How to Hammer a Fence Pillar
Abyssinian do-it-yourself well made of plastic pipes
If it comes to talking about the water supply of a remote section of the house, then almost always mention digging a well or an ordinary well.
Pebble-finished Abyssinian well
Indeed, sand wells or wells are the simplest and most reliable ways to get water on a site. They are durable, functional and quite comfortable. However, the complexity of their installation or maintenance can also not be ignored.
Meanwhile, there is another way to get water on the site. Drilling the Abyssinian well. And you can do this process completely with your own hands.
Abyssinian Well Technology
The Abyssinian well was invented during the colonization of Africa. Then the British troops were able to push back the natives precisely because of this wonderful invention. Indeed, for drilling such a well, it is enough to have metal pipes and make a primitive driving drill.
Everything else is going to work. And the process itself is carried out completely with your own hands and in a rather short period of time.
The Abyssinian well itself is a small-sized source of water that produces it in the upper soil layers. To equip an Abyssinian well or well, as it is popularly called, you need to make sure that your aquifers are at a depth of up to 8 meters.
If they are located deeper, then you can also start working, however, most likely, you will not be able to do without special equipment.
Abyssinian pump with additional reinforcement
For work using improvised tools. You do not need a casing, direct access to water or something like that. This is the peculiarity of the Abyssinian wells. They are very mobile and autonomous.
You just need to hammer specially assembled pipes into the ground to a depth of 8-10 meters. Pipes are assembled in sections using threaded fittings. The lowest section of the pipe will be a special filter section with a needle.
A needle is a cone-shaped tip on a pipe. It is very durable and is intended directly for driving the body of the well into the ground. Since sand and other soft rocks are mainly located in the upper layers of the soil, you should not have problems with driving.
After the needle comes the filter pipe. This is a piece of pipe 1-1.5 m long, in which many holes are cut. As a rule, make one hole on each side of the pipe in increments of 3-4 cm.
The pipe is wrapped with wire and mesh, creating a special filter. The filter is quite possible to do it yourself and in just a few tens of minutes.
The principle of operation of Abyssinian wells is very simple. Stacked to the desired level, the riser enters the aquifers of sand. They are usually located at a level of 6-8 meters underground.
Which means that the aquifer will exit exactly onto the filter. Since the sand conducts water perfectly, in a few minutes the pipe will begin to fill with it.
When liquid appears in the well, work can be stopped and rinsing started. In most cases, after a high-quality washing of the pipes, it remains only to wait for a day until the water is cleaned on its own and the well begins to produce clean water.
At this time, you can make a special pump or concrete the area around the well exit. Then it remains only to attach the pumping mechanism and use this miracle of technology for your pleasure.
Benefits of Abyssinian Wells
Needle at the end of a driven pipe
As you already understand, Abyssinian wells have many advantages over more traditional sources. It is very difficult to list all of them, but the main ones should still be noted.
Consider the main pros and cons of such sources.
- A well can be made with one’s own hands;
- Work takes a little time;
- Lack of strict need to use special tools;
- An opportunity to work in any conditions;
- Good debit;
- No problems with fluid flow, siltation, etc.
- Ease of maintenance;
- Takes up little space.
As you can see, it is not for nothing that these wells are so popular in our area. They are very easy to assemble. You can make all the tools and drill a hole with your own hands. Over, it will take less than a day to work.
If you suddenly stumbled upon a large cobblestone or a layer of pebbles. It does not matter. Indeed, at any time, the needle can be pulled out and try your luck elsewhere.
When finished, the Abyssinian well takes up very little space. At the same time, you can connect to it either a regular pump or any pump. Over, surface pumps are also useful here, since the depth of the aquifer will rarely be below 8 meters.
- The well still produces less water than a standard well;
- In very dry periods, debit may fall slightly;
- Without geological exploration, there is a great chance to stumble on obstacles, which will lead to the need to move the drilling site. And it just takes time. A surface pump connected to the outlet of the Abyssinian well
Abyssinian wells have much less disadvantages, but they are. However, they are considered disadvantages by those who do not understand the purpose of the work performed. Of course, such a well is unlikely to cope with the water supply of a large family and their domestic needs, but this is not required from it.
It should be understood that the Abyssinian well is rather an auxiliary element of the water supply system.. He will give you drinking and household water in sufficient quantities. But for the full supply of large facilities is not intended.
Andrey, 38 years old, Kostroma:
Abyssinian well needle and spot filter with wire
Valentine, 27 years old, Altai:
Konstantin, 58 years old, Astrakhan:
Selection of a pipe for a well and installation steps
Before you start work directly, you need to pick up the pipes that will make up the body of the driven needle. It should be understood that this needle remains in the hole constantly, and performs the functions of the casing. Therefore, it must be not only strong and reliable, but also suitable for constant contact with the liquid.
