otherwise chips will form on the cut, and the edge will be of poor quality.
Tip: low-speed cutting discs, up to 7500 rpm, are installed only on expensive industrial systems, in all other cases, the thickness of the workpiece should be in the range of 1-1.8 cm.
The main disk rotates more slowly:
- The first speed is 3000-4500 rpm,
- The second speed is 4500-6000 rpm,
- The third speed is 6000-8000 rpm.
The indicators are arbitrary, and depend on the model and manufacturer.
Adjustment of the cutting machine is carried out empirically. This is connected not so much with technology as with material. Whether it is chipboard, OSB, MDF or any other product based on sawdust, it includes glue, resins, wood chips, additives, gaskets, and other components. All this greatly affects such a parameter as hardness. A sheet of plywood from one manufacturer easily and accurately cuts at a speed of 7000, a sheet of another crumbles even at 4000.
The specified part often becomes the reason why the consumer is dissatisfied with the equipment and service center, which refuses to repair a fully operational unit.
Next, talk about the electrical part of the equipment. Format saws, circuits and connections in which are extremely susceptible to weathering, are often stored in poorly ventilated, damp rooms. In low-quality models, this leads to corrosion, in more expensive ones. To the deposition of salts.
Salt conducts electricity well. Therefore, when current is supplied to the microcircuit and is in contact with salt deposition, part of the current is wasted. As a result, voltage and amperage decrease, and in some cases, on the contrary, increase significantly. This leads to a malfunction of the entire system. Soon, the contacts begin to shorten, melt and burn out.
Solving the problem is quite simple. Before starting operation, it is necessary to check all electrical wiring and clean the circuits. Sometimes, during transportation, the cables are pinched or frayed, inspection will reveal this defect.
The device of a format saw machine assumes the presence of another very capricious element. Carriages. Closer. In high-quality units, it is made of aluminum. Metal is not subject to corrosion and does not load the roller mechanism, since it is much lighter than steel. All necessary actions before starting work. Check the bolts of the guide bar for strength.
The cheaper models use just steel. The material is quickly oxidized, rust clogs the rollers, and a sufficiently large weight of the carriage loosens the fasteners. Even a gap of 1-2 mm significantly affects the quality of the cut. And if the smoothness of the carriage is broken, you don’t even have to dream about a smooth edge.
Repair of format-cutting machines
Improper use of the device sooner or later leads to its breakdown. In most cases, malfunctions are detected even during the warranty period and are eliminated directly by the service center masters.
After-sales service is quite expensive, therefore it is inexpedient to understand the nodes of a format-cutting machine and learn how to localize the cause. For convenience, we will divide them into two groups:
The mechanical causes of failure include:
- Wear of parts
- Loosening fasteners,
- Mechanical or chemical damage,
- Irregular maintenance.
Old parts are easy to replace, tighten the fasteners, and disassemble the clogged unit and clean it. If it comes to any damage, then most likely you will need to replace the part. None of the components are subject to soldering or straightening. But the most formidable enemy of any format-cutting machine. Irregular technical inspection. Almost every detail is rubbing, and therefore should be well lubricated with oil or grease. When heated, the oil evaporates, and the lubricant dries. The more often and longer the machine operates, the faster its elements heat up and the material is consumed. Inspection for lubrication is preferably carried out once a week.
Electrical causes of failure include:
- Cable grinding
- Microcircuit circuitry
- Burnout wiring
- Engine burnout.
It is quite difficult to identify the electrical causes of a breakdown without special knowledge and equipment. The only exception is the motor, but only if it burns out during operation. The solution will be any electrician with a high-quality electronic voltmeter.
Useful tips for working with a format saw
A fairly popular question is how to make a format-cutting machine more productive. There is only one answer to it. Put a more powerful motor. However, before performing this procedure, you need to weigh the pros and cons. In addition to the obvious increase in energy consumption, there are many other pitfalls:
- You will need an electrician, who not only draws up the device wiring diagram, but also calculates all the technical data.
- The mechanism for attaching saw blades will have to be made more reliable. To do this, you need to equip the clamp with additional connectors.
- Light tables, up to 1500 kg, must be additionally fixed to the floor. Usually for these purposes, metal corners are screwed to the legs, which are fixed in the floor with dowels.
- The more powerful the motor, the better the cooling system should be. And this problem is the most difficult. High-tech solutions are expensive, and conventional fans do not help much.
- If modernization occurs even at the time of warranty service, then an unauthorized change in the system involves the termination of the contract for free repair.
Setting the format of the cutting machine is presented below: