How to saw a log into slabs. How to process a slab of wood for a countertop and other products?
What do you fill the tables from the splits of wood?
Like any construction material, the slab of wood before turning into an exclusive piece goes through several stages. What is a slab? It is a reworked sawn wood, which is then used as a furniture component in the interior (kitchen worktop, dining table, etc.).д.). Among the connoisseurs of the natural wooden furniture the shelves from slab and other similar wooden décor are popular. For intuitive reasons, preparing a slab, especially of large dimensions, is a costly and time-consuming process. Heavy logs in processing and preparation require considerable physical strength, the presence of heavy loading equipment, etc.д.
This kind of material in the dissolution requires a certain type of equipment, which is not available to all masters. In addition, there may be problems with the storage and drying of solid blanks.
Before you start working with wooden slabs, you need to think carefully about all the stages of work. Improper transportation, storage, drying, etc.д. leads to a decrease in the quality of products. Despite all the difficulties, the preparation and processing of slab is worth. Making slab their own hands. a guarantee of an individual cut, the form and size that you need. Taking into account all the associated costs and the cost of the finished slab product a conclusion about the high profitability of the process. How to make a slab with your own hands? To begin with the choice of wood.
Self-made guide with a carriage
Of the basic materials we will need boards and plywood.
Note: the homemade guide with carriage can be used both vertically and horizontally.
I got the idea from J-woodworking, the author of this YouTube channel!
Making the carriage
First you have to make the side walls of the carriage.
Drill holes in the center of the side walls of the carriage to match the diameter of the threaded rod.
Attach a piece of board to one of the side walls, which will act as a stopper. To the second wall you also attach the same piece, but temporarily with double-sided adhesive tape. It needs to be removed later on.
Saw two more pieces of board to size, then use them to connect the side walls of the carriage.
Insert the threaded rod into the earlier drilled holes. Fix it with fasteners. nuts.
Mounting the carriage
Drill a hole in the guide bar of the chain saw. Insert the threaded rod with the carriage in the hole and fix it.
Making the carriage rail
A piece of sawn timber is used as a guide. We saw off the preform to the right length and mount the slide on it.
How the device will work
Two pieces of board are fastened along the edges of the log, to which a guide is screwed. After that it will be necessary to install the chainsaw slide, and you can start sawing.
How to make a straight cut with a chainsaw
Cut out the outline of the recess with holes from heavy cardboard or sandpaper to fix the guide bar in the side removable guard of the plastic body.
Transfer and cut the contours of the template with an angle grinder to a metal strip 3-5 mm thick, matching its width. At the base of the “outgrowth” make a continuous slot (recess).
We clamp the “offshoot” in a vice and bend it to an angle of 90 degrees to the plane of the workpiece.
Fix the bend angle from the inside with a weld.
We mark and drill holes in the “offshoot”, using the side removable plastic body guard as a template.
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Screw the plate with nuts to the bolts for fixing the guide bar and shorten it by the calculated value.
Prepare a suitable length of steel corner piece and from an old sheet of metal cut a triangular piece with the required dimensions. Use an angle grinder to remove rust, round corners and edges.
Weld the steel angle to the triangular workpiece along the edge of the larger side (the cathetus), slightly back from the smaller.
Fix the workpiece with the “offshoot” by welding a braid and make two longitudinal parallel slots in it with the calculated width and length.
Using the slots as a template, mark and drill two holes in the steel corner.
Fix the part with slots to the angle with bolts, washers and nuts. Nuts are then welded to the angle.
Fasten the assembled construction to the chainsaw through the holes in the “offshoot”.
Set the triangular rail in the desired position according to the desired width of the lumber and fasten it with two bolts.
When splitting a log into slices the triangular guide slides on the outside of the board and guides the chainsaw guide straight.
The simplest chainsaw guide for sawing logs into boards with your own hands
Amateur carpenters often have an acute shortage of good hardwood lumber. Mainly available on the market are coniferous boards and boards. If you need more noble wood you can make a simple guide beam and use it to cut hardwood logs into desired lumber.
The proposed design is a guide beam, which is screwed to the log. The guide carriage with the chain saw attached slides on it. Together they give a straight path to the guide bar of the chainsaw, which leads to a nearly perfect cut.
The beam itself can be made from any even planed board with thickness of at least 50 mm and a width of 150-200 mm. The length of the beam can be any length, depending on what logs need to be split.
The conductor itself is made of plywood and one-inch board, fastened together with self-tapping screws. It is U-shaped. Its sides are sawn from plywood. Their size is 30×7.5 cm. The top is made of two 12 cm long boards. Their width should correspond to the guide beam. When assembling the conductor, a gap is left between the top boards.