Of modern pipes, they are most often used with good old metal and polymers. The metal can be galvanized, it better resists corrosion, and can withstand the influence of microorganisms. However, over time, it will still lose its properties.
Plus, the metal is very durable and it is extremely difficult to damage such a pipe. Needle tips almost always make metal.
Of the polymeric materials for pipes, reinforced thick-walled polypropylene and low-pressure polyethylene are best suited. Both that and other material are rather strong, and also possesses excellent anticorrosive characteristics.
Purchased strainer for Abyssinian wells
As for the specific parameters of the pipe, inch samples are used in the work. The wall thickness of metal products can be any, but plastic pipes are used only thick-walled, with a thickness of 5 mm.
As you already understood, the lower section of the pipe will be filter. It is treated with a drill, then wrapped with wire. Next comes a membrane, strainer or something similar. Then all this is once again tightly tied with wire.
The pipe itself is connected using threaded fittings. It is possible to use and welding, but this adds certain inconvenience. The quality of the joints, of course, will be very high, but you will not cut pipes every time something goes wrong.
Now we will directly consider the working algorithm by which Abyssinian wells are mounted.
- We determine the place under the well, purchase materials.
- We collect the needle for the pipe.
- We form a filter.
- We dig a hole with a depth of 50 cm and a diameter of 1 m. This is a preparatory foundation pit.
- Drill with a hand drill a few meters if possible.
- We mount the first few sections of the driven needle.
- Install the device for clogging.
- We plant the pipe into the ground until we reach the specified level. In the process, we wind or weld new sections.
- When liquid, moisture or characteristic sounds appear in the pipe, we finish the work.
- We rinse the well and leave it for a day.
- Check the quality of the fluid.
- Concrete the place around the pipe.
- We complete the work by connecting pumping equipment and decorative decoration of the source.
After completion of the work, the well will serve you faithfully for a long time. An interesting fact is that you can even mount it in your house (in the basement or cellar), because unlike large sources, the water in the Abyssinian well does not undermine the foundation of the building, which means there is no danger from it.
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Drilling an Abyssinian well with improvised tools
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Do-it-yourself needle-hole or Abyssinian well. Personal experience with and photos
Hello dear readers. We begin the story of organizing the water supply of a suburban area using a needle-well device or an Abyssinian well. Wells of this kind are usually made with one’s own hands, since special equipment for the construction of the well is not required.
This article is the quintessence of the author’s personal experience and hundreds of pages studied in specialized forums and is not theoretical material, but practical guidance. As the saying goes, an intelligent person is able to learn from the mistakes of others.
What you need for the device of the Abyssinian well
So, let’s begin. We will talk about the classic scheme for installing a needle well: driving into the ground.
To hammer the Abyssinian well, we will definitely need:
- Filter needle
- Threaded pipe set
- Pipe couplings
- Sanitary flax and paste for use in threaded joints
- Two pipe plumbing wrenches
- Pump for pumping a well
- The tool that will be driven (about options will be described below)
Additional equipment that may be needed:
- Pipe screw die or die for threading (if the thread deteriorates when driving)
- Two hydraulic jacks if you need to raise the pipe string
Before starting the presentation of personal experience, we recall the basic principles of the Abyssinian well.
The borehole diameter is small. Usually from one inch to two. This diameter does not allow the pump to be lowered into the well, and water is pumped out by surface pumps. First, when pumping with a manual column, then, after pumping the well, you can switch to an electric pump, which is self-priming.
Raise water from the Abyssinian well only if the water mirror is not deeper than 9 meters.
If the dynamic level of the well is below eight to nine meters from the level of the pump, it will be possible to raise such water only by placing the pump in a caisson (pit), thereby reducing the suction depth to the desired value.
It should be borne in mind that only the highest quality self-priming pump can show a passport 9 meters of suction.
It is important to ensure complete tightness of the line from the filter that is sucking water through the pump. If at least one clutch forms a fistula when clogged, water will not be sucked in from the depth.
A bore-needle is a pipe of small diameter, usually with an external diameter of 1 inch (in construction markets and metal depots it is marked as 25 pipe. In inner diameter) and 1 ¼ inch. The fact is that the column. Well will clog into the ground without any drilling, and it can be extremely difficult to hammer a pipe of a larger diameter.
How the needle-well filter works
The very first and most important element of a needle-hole is a filter. It is made as follows: a piece of pancake pipe 1.2-2 meters is taken, a meter length is marked for a future filter.
Holes with a diameter of about 8-10 mm are stitched in this section in a checkerboard pattern so as not to loosen the pipe.
At the end of the pipe near the filter, a steel cone is welded, which will facilitate the passage of the pipe in the ground according to the spear principle.
The next step is to rewind under the filter. The winding task is to create a gap between the pipe and the filter mesh, which is mounted on top of the winder. Without winding, water would be sucked into each hole of the filter pipe only through the grid section directly above the hole.
