How to make a groove on a circular

CUTTING OUT THE SLOT / SPIKE CONNECTION ON THE CIRCULAR

Since this is a very simple connection, it is easier and faster to combine markup and setup. Check the settings on the board trim (fig. 6 and 7).

Learn How To Cut Grooves In The Middle Of Wood

It is easier to fit the cleat to the groove, so make the groove first. Set the depth of the cut by measuring or by eye, pressing the disc against the part in which the groove will be. Then set the ruler to cut the inner shoulder of the groove (Fig. 6, step 2), make a saw in all the parts with the grooves, rearrange the ruler and cut out the second shoulders.

Narrow workpieces, such as bookcase sides, can be sawed off with a dividing head, keeping the end of the workpiece in contact with the ruler during operation. Also, in front of the disc, you can attach a limiter to the ruler so that the end of the part rests against it.

The most accurate way to choose a groove on the circular is to put the workpiece on the table and, pressing it against the ruler, cut out the shoulder. Then put the part on the end and cut out the thickness of the spike. This method allows you to accurately control the thickness of the tenon, but it is inconvenient for long parts or those that are sawn across. Spikes on these parts are best done with several horizontal cuts. After sawing out the shoulder, press the part against the ruler and use the dividing head to cut out excess wood in several passes. Unlike the first method, here the thickness of the spike depends on the thickness of the workpiece.

Regardless of how carefully the tenons are made, there is usually some variation in their size, especially when sawing in solid wood. Here the advice is to cut the spikes a little thicker, and then trim them with a shoulder plane when fitting. The shoulder planer blade extends across its narrow sole so you can cut right into the corner of the shoulder of the tenon.

Sampling of grooves

MILLING SLOT / SPIKE CONNECTION

For large and wide body parts or long and narrow parts, slot milling is relatively simple and safe. Select a cutter with the correct diameter, attach a ruler to the base of the cutter and make passes with it by moving the ruler along the end of the part
(fig. 8). Many milling cutters are sold with a ruler, but to improve the quality of work, it must be pressed to the base with a clamp or screws.

The most accurate way to mill the tenon is to clearly define its thickness between the ruler and the cutter (Fig. 9). To support the router base, use a clamp to press the thick board flush with the end of the work piece.

SLOTS CAN BE MADE ANYWHERE

With a groove connection, the end of one part enters a shallow groove cut across the fibers of the other. This joint is an improvement over the simple butt joint. The groove shoulders provide decent strength. In fact, such a connection cannot be broken, for example, by pressing on a shelf. If it fits tightly, then it can withstand oblique loading well when the force is directed diagonally across the body. The installation of rear panels in cupboards or dressers and bases in drawers additionally strengthens the entire structure. Finally, the groove facilitates assembly by locating the position of the parts and keeping them from slipping.

With just two types of groove joints, almost any body part can be made. The main joint, where the full thickness of the adjacent part fits into the groove, allows the assembly of bookcases, toy chests, hanging shelves or any other enclosures in which the side walls extend beyond the adjacent parts (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Main groove connection.
Fig. 2. Modified groove / tenon connection.

If these “flow” corners are not suitable or are unsightly, use a modified joint (Fig. 2) called a groove / tenon.

Drawers are also boxes. They are easy to make using a basic groove connection and a groove / tenon connection (fig. 3). Example 3A is the strongest of them; in examples 3V and 3C, the front wall can be weakened. If you want to hide the ends of the side walls of the drawer shown at 3A, cover them with a fake front wall or use a quarter connection, as shown at 30, reinforced with nails or dowels.

Fig. 3. Slots in drawers.

MAIN SLOT CONNECTION

Sawing grooves on a table circular with a set of groove discs is much faster than manually. But with long or wide pieces, it is difficult to maneuver around the table. The pendulum saw solves this problem, but it has a drawback. usually its console is not enough for cutting across wide parts.