Drill a hole in the center of the conductor sides. The holes must be positioned so that they do not protrude below the top boards. Long bolts are inserted into the holes on both sides, which must be connected with an elongated nut. They will need to be braced to prevent them from unrolling. On the bolts, before inserting them into the conductor, plywood washers, made with a core drill, must be placed.
Use the bolted coupling to fasten the guide bar to the chain saw rail. For this purpose the latter is drilled out.
The saw needs to be able to rotate on the axis that connects it to the carriage. To do this, shims cut out of plastic are inserted between the conductor and the plywood washers, and everything is lubricated with graphite powder.
The carriage is now completely ready for use. But before doing so, it is advisable to grind the guide beam to ensure that it slides with as little resistance as possible.
To use the device, you need to screw the guide beam with self-tapping screws on the log laid horizontally on a small elevation. If it has an extension at the beginning, it must be sawn off. The beam should lie stable without deflection.
The saw is then mounted on the beam by the carriage, and moving along it, cuts the first slab. It is important to check that the guide bar does not reach the ground. The carriage is then turned over and the log is cut on the other side. The end result is a workpiece with two parallel planes.
Then the billet is laid on its side, a guide beam is placed on top, and it is sawn into boards of the desired width. It is even easier and faster to saw it on a circular table with a parallel stop, since the planes are already formed on it.
Scheme of log sawing on a band sawmill
To process logs on a band sawmill it is necessary to adhere to the accepted technology. This way it is possible to get the maximum quantity of qualitative materials. boards and a bar. But first you should familiarize yourself with the basic rules of cutting.
Types of wood sawing
The first step is to form a carving block from the log. For this purpose, cuts are made on two sides of it. In some cases the work is done on four sides. Beforehand, a map of band sawing of the workpiece is made, on which the dimensions of the components are indicated.
The decisive factor in selecting a pattern is the direction in which the log is to be cut. In particular, the movement of the cutting edge relative to the annual rings. According to this, sawn timber of different quality with a unique appearance is formed. Not only their aesthetic qualities, but also their price depends on it.
- tangential. The cut is made tangentially in relation to the annual rings. As a result, oblong patterns are formed on the surface in the form of arches, rings;
- radial. It requires perpendicular machining along the annual rings. The distinctive feature is the uniform pattern;
- transverse. The processing is done crosswise to the grain; the cut pattern is an even cut of the annual rings;
- rustic. Can be made at any angle, contains a certain amount of knots, sapwood or other similar defects.
Often in the woodworking industry is used the waste of band sawing logs. slab. One side is flat, the other is left untreated.
To draw up as accurate a cut as possible it is recommended to use special programs. They take into account not only the dimensions of the source material, but also the wood species.
180° log rotation sawing
In order to form the maximum number of boards it is recommended to use a technology in which some of the bandsaw processes are rotated by 180°. This allows the maximum amount of lumber with different types of cuts.
The processing principle consists in making the initial cuts along the edges of the log, which are 90° in relation to each other. This is the basis for the subsequent band sawing. The works are performed on the equipment with vertical positioning of cutting elements. The diameter of the trunk should be at least 26 centimeters.
- Processing the side with a cut edge. This results in two boards.
- Turning the log around by 90°. Cutting is performed from the opposite side. The number of pieces varies from 3 to 4.
- Repeated turn by 90°. The main part of the source material is processed. Depending on the planned one, 7 to 8 logs can be produced.
Despite all its positive qualities, this method has one significant drawback. low production speed. It is recommended for use on equipment that has an automatic log repositioning unit in relation to the cutting part of the machine.
The detailed scheme is most often used for the production of rustic boards, which have lower quality requirements.
Sawing on a sawmill with a 90° rotation of the log
A different process is recommended for tangential and radial boards. It consists of the systematic banding of logs with simultaneous analysis of defects. In this way the desired product quality can be obtained.
After delimbing, the timber is placed on the sawing machine’s feed table. Then proceed as follows.
Sawing Slabs. Turning a Log into Lumber Part 2
- Removal of the first slab. Is performed until the width of the base is 110-115 mm.
- Removal of unedged boards with a thickness of about 28 mm.
- If the number of surface imperfections exceeds the required level. the material is turned through 90°. If the quality of the board is good enough, the next cut is made.
- Repeat the operation.
This method is applicable to machining facilities that have one cutting surface or have the function of temporarily removing the rest.
Russia’n ash Sawing!!!
If the number of defects is sufficiently large, you can not put off the workpiece, and perform its processing by turning it 180 °.
The above technique of banding can be applied to create any configurations of wooden products. Often the core area is used to form a bar, and the remaining parts are used to make boards. But there can be exceptions, depending on the required shape of the logs.