With winding, water will be absorbed from a much larger surface of the mesh into the created gap, and then into the holes in the pipe. Thus, by completing the winding, we significantly increase the flow rate of the well.
The winding is usually made of wire of the same material as the filter mesh. For example, stainless steel to stainless steel, in order to avoid the formation of a galvanic pair. To help you in choosing. A metal compatibility table:
When assembling the filter, pay particular attention to the compatibility of metals: some of them create a galvanic pair, and when contacted as a result of a chemical reaction, they quickly decompose.
For example, by winding the pipe with aluminum wire and fixing the brass mesh on top, after a few months you will get holes in the places where these incompatible metals touch.
Therefore, in most cases, the wire and mesh are taken from stainless steel, as getting these materials is easy.
How to choose a mesh for an Abyssinian well filter
The mesh for the needle well needs a special. Galloon weaving. It looks like a mesh. Like metal fabric. Galloon weaving implies diamond-shaped cells. They are not clogged with grains of sand, which are mainly in the form of a cube.
There are different types of filter grids, with different mesh sizes. For different sands. Ideally, the grid should be selected, knowing the fraction of sand in the aquifer. The filter should pass about 30-40% of the sand.
Then, when pumping the well, small fractions of sand will come out with water, while larger ones will form a natural filter around our needle.
Filtration nets are metal and synthetic. The finest-grained metal nets are marked P60 and are designed for dusty sand.
Synthetic nets are even finer weaving. Up to P200. At the same time, it is not recommended to take the smallest grid “with a margin”. The finer the grid, the worse the flow rate of the well.
The finest sand under pressure of water is compressed around the needle filter, preventing the movement of water.
The pipe is cut into pieces of 1-1.5 meters, an external thread is cut at the ends. The pipes will be connected by couplings of the corresponding diameter. Short pieces of pipe are needed in order to make it easier to hammer it into the ground.
What tool is used to clog the needle of the Abyssinian well?
The easiest and most barbaric way to hammer a needle is with a sledgehammer. If you have experience with careful handling of this powerful tool, it is possible that everything will end well and no threaded connections will crack under the ground.
The advantages of this method. The sledgehammer is easy to find, no need to bother with special equipment for clogging. Cons. When struck with a sledgehammer, it is impossible to direct all the impact energy down, strictly along the axis of the borehole needle. So, the pipe will bend to one side, flattened.
The load on threaded connections increases. If you decide to hammer the needle with a sledgehammer, do not hit the piece of pipe that you plant in the ground. Screw the steel sleeve onto the pipe and use a piece of threaded pipe by screwing it into the sleeve.
Grandma and the hut
Hammering in is the preferred method. The design of the headstock may be different. Most often this is a thick-walled pipe, one of the ends of which is welded. On the side handles are welded to it, for weighting, any iron can be welded. The weight of the headstock is usually 20-50 kg.
On the upper end of the pipe to be hammered, a “head-pipe” is also attached through the sleeve. A piece of pipe with a thread that will hit. The grandmother in this design is put on a clogged pipe, and then rises 40-60 cm and rushes down.
Since the headstock is fully clad on the clogged pipe, it moves almost perfectly up and down, and all the impact energy propels the needle toward the target.
There is another design option headstock. This is a heavy cylinder with a hole slightly larger than the diameter of a clogged needle. A coupling is screwed onto the clogged pipe, the next pipe of the same type is screwed into it.
This pipe when driving will be a guide for moving up and down the headstock. And it will hit in the headstand. A steel cylinder, tightly clad on the needle pipe, and abutting against the sleeve, which has a diameter several mm larger than the needle.
The grandmother rises and rushes down to the pedestal. He, in turn, pushes the pipe string down.
We note a very important fact. In order not to damage the threads on the pipes and couplings, it is necessary to select the length of the threads on the pipes so that the pipes, having screwed into the coupling, are joined inside it. Thus, the load from blows by the headstock will not be on the thread, but on the ends of the pipes.
Clogging a needle with a rod is also very common. A rod is needed so thick that it freely enters the pipe of the Abyssinian well. We will beat with a rod along the lower part of the lowered pipe string. To the back of the cone that crowns the filter. The cone must be firmly welded to the filter pipe.
Gradually, in the course of lowering the column, it is possible to extend the bar (by welding, or by pre-providing the connection of the rods on the thread). If the mass of the rod is sufficient for impacts, and its length is already less than the lowering column, you can tie a steel cable to it and hammer the needle by lifting the rod inside the pipe string by this cable and throwing it from a height.
Clogging with a bar is considered more preferable from the point of view of the safety of threaded pipe joints.