The milling cutter helps to cope with this trouble. But there are also disadvantages here.

First, if you choose more than one pair of grooves, it can take a long time to set up a ruler for each side. Therefore, use an insert with a width equal to the distance from the edge of the router base to the router. To set the ruler, slide the insert along the intended shoulder mowing line on the work piece (fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Insert for router.

Secondly, the thickness of the work piece is almost never matched to the cutter to ensure that a tight fit is obtained. Solid wood pieces can be stitched or trimmed, but plywood pieces are difficult to trim. Sawing a groove for a fit is clearer. But this requires two milling passes. one for each shoulder.

Faced with a selection of grooves, you can make a simple device (photo A).

SLOT / SPIKE CONNECTION

Like the main groove, the groove / tenon connection (fig. 5) can be made in several ways: circular and milling. Regardless of the method, the proportions of the connection are as follows: a spike about 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the thickness of the part on which it is cut, and about 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the thickness of the part with a groove. To ensure a tight and good connection, it is necessary to cut the grooves slightly deeper than the length of the pins.

DEVICE FOR SELECTION OF SLOTS

The device consists of two rulers (one for each shoulder of the groove) and two strips that rest on the edges of the workpiece. One ruler and one T-bar are tied at right angles. Clearances along the other plank and ruler allow you to install boards up to 300 mm wide and select grooves up to 38 mm wide. Two clamps in the adjustable bar rest against the work piece and lock the fixture in place.

To work, you need a set of guide bushings for the router. With bushings, the rulers should be slightly offset to the side relative to the width of the groove itself.

The fixture is made of poplar, but Karelian birch or MDF plywood will do. T-nuts and MB screws are recessed, so the router can slide along the rulers unhindered.

Having finished manufacturing, you need to make inserts for installing the rulers. Sew a piece of trimming board about 450 mm long, 150 mm wide and 20 mm thick to the same thickness along the entire length. It all depends on the size of the sleeve and the cutter. Leave the fixture in place while making and adjusting four inserts, each about 50mm long, about 25mm wide and the same thickness as the gaps. Ideally, the thickness of the inserts should be equal to half the difference between the diameters of the cutter and the sleeve.

The exact fit of the inserts is done by using them with the installed rulers when milling on a short cut that has been sawed off earlier. Loosen the adjustable ruler, place the trim between the rulers and two inserts on each side.

Tighten the screws. Remove inserts and trim and mill the groove. If the trim does not fit into the groove, adjust the thickness of the inserts.

WORK WITH THE DEVICE

The marking of the grooves is very simple. Determine the shoulder line for each groove by making a pencil mark on the face of the work piece. You can put two side walls together and mark all the grooves at once or mark the second side wall after milling the first.

When the fixture is exposed and the cuts are marked, align the fixed ruler with the mark (photo C), slightly tighten the clamps and make a cut with a router, then move the fixture to the next mark. A well-chosen groove should fit the spike without gaps and backlash (photo D).

How to make a keyway on a shaft

Key and key connection

Keyway is a type of connection that consists of a key on the shaft and a hub. A key is a part that connects nodes by installing in grooves. Its main function is to transfer torque between nodes. There is a certain standardization of their varieties. The key has special grooves cut by milling.

Symbols in drawings

In the drawings, the designation of the parallel keys is based on the GOST normative document. They are divided into keyways: high, normal height and guides. Their working faces are lateral.

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On the assembly drawing, the designation is performed taking into account the shaft diameter, torque, section and length.

Key 3–20Х12Х120 GOST 23360-78;
Where 3. version, 20X12. section, 120. length.

The designation of the remaining types of keys in the images is performed in the same way, based on the corresponding GOSTs developed for each individual model.
The indicated designation must clearly characterize the part, which is very important for obtaining a reliable connection. After all, even the slightest gap can cause rapid wear of working units and loss of efficiency during operation.