The quality of work is influenced by the current state of the sawmill, the sharpening level of the saws and the speed of processing. These factors must be taken into account before starting the production process. If necessary preventive maintenance or repair of equipment is carried out.
In the video the technique of sawing logs on the home-made band saw is shown:
Rational cutting of round logs: charts, maps, tables
The economic efficiency of sawmill production to a large extent depends on the degree of raw material use. The equipment used in production, rational cutting of logs in optimal positions, proper planning of cutting determine the efficient use of resources and, accordingly, the high quality of products.
Basic charts of how to split logs
Methods and schemes of cutting logs directly depend on the quality and size requirements of the products, the characteristics of raw materials and the type of equipment used.
The main ways of sawing a log. in-split; b. with a bar; b’. getting two bars; b’. in-split bars; c. sectoral; c’. sawing a sector on radial boards; c’. on tangential boards; d. segmental; d’. apart-segmental; d”. bar-segmental; d. circular; 1. unedged boards; 2. edged boards; 3. lath; 4. bars; 5. parts of logs as sectors; 6. parts of logs as segments; 7. one-sided edged boards
Split logs are cut into parallel planes by one or more cutting tools.
This scheme allows you to get unedged boards with a different arrangement of the plates in relation to the annual layers.
Making slabs with your own hands
Creation” of the mold for pouring
After we have prepared the timber and poured a thin layer of compound while it is drying, we proceed to make the mold. It will be necessary to place a wooden workpiece in it. The size of the mold can be either the same length as the board or larger. In the second version, the edges will be strips of epoxy. Any sheet material with a smooth surface is good for creating the form. The smoother the shape, the less grinding effort will be required. The form is assembled with the edges, which are a few centimeters higher than the planned thickness of the tabletop. After assembling the joints are sealed with sealant, which must be carefully aligned. Wrap your finger in cling film, soak it in water and smooth it out until it is perfect. But you have to do it quickly. Sealing must be thorough, otherwise the resin will leak from the mold. And it’s not cheap, and it’s not easy to clean up traces. It is possible to make a mold from laminated chipboard, and it is possible from plywood, but it will be necessary to cover it with something. For example, with wax, a special release agent. The easiest and cheapest option is to cover with film, but it should lie smoothly, without any waves and irregularities. It is possible to glue two layers of scotch tape. Glue it butt to butt, no overlaps. The second row is shifted so that the seams of the lower row were overlapped tapes about half the length. The scotch also has to lie smoothly. It can be replaced by vinyl film, but it will need to be heated in the corners to lie flat. You can make a mold out of glass, planting the sides on the sealant. For easier separation, lubricate the glass with a layer of grease. Do not neglect the lubrication. it will be much less of a problem. In general, making a table from epoxy resin, even in the preparatory processes you can include imagination. The technology is very flexible, there are many options.
What epoxy resin should be used for making tabletops
There are a lot of epoxies and the vary a lot. Let’s say right away that for normal results the cheap one will not do. You need a transparent, which does not cloud over time, does not change color, and these are expensive compositions, such as 3D MG-EPOX-STRONG. Often they are placed in a separate category: epoxy resins for countertops. When choosing you should pay attention to these parameters:
The fact is that there are resins that can only be poured in a small layer at a time. Say, the maximum layer of 10 mm. And the next layer can be poured after 24 hours.
If you need to make a countertop 6-7 mm thick (4 cm wood, plus 1-1,5 mm on the bottom and top), you will need a full week. And this is only to pour in layers.
There are epoxy resins that can be poured in a layer of up to 6 cm or more.
If you are going to make an epoxy table for the first time and have never dealt with this material before, it is better to choose those that are poured in a thin layer. With these, it’s easier to achieve the absence of bubbles.
Although you might like the “frozen soda” effect. If you want to color the resin, you have to buy special dyes. When pouring in layers, dilute the dye in one of the components before adding the hardener.
How much epoxy
How much epoxy is needed for the table?? The answer is not easy. The countertop can be different sizes, can be small or thick. Maybe there will only be a small “river” and maybe most of it will be from the epoxy.
Basically, you can roughly calculate the volume of the tabletop you plan to make. Estimate how much of the percentage will be wood, the rest is epoxy. So how much epoxy you need for the table is considered for your own case.
Some who make only “river” will go 4-6 liters, others may need 20-30 liters or more.
Let’s look at an example. We will make a rectangular tabletop 10060 cm, thickness. 7 cm. The wood will take up most of it. about 2/3. Translate the values into meters and multiply: 1.0 x 0.6 x 0.07 =”” 0.042 m³. To convert to liters, multiply this figure by 1000. We get 42 liters.