Clogging a needle well with a perforator or jackhammer
Unfortunately, you cannot simplify your task by using a power tool. The reason for this is the large mass of the lowered pipe string. The puncher and chipper will simply bounce off the larger-mass structure. This fact has been checked more than once, do not waste time.
To what level do you need to hammer a needle?
The needle is driven deep into the filter until it is in the aquifer. Ideally, this is coarse sand or pebble, but usually an aquifer is fine sand. As we mentioned earlier, water from a well can only be raised from a depth of 8–9 meters.
Does this mean that to hit a well deeper than 9 meters is pointless? Of course not. What matters is not the depth of the well, but the water level in it. Experienced drillers know that the water of the second aquifer often rises to the level of GW (groundwater level).
It even happens that from a well depth of 15-30 meters, the water flows by itself.
The second question when hammering a needle is how not to miss an aquifer? There is an easy way. Every half a meter, when driven into a pipe, add water to the needle.
If the filter is in the aquifer. Water will quickly go into the pipe. The main thing here is that when passing through a layer of clay, the grid does not clog it. Otherwise, you simply don’t understand that you are in an aquifer.
Water clogged with clay will not leave in any case.
There is another way to determine which layer the needle filter is in. When you hammer a needle, the upper pipe constantly, every 10-20 strokes, you need to tighten the pipe wrench clockwise. In this way, we compensate for the self-unwinding of the threaded joints of the column. If you manage to scroll the column completely so that the filter moves in the soil, it is easy to hear the friction of the soil on the filter cone.
How to Hammer a Fence Pillar
So, clay when turning the filter makes almost no sound, coarse sand creaks distinctly, pebbles grinds.
What to do if the filter mesh is clogged with clay or the pipe is clogged with sand when clogged
If the filter mesh of the Abyssinian well is clogged with clay, you can clean the filter mesh by supplying pressure water to the pipe. She will wash the clay. If washing does not help, you will have to remove the entire column and clean it. Then a clean needle can be lowered into the finished hole without the risk of contaminating the filter.
It also often happens that if the filter mesh is too large, or the pipe is used without a filter at all (some soils allow you to use an abyssine without a filter mesh, if the aquifer is pebbles or very coarse sand).
If the pipe is clogged from the inside by sand, it should be washed by lowering a narrow hose into the pipe, supplying water to it from the outside of the well and moving it so as to lift the turbidity from the sand in the pipe.
This dregs will come out of the pipe around the hose, washing out the sand.
How to prevent sand and clay from clogging the pipe when driving an Abyssinian well
There are a couple of ways to avoid filling the needle with sand and clay. The needle at the time of clogging can be filled with salt or stuffed tightly with a rope.
The end of the rope should be constantly passed through all the pipes, so that after hammering to the desired depth just get it out.
Naturally, these two methods are only suitable if there are several Abyssinian wells nearby and the depth to which the needle is to be hammered is known in advance.
How to pump a needle?
For pumping, a hand pump column is best suited. Such pumps are not afraid of the sand content in the water, and there will be a lot of inclusions of sand in the water for the first time.
Depending on how well the mesh used is suitable for the fraction of sand in the aquifer, the well buildup time can range from half an hour to several months.
In this case, we repeat again, too small a grid will clog faster and reduce the flow rate.
In principle, when using a fairly fine grid of galunny (twill) weaving, it is quite possible to use a self-priming surface pump for pumping. It is desirable that the impeller is metal, because plastic quickly coats off with sand.
The manual pump is also good because it easily copes with the initial small flow rate of the well. The electric pump cannot work with poor water supply, the water column in the Abyssinian well breaks, and the pump stops working. The situation can be partially corrected by placing a tap at the outlet of the pump and strangling the water outlet.
For easy start of the pump, a check valve is installed in front of it. In no case do not put a check valve at the bottom of the column, it will quickly become clogged, and it will be impossible to replace it without raising the well string. In this case, the “extra” check valve will create additional resistance when the fluid moves and “hide” a meter of the pump’s potential suction height.
What to do if the compounds poison the air, i.E. No tightness of the column?
It is not so rare that after clogging the column it turns out that the water does not pump out, despite the fact that it is not far from the mirror. If a working self-priming pump is used, this means that there is an air leak in the line, which does not allow creating a vacuum inside the pipe and raising water.
In this case, it is recommended to raise the pipe string (the method is described below) and seal the connections. If it is impossible to do this, you can use the design of the “imperfect well.” A pipe of a smaller diameter is lowered inside the Abyssinian well, and water is sucked through it.
The problem is that since pumping water does not create a vacuum in the pipe, water enters the filter by gravity, rather than being absorbed. Because of this, the well production rate drops sharply.
How to lift the pipes of an Abyssinian well from the ground
It happens that you need to raise the column from the pipes if you have slipped through the aquifer, or you need to completely remove the well. This can be difficult to do because the soil tightly covers pipes. To fix the pipe, you can use specially made vices, which are two strong steel plates, tightened with bolts.