Advantages and disadvantages

Like any type of connection, keyways have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of keyed connections include the simplicity of most types of keys. At the same time, installation and replacement of such a part is easy and quick. Due to this, they are widely used in mechanical engineering. Also provides protection function.

Disadvantages include loosening of the hub and shaft. It arises from increased stress and reduced cross-section. Also, the loosening of parts is caused by a cut groove, which reduces the axial strength of the shaft.

To minimize the drawbacks, you need to ensure that the key is not skewed in the groove. To do this, you need to ensure that there is no gap, which is done by individual manufacturing and fitting the key. Because of this, in large-scale production, any type of keyway is rarely used. If it is not possible to achieve the absence of skew, the area of ​​the working contact decreases, as a result of which the degree of maximum load decreases.

Also, the presence of a gap causes a beating effect, especially at high speeds. This will lead to rapid wear of the working parts. Because of this, such a connection is rarely used for high-speed shafts. For the selection of a suitable key, it is better to use the keyway table.

How to grind a pulley keyway at home

I bought a Chinese engine for the Mole, and his shaft turned out to be 20 mm in diameter (more common by 19 mm).
I was looking for a pulley for a long time, but found only for 19 mm. The hole was turned to me by 20 mm, but at the same time, of course, the groove for the key became smaller.

The task is how at home to evenly deepen (by 2 millimeters) the keyway (the pulley itself is 60 mm long) ?
I tried it with a file. it’s dreary, and I’m unlikely to achieve uniform removal.

There is an idea to collect a bag of metal saws, pull it tighter, i.e. make something like a rough file.

It is easier to sharpen the key, or enlarge the keyway with a file. In my youth, I used a veneer groove in a pulley and a shaft from scratch with a file, and I made round keys, drill a hole and drive a suitable bar there.

If you grind the key, the risk of shearing increases.

You can do this with a drill or an angle grinder, if you put a “remnant” of the disc. And with files like a file. you will rub yourself.

SNOW GOES wrote:
You can do this with a drill or an angle grinder, if you put a “remnant” of the disc.

The hole diameter is 20 mm, how can you get in with an angle grinder? In principle, it is possible to deepen the groove on the shaft, but I’m afraid to spoil the shaft (and it will be more expensive than the pulley).
If with a drill, then what kind of attachment? (I’ll find a drill, but I don’t know what to grind).

And with files like a file. you will rub yourself.

And if the files are immediately packaged in a full groove width ?
We fasten, for example, this package (teeth up) in a vice, on the protruding part of the package “on top” a pulley and shirk back and forth.

Probably take a cutter along the width of the hole (by the way, how much is there? About 1 cm?), But at first he can cut the edges with a jigsaw, and then remove the ledge slowly?

Groove 5 mm wide.
It is unlikely that a jigsaw file can be pressed evenly along the entire length of the groove, although as an option you can try on something.

A stainless steel file would be nice, the pulley should have good metal.

A package of metal files of an approximate thickness (maybe a little narrower) is threaded through the hole in the pulley with the teeth to the groove, well, in science, from yourself and pull it onto the machine. Saw the groove to the desired depth, holding the pulley in a vice. You correct minor deficiencies with a file. It turns out fast enough.

Produced Bosch rasp and jigsaw file. File (2608609030). You can try to portray something like this.

Take only one file for metal, thread it, pull it in a hacksaw, first sawed off a little bit of the edges into a dozen or two, then removed the middle. The business is there for exactly five minutes. It is just as easy to do it with a good file, preferably a diamond one. I pressed the pipette longer to write this than you will do it.

Understood thanks.
While I will try to follow the “simple” path. I bought 6 pieces of unpretentious metal files (I will put together a package).

As everything is relative, it is easier for me to glue the shaft than to deepen the groove.
In order for the fit of the key to be complete, you can use filled epoxy, at least household “Cold welding”.
Degrease all parts of the connection, heat up to 40 ° C, moisten all surfaces with epoxy, fill in the grooves and mount.