That’s quite a lot. But this is if you do the countertop completely of epoxy resin. Approximately 2/3 of the volume will be taken up by wood. The epoxy will account for only 1/3. That is, we divide the obtained figure by 3 and receive 14 liters.
What are wood slabs?
Essentially the slabs are longitudinal cuts of wood. The name comes from the English word “slab” which translates as slab. Originally, the term was used in stone processing to refer to raw materials for tabletops and other items, and then spread into the field of woodworking. The fundamental differences between slabs and other wood materials are:
- The thickness of the finished plate is from 5 to 15 cm.
- The slab is made from the bottom, the thickest, part of the trunk.
- This material is a single piece without any joints.
- All edges leave either untreated, or emphasize their natural relief.
- The material is produced for the subsequent creation of unique furniture or interior objects with a unique pattern of lines and natural flaws. Doors from slabs of wood. a fashionable tendency of modern design.
What kind of wood do slabs come from??
The majority of wooden slabs are made on professional mobile sawmills with special lifting mechanisms, after all many trees have considerable weight. A wide variety of woods can be used:
- For production of window sills, shelves and tabletops we use oak, larch, elm, walnut and maple.
- The more expensive furniture can be made of valuable species. teak, boxwood and beech.
- Theoretically any tree irrespective of its value and density can be sawn on slabs and used in manufacture of exclusive furniture.
Manufacturing of wooden slabs. technology
A qualitative saw cut wood is made under the certain technology, which allows to save a unique wood texture and pattern, all natural knots and irregularities. On an industrial scale, this process consists of the following steps:
- Selection of the wood by a specialist. The quality of the sawn timber depends on the species of wood, growing conditions and the individual characteristics of the crop.
- Transportation of raw materials to the sawmill, since some logs require very long and powerful saws for sawing.
- Directly sawing the raw material into slabs of wood.
- Drying of blanks by natural or artificial method.
- Processing of blanks with special compositions.
- Transportation of finished products for furniture, doors and interior decorations.
Features of the home-made sawing variant
Saw a log into boards is easy to do with a tool made by your own hands. Fabrication of the equipment is not complicated:
- As a support you must apply the frame from the school desk or a tube with a cross-section in the form of a square, its optimal size 20 × 20, and it is allowed to use more.
- Construct two clamps, at one end mount a crossbar with two holes for the tie bolts, in the middle make a projection for the bar.
- For sawing logs longitudinally into boards it is important to make a support frame, its width must be less than the length by 7-8 cm.
- Then two elements 10 cm long are welded to both sides, holes are made for bolts, and a handle is attached in the middle for convenient operation.
- After that the clamps are inserted into the grooves, the bar is installed, everything is carefully secured.
Working with a homemade tool is not difficult, you will need two goats, they will serve as a support, and it is necessary to prepare a metal slat or board, the element will be a guiding element. Place the logs on the bottom and adjust the height necessary for the work.
The technique of sawing a log lengthwise
Longitudinal sawing is carried out with a horizontal nozzle. To get the boards even, it is important to use specially prepared guide, its role is played by a metal rail or board of high strength.
The tricky part of this process is making the first cut, which requires:
- Assemble the guide bar, it consists of two boards, fastened together at an angle of 90 degrees.
- Place the log on the supports, firmly secure its position.
- Check if the log is level.
- Use self-tapping screws to fasten the leading ruler to the supports.
- horizontally, fasten another rail, this one will rest on the ground, but it will also hold the log in place.
- Saw the log.
During the second sawing, specialists may not use a guide ruler, the resulting board will serve as a guide. Make the second cut perpendicular to the first.
The secrets of the cross-cut
Cross-cutting saw is used for making firewood or decorative interior elements. Sawing is carried out according to the following principles:
- Place the log horizontally on the timber supports, the height should be 0.5 m.
- Remove the bark from the log.
- Make small marks along the entire length with an axe or saw.
- Make a saw cut from the cuts.
No special tools or attachments are required for cross-cutting sawing. For such work an ordinary chain is perfectly suitable, but its rings must be strong.
To make a high quality epoxy table is recommended to follow some rules:
- Resin does not cure well in high humidity. Condensation may seep in from the air. To prevent nuisance tripping, a film can be hung over the tabletop.
- The mixture will harden faster if the countertop is placed on the radiator. Do not heat from the top, as the surface may become uneven. It is necessary to prepare personal protective equipment. respirator, goggles and gloves.
- Exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause the countertop to yellow. All horizontal surfaces in the area “affected by the resin” should be covered with polyethylene. If the bubbles come out badly, it is recommended to warm the surface with a construction hair dryer or inject from a spray gun with acetone.
These manipulations can reduce surface tension. observing all the recommendations and following the technology you can quickly master the manufacturing of original tables. In this case, your favorite business can begin to bring income.