You can simply put a head-pipe or a washer of suitable size on the pipe sticking out of the ground, fix its progress upwards by a screwed-on sleeve, and evenly pull upwards with two jacks installed on both sides of the well.
In clay soils, you can use this technique: pull the pipe string upward, even if it does not move, and leave it overnight: under tension, the clay gradually partes and releases the pipes.
If it is possible to apply good pressure to the well with water, this can also help, to the extent that the water will wash out the soil around the well’s pipe and flow to the surface outside the pipe.
This article will be developed and supplemented. Please write your ideas and suggestions in the comments.
Do-it-yourself Abyssinian well (well): what is it, design features
The most affordable way to organize an autonomous water supply system is to equip the Abyssinian well on a suburban land or in the basement of the house.
Ready hydraulic construction provides water supply from the sandy soil layer, therefore, the natural water source has high organoleptic characteristics.
Well design features
Not many people know what the Abyssinian well is and how it works. The Abyssinian well is a well up to 10 meters deep without a casing, in which water is supplied by a pump.
Well arrangement is carried out by a shock-rope installation, which is used for private drilling. In this case, the drilling depth is up to 12-15 meters.
The device of the Abyssinian well is reliable and efficient. Structurally, the structure consists of the following elements:
- Prefabricated water pipe (individual pipe segments that are connected by couplings, and the joints are closed with rubber seals);
- Tip. Hardened steel needle;
- Top filter;
- Inlet valve;
- Pump equipment.
The water pipe is equipped with a submersible tip-needle, in which small holes are made for water intake. In the upper part of the structure there is a filter for water purification and further supply to the consumer.
Wells have the following parameters of structural elements:
- The diameter of the water pipe is from 2 to 8 cm, the lengths of the segments are 200 cm each;
- The length of the tip-needle. From 25 to 32 cm, diameter. Up to 1.5 cm;
- Pump. Surface or manual.
Benefits of an Autonomous Abyssinian Well
Having understood what an Abyssinian well is, we can consider the main advantages of this type of structure.
Abyssinian wells have become quite popular and in demand due to high operational characteristics:
- Simple and reliable construction design;
- Low cost of component materials;
- Durability, practicality and safety of the structure;
- With a small diameter of the water pipe, the hand-made well is not inferior in its technical and operational characteristics to more serious analogues;
- The well does not take up much space, therefore it can be equipped even in a small area;
- The construction is equipped with surface pumping equipment, which is more convenient for carrying out preventive or repair work;
- An Abyssinian well made of plastic pipes can be equipped in areas where the organization of an ordinary deep well is impossible for technical or other reasons;
- To make an Abyssinian well on its own, there is no need to use expensive equipment and auxiliary equipment;
- It will take 12 hours to equip the well. From the start of work to the receipt of the first liters of clean water;
- A reliable filter ensures effective cleaning of the aquifer and prevents its possible siltation;
- A well-equipped needle-hole provides for a continuous supply of water in an amount sufficient for household and drinking needs. The average debit of a hydraulic construction of this type is from 0.6 to 3.1 cubic meters / h;
- The finished design must be dismantled and reinstalled in various operating areas.
A distinctive feature of the well is the immersion of the water pipe to an arbitrary depth. This prevents siltation of the structure and the supply of contaminated water with a high content of external impurities. In this case, the water in the Abyssinian structure will be better in chemical composition than in classic large-diameter wells
The possible entry of contaminants from the surface layers of the soil into the aquifer is the only drawback of the Abyssinian well. For this reason, it is recommended that you carefully select the appropriate location for the construction of a well, away from landfills, gutters and pits, summer showers and septic tanks.
Available methods for equipping the Abyssinian well
If the services of professional arrangement of the building are expensive, how to make the Abyssinian well yourself? An issue that interests many homeowners who have decided to organize an autonomous drinking water source on their site.
There are several available ways to equip a well.
This method is used to develop a well in a moving soil saturated with aquifers, which is prone to rapid precipitation and collapse. In this case, the drilling process is combined with the immersion of the water pipe.
For work, professional or home-made drills are used. U-shaped structures equipped with a cylinder for collecting and removing the spent soil to the surface. For the convenience of working with a drill, it is recommended to use an electric or mechanical winch on a stand.
It contributes to the rapid extraction of soil from the cylinder and the rod of the drilling rig.
For rod driving, special metal hexagonal rods are used, which are lowered into the casing during operation. Each rod is equipped with a thread to increase the length. The workflow involves throwing the bottom hole rod into the bar to equip the well with the required depth.
Often, a wellhead is used to equip the well. A rod, to which a cone-shaped tip is fixed with a washer.
This design allows you to quickly equip the casing for the well. In the process of driving the column is moistened with water, which contributes to the softening of the soil and easy passage of the device into the depths.