Yes, most likely you will have to supplement the key with epoxy, since I can hardly make a high-quality groove. But epoxy is fragile, how it behaves ?

Filled epoxy use
Loctite 3471, 3478
Or “Cold welding”
Its strength is weak, but sufficient to distribute the load over the entire surface.

And cold welding. it looks like plasticine.
How to drive it into narrow cracks ?

knead it well, warm it up to 40 °, if the epoxy does not flow. you can even up to 50, but there the assembly time is greatly reduced.
Epoxies in the process of polymerization when heated, soften, up to the state of water.

In general, today at home I sawed a groove with a packet of saws. The files must be rigidly fixed to each other, otherwise grooves are obtained. Corrected with a file.
Tomorrow in the garage I will preliminarily estimate my results on the engine.
I will finally fix it by warmth.

In the garage, I checked my “fruits”. the pulley with the key fits perfectly on the shaft, however, slightly loosened in width. I will clean with epoxy.

Lucas,
I’ve read and sensed that the collective farm will not end well.
until finally ruined, buy a grater and carefully make an even groove.

then under it. sharpen the key.
epoxy does not work to transmit torque and after a breakdown it will be more difficult to fix anything.

The groove has already been made and aligned, the backlash is minimal (you can leave everything like that).

sanya1965 wrote:
Lucas,
I’ve read and sensed that the collective farm will not end well.
until finally ruined, buy a grater and carefully make an even groove.

then under it. sharpen the key.
epoxy does not work to transmit torque and after a breakdown it will be more difficult to fix anything.

As you imagine, with an engraving cutter, make a groove 5 mm wide, 2.3 deep and 60 mm long in a 20 hole, observing the geometry tolerances?
Epoxy works great for transmitting torque when it comes to gluing the shaft into the bushing with a guaranteed clearance for the polymer and maintaining alignment.
A preliminary calculation is made for the shear force, for Loctite 3478 it is 37.9 N / mm2
In this case, we are not talking about replacing the key with epoxy, but about filling the gaps between the key and the keyway with epoxy.
Thus, we eliminate gaps, distribute the load over 100% of the area and increase the ultimate force for crushing the key, eliminate fretting corrosion.

Key material

For the manufacture of keyed connections, gauge metal rolling is used. The most commonly used steel is grade 45. It is a common type of carbon steel, which is often used for the production of high strength parts. Steel is used in the form of a bar 1 m long.

In some cases, carbon steel of grade 50 can be used. It is necessary when increased strength properties of the obtained keys are required. Alloyed steels are less commonly used, for example, grade 40x, which is characterized by a high hardness index, achieved by heat treatment.

Steel workpieces are processed with cutters, drilling machines, chippers, grinders and other tools. The machines used have a control unit that allows you to make a part of the required parameters using numerical programs.

The price of the key obtained is quite low, so it is quite easy to purchase the necessary part. But in some cases, when there is a need to urgently obtain a key, you can make it yourself. Most often, such a need arises in agriculture, where breakdowns often occur during seasonal work that need to be removed. At the same time, the nearest points of sale of the necessary parts are located at a distance of several tens of kilometers.

With a small number of tools on hand and a workpiece of the appropriate material, a temporary replacement can be quickly made. Subject to the technical characteristics, the resulting part will be able to fully replace the factory one, but it is best to acquire a key of the required strength and geometric parameters as soon as possible. This is necessary to avoid premature wear of the mechanisms.

Sometimes other materials can be used for production, for example, high quality plastic. Wood can be used as a material, most often in the manufacture of furniture.

It is better to use different types of wood as a material; a softer material than the main one is suitable for the dowel. This will protect the main structure from damage in case of increased load. Easier to replace a key than a large sub-assembly.

To prevent moisture penetration into reinforced concrete structures, special dowels are used. waterstop. They are made of high quality rubber and PVC. This allows you to achieve the required degree of waterproofing and resistance to solutions of aggressive chemicals.