After the preparation of the column of the required depth, the installation of pumping equipment is carried out.
Self-development of the Abyssinian well
You can make an Abyssinian well yourself using a simple home-made installation. To perform the work, it is necessary to prepare the following tools and materials:
- Electric drill;
- Angle Grinder;
- Welding installation;
- Sledgehammer and hammer;
- Set of gas keys;
- Water pipe in sections of 150 cm each;
- Cast iron couplings. For clogging pipes, steel. For connection;
- Steel wire 0.3 mm thick and a mesh (galunny weaving) for the filter;
- Joint seal;
- Check valve type;
- Pump equipment.
The filter tip is made from a small pipe length (length up to 85 cm) to which a cone-shaped tip is welded. Small holes for water supply are made on the surface of the tip. A wire and a stainless steel mesh are wound onto the pipe with additional fixation on metal clamps in increments of 9 cm.
Well arrangement technology
The process of driving the pipe into the sandy soil is quite simple, but requires a little skill. Experts recommend performing work on the arrangement of this type of well in the following order:
- A garden drill drills a shaft of the required depth and diameter. The optimum depth of the structure is determined by the sound method. The passage of clay soils does not create noise, a strong rattle is felt in sandy soils of a large fraction, and a slight rustling in sandy soils of a small fraction.
- The nozzle of the intake pipe with a phased connection of the segments with metal couplings is being performed. Work is carried out before the appearance of a wet sand layer. Next, a depth check is performed. A small amount of fluid is supplied to the casing. If the liquid leaks quickly. The depth is suitable, if with delays. It is necessary to deepen the pipe by 50 cm.
- Filter Installation A pipe section with a home-made filter is mounted using thread couplings. The finished structure sinks to the bottom to the sand layer, and an cast-iron coupling is wound in the upper part.
- Next, the check valve and pumping equipment are installed. All elements must form a single sealed structure, otherwise the finished water supply system will not function efficiently. To close the joints and increase the strength of the connecting elements, you can additionally use linen hemp or oil-based paint.
- At the end of the work, a hydraulic structure is pumped to obtain clean drinking water. First, an air plug passes, then a cloudy liquid, after which purified water appears.
- To protect the water intake point from the penetration of contaminants and effluents into the mine, it is recommended to concrete a small area around the structure. It should rise 5-8 cm above the upper soil level.
about the technology of arranging a homemade needle-well.
The main advantage of wells is the reliability of structures and the safety of the arrangement. In addition, they are durable, practical and easy to use.
DIY Abyssinian well can be located on a summer cottage, in a garage or cellar. For the construction of such a hydraulic structure does not require expensive equipment, and all work can be done independently without involving contractors.
Abyssinian well. How to make it with your own hands?
To equip a suburban personal plot with water supply, most owners have to pay out not a small amount of money.
Since there is no central water supply in the vicinity, and it will not, digging a well is difficult, and drilling an artesian well is very expensive.
Therefore, many summer residents use the old and low-cost technology. This is the manufacture of an Abyssinian well with their own hands, which will provide high-quality water not only to the owners of the cottage, but also to nearby neighbors.
The concept of “Abyssinian well”
The Abyssinian well is a well with a diameter of about two inches, which is drilled with one’s own hand to the depth of the first water core. Usually the depth is not more than ten meters.
Water from a driven well can be produced using a hand pump or a surface pumping station, which is equipped with an electric motor.
Both that and another it is possible to make with own hands with the minimum investments of finance.
This water supply can be made in one day, it all depends on the depth of the water layer and the composition of the soil. The equipment used takes up little space, which allows it to be installed in the basement. The service life of such a well is from ten to fifteen years, it all depends on the chemical composition of the water and the size of the sand fraction, which is cut off with a filter.
The Abyssinian water production scheme used is very simple, and understandable even to a person who has never seen a water well in his life. A driven well device consists of a hole in the ground of a certain depth, which is cased with a pipe to prevent soil spillage.
The operation of a driven well is as follows:
- From the underground water core, water through the installed filter enters the pipe;
- With the help of a pump mounted on the ground, water is fed up the casing;
- After reaching the earth’s surface, water is distributed through a pre-laid water supply.
To reach the cherished vein, it is necessary to hammer the pipe to the depth of the water layer.
To facilitate the process, a sharp metal tip can be welded to the end of the driven projectile, the dimensions of which should not exceed the diameter of the pipe. Further, a pump is connected to the casing.
The advantages of the Abyssinian well include:
- Simplicity of design, which allows you to build a well in a matter of hours;
- The ability to supply water to a nearby building;
- Thanks to the compact dimensions of the installation, it can be hidden from prying eyes in the basement or other utility room;
- High efficiency, allowing to supply water in unlimited quantities, at certain distances. However, this factor depends on the volume of the passing core and the power of the installed pump unit. It turns out that the larger the aquifer and pump power, the greater the productivity;
- A correctly selected location will allow to obtain high-quality liquid, without harmful chemical impurities;
- Profitability, which is expressed in the minimum cost of installation and maintenance of the structure;
- Long service life, which with proper handling of the unit can reach fifty years.
In addition to the pros, the Abyssinian well has the following disadvantages:
- You can only build a mini-well in a certain area where the water layer lies at a depth of not more than ten meters. Since at a greater depth the installed pump will not be able to dispense liquid to the surface;
- A vein lying not far from the surface of the earth is more susceptible to various kinds of infections. In this regard, it is necessary to take samples and conduct a laboratory analysis on the suitability of water for human consumption;
- Siltation of the filter, which will reduce the efficiency of the supplied fluid.
Well location selection
To equip a driven well, first of all, you need to choose a place for it. When choosing which you need to consider the following nuances:
- The depth of the aquifer. It should be borne in mind that for a mini-well, the priority is only the first layer, located at a distance of no more than ten meters from the earth’s surface. The depth of groundwater can be determined using neighboring wells, where a rope with a small weight measures the distance from the ground to a water mirror, which should be no more than seven meters;
- Useful properties of water. That is, the place for the well should be located as far as possible from the drain or cesspools and agricultural farms. Because water is taken from the upper layers, into which the chemical and bacterial wastes get the most. To avoid this, it is necessary to take samples and perform an analysis in any specialized laboratory;
- The volume of fluid in the current core. This parameter is determined only by research conducted by specialized organizations;
- The composition of the soil. It is best to erect water structures on sandy soils, since hard rocky soil is not suitable for a well;
The best option for the location of the well is a local area with a roof, which will protect the equipment from rain.
Do not punch holes in the hills, as such a terrain is dangerous to landslides. The distance from the well to the potential site of contamination (landfills, farms, and industrial enterprises) should also be maintained, which should be at least four kilometers. The abyssinian should be thirty meters away from the drain pit, and fifteen meters away from farm buildings.
Initially, the construction of the well was carried out by driving a tubular base into the ground using a sledgehammer. Later, for production, the ball’s water was invented by the “Grandma”, which is a device mounted on a guide base. Thus, the delivered strikes became uniform, and it became possible to involve two people in production simultaneously.
For such an arrangement process, it creates large loads on the structure itself made of pipes with a threaded connection. Which entails the loss of tightness of the structure, and, consequently, subsequent pollution issued to the surface of the water. It also creates a threat of damage to the metal mesh (filter), which in turn affects the length of the well’s life.
In addition, this method does not guarantee the exact entry of the filter into the water core. Thus, the position of the filter zone can only be determined by pouring water into the casing, and by observing the rate of absorption. It turns out that if water is absorbed instantly, then the filter fell into the aquifer. But even this method does not give a hundred percent result.
The most common and high-quality option, is currently drilling with a screw. This method guarantees the accuracy of getting into the water layer, and reduces to zero the risk of damage to the filter and the tightness of the equipment. Also, this method allows to reduce water pollution by sprinkling the outer part of the pipe with crushed stone of fine fraction.
To build a mini well, you need to follow the following procedure:
- Drill a small diameter well. To perform this process, a special drill with replaceable nozzles is used;
- Lower a plastic or metal pipe with a filter connected at the end into the drilled hole;
- To seal the pipe with gravel sprinkling;
- Lower the intake hose of the pump unit into the pipe. In this case, pumps are used exclusively surface type;
- Connect the pump to a pre-laid water supply and turn it on.
When installing a driven well, three options are used, using which you can get water on the site without centralized water supply. Existing methods are characterized by the following characteristics:
- Punching soil with a barbell. In this case, a rod made of high-strength metal alloy of small caliber is used. This rod inflicts strong blows on the filter end cap until it reaches the first water core;
- Use of “Grandma”. The design and principle of operation is similar to the first method, except that instead of a percussion instrument, a load with an internal hole of a certain diameter is used. In the process of clogging, it is necessary to constantly add water to the inside of the pipe;
- Auger drilling. The most convenient, safe and effective arrangement method.
With the hammering method, it is necessary to carry out work with special care, since if the tip meets a stone in its path, the entire structure may be completely disrupted.
Necessary tools and materials
In the process of manufacturing Abyssinian wells, the following tools will be needed:
- Welding equipment;
- Angle Grinder;
- Electric drill;
- Adjustable wrenches;
You will also need to prepare or purchase the following supplies:
- Heavy metal circles with which clogging is performed;
- Modified drill;
- Casing pipe. They should be cut into meter pieces and equipped with thread from both ends;
- Fixing materials (clamps, bolts, nuts);
- Clamping device for joining pipes;
- Metal mesh with small cells;
- Knitting wire.