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Application

The main application of keyed connections is mounting on a shaft using a groove connection. For the most part, the keyway resembles a wedge. This type of connection of parts allows the shaft and hub not to rotate relative to each other’s axis. The fixed position of the hub to the shaft with the key allows for high efficiency in power transmission.

Most often, the keyway connection can be found in mechanical engineering, in the construction of machine tools. It is often used in the manufacture of cars and other mechanisms, where increased reliability of fixing machine parts is required. High reliability is achieved thanks to the function of the shaft safety unit with keyway.

The key acts as a fuse in cases of exceeding the maximum torque level. In such cases, the key is sheared, absorbing excessive load, it removes it from the shaft and hub.

Due to its properties, it has become widespread in mechanical engineering, it is distinguished by high efficiency, ease of manufacture and installation, as well as low cost. These characteristics are especially important in industrial production, especially in agriculture. At the height of the season, there are often cases of breakdowns of individual units that need to be replaced as quickly as possible. Most often found in baler assemblies.

Considering all of the above, the main positions are highlighted, for which a key is needed:

  • Ensuring the safety of the connected nodes under increased loads.
  • Achieving a high degree of fixation of individual elements of the mechanical unit.
  • Carries out the function of preventing the rotation of the unit and the hub.
  • The reliability of such a connection exceeds the reliability of analogs when fixing the shaft with parts.

In general, you can find a keyway connection in almost any complex mechanism, due to its technical characteristics.

Tenon cutter for router

Tenoning patterns come in a wide variety of configurations. They serve to facilitate the work of cutting out joints such as tenon and groove, as well as to speed up the work. With their help, you can make frames, box joints, cut out various joints for furniture. The shape of the tooth of the template will determine the size of the groove, as well as the evenness of its edges. To make a tenon cutter with your own hands, you will need guides, with the help of which the tenons will be milled. They should be mounted on two opposite sides of the case in a checkerboard pattern, placed equidistantly. Subject to these conditions, they are ideal for each other.

Useful DIY homemade products

In order to do something useful, for example, a casket, you do not need to have a whole arsenal of sophisticated equipment and expensive tools. You can get by with a minimum of tools and mechanisms. To perform carpentry work you will need:

  • milling cutter;
  • electric jigsaw;
  • Sander;
  • several clamps;
  • set of cutters.

You can use absolutely everything as a material. for example, trimming parquet boards, pieces of plywood and chipboard waste, but always with a right angle. To simplify the work, you need to make a simple milling table. To machine workpieces, you need a straight slot cutter with a large diameter. The process looks something like this. On a homemade table, plan the ends of the parquet board scraps. Mark the sides of the box and use a jigsaw to remove all unnecessary.

The resulting blanks must be processed with a thickness gauge to withstand the size of all sidewalls. In the absence of a planer, you can use a milling table. To do this, set the stop to the size of the workpiece and move the part between the stop and the rotating mill towards you. Perform the next operation to calibrate the sides along the length with a jigsaw.

You can connect the sidewalls with each other on a mustache. To do this, you need to mill the ends of the sidewalls with a conical mill with an angle of 90 degrees. This can be done using a router. Thus, the ends of the sidewalls have the same bevels of 45 degrees. Next, you need to make grooves in the sidewalls for the bottom. For this, an end mill with a diameter of 6 millimeters is used, equal to the thickness of the plywood. Parts are connected with glue. The product looks neat and beautiful both outside and inside. What else can you do with a hand-held wood router? Anything: for example, a shelf for things, drawers for storing vegetables or tools, kitchen furniture.

CUTTING OUT THE SLOT / SPIKE CONNECTION ON THE CIRCULAR

Since this is a very simple connection, it is easier and faster to combine markup and setup. Check the settings on the board trim (fig. 6 and 7).

It is easier to fit the cleat to the groove, so make the groove first. Set the depth of the cut by measuring or by eye, pressing the disc against the part in which the groove will be. Then set the ruler to cut the inner shoulder of the groove (Fig. 6, step 2), make a saw in all the parts with the grooves, rearrange the ruler and cut out the second shoulders.

Narrow workpieces, such as bookcase sides, can be sawed off with a dividing head, keeping the end of the workpiece in contact with the ruler during operation. Also, in front of the disc, you can attach a limiter to the ruler so that the end of the part rests against it.

The most accurate way to choose a groove on the circular is to put the workpiece on the table and, pressing it against the ruler, cut out the shoulder. Then put the part on the end and cut out the thickness of the spike. This method allows you to accurately control the thickness of the tenon, but it is inconvenient for long parts or those that are sawn across. Spikes on these parts are best done with several horizontal cuts. After sawing out the shoulder, press the part against the ruler and use the dividing head to cut out excess wood in several passes. Unlike the first method, here the thickness of the spike depends on the thickness of the workpiece.

Regardless of how carefully the tenons are made, there is usually some variation in their size, especially when sawing in solid wood. Here the advice is to cut the spikes a little thicker, and then trim them with a shoulder plane when fitting. The shoulder planer blade extends across its narrow sole so you can cut right into the corner of the shoulder of the tenon.

Dovetail milling cutter

They are most often used in conjunction with milling machines and machines for making grooves in hard and soft wood products. Manufactured from monolithic hard alloys.

Designed to work in tandem with cylindrical cutters.

Making a device for taking a thorn

When parts are processed manually, the router itself does not have additional spatial fixation. But the overall result of the work depends on this, the accuracy of the connection itself in the future.

To assemble the simplest structure that can cope with the task, you will need to use:

  • Several guides that remain stationary. They must be side and top or bottom.
  • The length of the sample is adjustable by using a suitable movable bar.
make, groove, circular

For manufacturing, the following sequence of actions is applied:

  • A plywood sheet is taken, from one edge of which side elements are mounted in a vertical plane. In the center of the material, you need to create the appropriate cut.
  • The sides are supplied with guides. The sole of the hand mill moves along them in the future.
  • The side strips are fixed to the upper rails. Then the travel of the working router associated with these parts has limitations.
  • The plywood sheet, which has become the base for the installation, also serves as a surface for the installation of the movable element. Then the overhang of the edge for the future workpiece is easier to control under any circumstances. Fixation is provided with ordinary screws, other types of fixing devices.

There are several points in the manufacture that require separate accounting:

  • The upper guides have a height corresponding to the sum of the thickness for the part under processing and a small gap on which the wedge is installed, which is involved in fixing.
  • The forming spike has a certain length, which is taken into account when determining the thickness of the cutouts in the side elements along the vertical.

When such devices are used, the work is carried out with the participation of manual milling cutters of any modern model.

Fixtures are made as follows if dovetail connections are required.

  • A hole is created inside a plywood sheet with several layers. The part for cutting at the cutter itself protrudes from this part.
  • A plywood sheet is prepared in advance, on the lower part of which the manual router itself is fixed. Clamps and self-tapping screws are perfect when doing work, as well as other types of fasteners.
  • A board 2.5 centimeters thick is attached to a plywood sheet, which further participates in the movement of the prepared part. The function of the guides is taken over by the design. Boards are disposable consumables.

Wood Router Lessons: Thorns Cutting, Groove Cutting

The hand router is a versatile mechanical tool in the home workshop. To use it correctly, you need to learn the basic lessons of a wood router. There are many Chinese-made milling cutters on the market, all of them are of the same design and differ only in engine power. Experts recommend purchasing a more powerful tool, since the list of work performed will expand significantly. The craftsman will be able to cut a pattern, make a quarter sample, cut thorns and perform other operations related to the manufacture of furniture.