In addition, it is necessary to purchase a pump unit with an adjacent set of mounting materials, and a check valve.
How to make a filter
In order to save money, the coarse filter can be made with your own hands. To do this, you need an inch pipe a little more than one meter long. To which a cone-shaped tip is welded.
Further, on the walls of the pipe, it is necessary to make cuts with a length of about two and a half centimeters, while the distance between them should be no more than two centimeters. Tie the prepared filter with a thin wire, and use a solder to attach a metal mesh.
Scheme of work
Arrangement of a driven well is carried out in the following order:
- Drill a preliminary well, the diameter of which should be no more than one centimeter;
- Install a pre-prepared tip in the center of the pre-hole and start clogging. Which is produced in two ways with the help of a drill, when its base is drilled into the soil, and the selected soil is spirally issued to the surface. This method is best used for shallow wells; using the “Grandma”.
- Add soil to the free space formed between the soil and the pipe, followed by ramming it;
- As the pipe moves, increase it;
- After the pipe reaches the first layer, it must be driven fifty centimeters deep, or until the water level in the well reaches one meter;
- Concrete the platform surrounding the well.
Commissioning a well
Upon completion of the punching of the well, it is necessary to equip it with a pumping unit and a check valve. Next, the pump must be filled with water, connect the outlet pipe to the water supply, and start the equipment.
You need to pump water from the well until it becomes clean. Its cleaning time depends on the composition of the soil, and lasts about two hours.
However, the first water can be used for household purposes, for example for irrigation.
Before you eat, it is advisable to take water for laboratory analysis.
Do-it-yourself abyssinian well
It is not always possible to provide a country house with central water supply. There are several other possibilities to establish a supply of water suitable for drinking and household needs. One of them is the drilling of an Abyssinian well, and how to equip it can be found in this article.
What it is?
What is an Abyssinian well? This is the name of a shallow well (not more than 9 meters), from which water can be lifted by a pump. For the first time, the English began to receive water when they made a trip to Abyssinia. In another way, this method can be called tubular, since the basis is an iron pipe. And also. Nortonovsky. By the name of the creator.
This method of water production is not always acceptable. For this, aquifers must pass in the upper sandy part. Therefore, before excavation, it is better to consult with specialists or ask neighbors. A well of this type easily digs only in sandy soil, if the soil is rocky, you need to make a normal well.
Design features of the Abyssinian well
- Pipe for water supply (it is prefabricated, therefore couplings and gaskets for joints are needed).
- Hardened steel tip (needle).
- Inlet valve.
The nuances of the design are reflected in the drawing.
Features of the construction of such a well
It is necessary to break through the soil, for this they take a pipe with a diameter of 25 to 75 mm and drive it into the ground. Before driving it into the ground, you must drill holes in it. They are made with a diameter of 10 mm, 50 mm recede from each other in compliance with a checkerboard pattern. No other way, otherwise the rigidity will become worse. A distance of 50 cm is left between the rows of holes.
The pipe is equipped with a stainless steel mesh or plastic. Its purpose is to trap sand particles so that siltation does not occur. It is better to solder the mesh with a special flux or tin solder. This will eliminate water poisoning. It turns out a kind of filter for the Abyssinian well.
The end of the pipe is equipped with a pointed part. A needle. Its length is from 20 to 30 cm. The diagram clearly illustrates the features of this element. This design is needed to facilitate the movement of the pipe in the ground.
The Abyssinian well is clogged only after passing through the upper dry soil layer. This process is carried out by a garden drill. Pipes will be driven into the soil in turn, the components are connected in the process. The shows the main points for creating such a well.
The first pipe is driven in using a cast-iron woman, then work is carried out using a frame drill. When the first pipe has completely entered the ground, a new pipe should be screwed on. If the Abyssinian well is made of plastic pipes, another method of connection should be used. Fusion. Joints are sealed with gaskets to prevent water leakage.
When the aquifer is reached, work is completed and the filter element is cleaned with a strong stream of water. Then mount the pump and start pumping water until the water becomes clear.
How to choose a place?
This type of well is dangerous in that water can be contaminated by sewage. Therefore, you need to choose a place for the well as far as possible from any areas where drains are abundant. The distance from the septic tank should be at least 20 meters. This is with fine-grained soil, which perfectly purifies water. If the soil is coarse-grained, the distance increases by another 2 times.
If the question arose of how to make the Abyssinian well yourself, so that the water in it is clean and safe, you need to know that the depth of the well should be at least 4 meters. If the water went earlier, it means that it is soil water, which contains many dangerous impurities.
Abyssinian Well Benefits
This type of well has several advantages:
- The photo shows that the work is carried out without special equipment, many assistants are also not needed;
- The design takes up little space;
- The pump can be installed in the utility room;
- The pipe eliminates the ingress of soil contaminated water;
- Work is carried out quickly;
- The costs are minimal.