Toolbox

In order to make a toolbox, it is necessary to strengthen the joinery joint of the sidewalls by inserting additional spikes. The operation is called cutting tenons with a hand router. It is very difficult to make it manually, so you need to make a simple device. a milling table. The principle of its manufacture is simple:

  • Assemble a simple wooden table consisting of a table top and legs.
  • Attach a hand-held milling machine to the table top from below by making a hole in the table top for the cutter to exit.
  • Make a carriage with a stop bar from thick-layer plywood according to the dimensions of the table top. A groove is cut in the carriage for the exit of the cutter.
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The device for cutting thorns in the board works as follows. Mark the place of milling and, pressing the board against the stop bar, perform the movement with the carriage, directing it to the cutting tool. The resulting spike connection of parts will be strong and reliable.

How to choose a groove with a router?

The solution to the problem depends on where the grooves are located, what size they have. There are several recommendations for home craftsmen:

  • The use of open grooves involves fastening to the table top, holding the workpiece along the cutter.
  • Accuracy is determined by the height of the cutter, the location of the bar.
  • It is recommended to use wood waste for trial operations. This avoids mistakes.
  • Sampling is carried out in stages, with several passes.

The main thing is to get rid of wood waste in time after the completion of each stage. Then the tool will definitely not suffer from overheating. The easiest way to get the job done is to use a plywood cut template. They pass through it with the milling cutter itself, with the bearing installed.

Cutting thorns on a circular saw. “tenoning” with your own hands

Once I needed to make many boxes of different sizes from plywood. As you know, plywood does not like fastening with self-tapping screws to the end and often splits from this.

I had a tenon cutter for a router, but it had low productivity, and besides, when using low-quality plywood, the cutters quickly became dull.

And the sharpening of the cutter gradually changes its diameter, and it becomes impossible to work with it on the tenon cutter. Therefore, the task was set to create a new, more powerful tool with the ability to cut thorns immediately in a pack of blanks to speed up work.

To solve this problem, I used a stationary circular saw, for which I made a special device. I make the grooves with a block of discs, and the accuracy of movement is ensured by a stud, which has a fixed thread pitch. I’ll tell you how I made this device.

Support board

The blanks of the boxes in my design are fastened with clamps to the support board. To make it last longer and not wrinkle from the clamps, for its manufacture I used a larch decking board, which I leveled on a thickness gauge.

At first, I planned to make the support a single board, but it would require a lock on the bottom and, in addition, the bottom edge would be damaged by the saw when cutting the thorns. If I raised the support board above the level of the spikes, then there would be a problem of chips on the workpieces, especially from plywood. Therefore, I made the support board in two parts.

The lower, narrower and shorter part of the support board is rigidly attached to the stop of the tenon cutter base, and the upper part is left movable. It is moved using a wooden block with a nut and a pin along the groove in the bottom of the support board.

In the lower part, I installed a replaceable anti-splinter pad made of MDF. I installed a side stop on the movable part of the support board. strictly perpendicular to both the board and the base plate. Then I attached a block to the edge of the base as an additional attachment and made a cut in the base for the disc to pass.

For safety, in the front part, where the disc comes out, I glued in a protective block. On the sides of this bar there is a place where the handles will be installed for the convenience of moving the tenon cutter along the saw table runners.

To control the position of the disc, I installed two pointers. The first shows when the backing board is set to the “zero” position, that is, when the disc is in close contact with its plane with the side stop. The second helps to count the revolutions when the stud rotates. As a second counter, I used a wooden “barrel”, rigidly fixed to a hairpin, on which I applied risks in 1/4 turn increments.

To ensure faster performance, I used a sandwich of two identical discs and spacers between them. There are special kits for setting the exact width of the groove, but they are expensive, and I do not have one. To get the gasket of the desired thickness, I cut out a duralumin washer with a thickness slightly less than necessary and brought it to the desired size using self-adhesive aluminum tape. I would like to point out that it is better to use new identical discs. I had one new, and the second was already a little used, as a result, when cutting, a small step appears at the base of the spike.

After a lot of trials and adjustments, I got a “sandwich” with a cutting width of 5.25 mm, which corresponds to 3 turns of the stud (1.75 mm x 3 = 5.25 mm). This made it possible to make cleats with a width of 5.25 mm, turning the stud between cuts 6 full turns. If it was necessary to make larger spikes, then the number of revolutions proportionally increased.

Tenon cutter ready to work.

How to cut thorns on a circular with your own hands (tenon cutter)

With your own hands. How to do it yourself

Tenon cutter base

An old homemade saw stop came in handy as the base of the thorn cutting device.

On the sides of the stop, I installed vertical posts made of larch, which I additionally reinforced for rigidity with side plates. I pre-pressed the bearings into the racks under the driving pin. The hairpin was used with a M14 thread and a pitch of 1.75 mm.

Moving along the hairpin is done using a wooden block in which a long nut is hidden. Using a shorter nut may cause the unit to skew while driving.

How to do something yourself, with your own hands. home master’s site

Additional refinement of the tenon cutter

On this, the manufacture of the tenon cutter could have been completed. However, after a short operation, several shortcomings in its work were discovered.

make, groove, circular

Firstly, counting a large number of revolutions is not convenient. you can easily get lost. Secondly, if an incomplete rotation of the stud was required, then the calculation became even more difficult, and the accuracy fell. Thirdly, since the gap between the pin and the moving support board did not allow the handle to be rotated normally, it had to be taken out to the maximum to the right, and this protruding long part of the pin made the device not very convenient.

To remedy these shortcomings, I decided to mount the “reducer” on a pin of two gears at right angles to each other. The size of the gears was selected so that for one revolution of the driving gear, the pin makes 3 revolutions. The most affordable option for me was to make gears out of wood, so I used 13 mm birch plywood as the material.

I got the drawings of the gears using the Matthias Wandel gear generator, which can be found on his website. Then I pasted the printouts on plywood and cut out the gears with a band saw.

To get the gears well into engagement, their teeth were cut at an angle of 11 degrees. over, he cut different sides of the tooth, respectively, with an inclination in different directions. My band saw allows you to tilt the table in one direction only, so I did not use the tilt of her table, but made an inclined base and attached it with a clamp to the saw table. First, I cut out the left sides of the teeth when tilting to the right, and then I turned the stop and cut out the right sides. I connected both cuts at the base with a hand jigsaw.

After that, I sanded each tooth and drilled a center hole.

The gear works only with the upper parts of the teeth, so I did not carefully process their lower parts.

Installation of the “reducer”. First, I cut off part of the right pillar with a hand hacksaw and tried to install a furniture nut for attaching the pinion gear. However, this option turned out to be a failure. Due to the bearing installed in the rack, it was not possible to secure the nut tightly with long self-tapping screws, and the large lever of the drive gear led to strong beats. The idea of ​​just putting a big gear on the bolt was also bad: for the gear to rotate easily, a little play was needed, and it also caused beats.

I had to press the bearing into the gear, and instead of the furniture nut, put a 3 mm thick metal plate with fasteners that went beyond the bearing in the rack. To compensate for the thickness of the metal plate, a recess was made in the gear on the inside.

I installed a handle on the drive gear and numbered the teeth for convenience (a turn by one tooth is 1/4 of a turn of the stud). Downstairs on the counter made a counter to the risk for precise positioning. After that, I sawed off an extra piece of the hairpin on the right and covered the structure with wax for better glide and protection from moisture and dirt.

By turning the pinion by a different number of revolutions, I get studs of different thicknesses and can even make them uneven.

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Thorn-Groove on a circular

Andrey Yarmolkevich offers a very interesting solution for making a thorn-groove.

Of the tools you will need: a table compass and a drill.

Tenon cutter for box connection