How to switch the drill to impact mode
Adjusting an electric screwdriver. How to use an electric screwdriver
Do not use the tool until all necessary adjustments have been made. To start working, plug in the power supply or connect the battery. The electric screwdriver can then be switched on and used for the specified application, i.e. for screwing or unscrewing fasteners. If you follow the rules of operation, you will get a longer tool life and better results in a shorter period of time.Never adjust the movement of the bit while the electric screwdriver is in use.
Make sure that the tool or its housing does not become wet. We strongly recommend that you use the tool only in sufficient light. In addition, if the tool is networked, then the electrical network must work without voltage fluctuations.
It is strictly forbidden for an electric screwdriver to come into contact with grounded objects. If this happens, the handyman could get an electric shock. The appliance should not be allowed to overheat due to prolonged uninterrupted work. If the screwdriver is not allowed to rest, it can burn out. The instruction manual of the power tool must be thoroughly read before using it. Do not operate the electric screwdriver if it is defective in any way.
Thus, despite the simplicity of the design and the principle of operation of the device, not every beginner knows how to use an electric screwdriver correctly in order to prolong its service life. Observance of several simple rules of operation will ensure the safety of the master, the safety of the device and the excellent quality of the result.
The use of mechanized power tools in the economy greatly facilitates the life of home craftsmen and allows you to qualitatively and in a minimum period to perform many works. However, the guarantee of long-term operation of electrical equipment, as well as the safety of the user largely depends on the correct operation of mechanized equipment, which means it is desirable to know how to use its main types. Well, today we would like to reveal the peculiarities of the use of a common construction tool. an electric screwdriver.
How to use an electric screwdriver? It would seem that it could be easier. installed a replacement tool in the chuck and forward, but even when performing such tasks, you should comply with certain requirements and recommendations.
Installing the equipment
In an electric screwdriver can be installed drill bits or nozzles for tightening-unscrewing screws. When the required bit has been selected, rotate the cartridge case counterclockwise until its jaws have separated just far enough to insert the drill bit or screw bit shank between them. Then the clamping is done in reverse order. There are two types of chucks:
- it is locked in position without a spanner but only by turning the sleeve with the hand;
- those that require retraction using a special wrench that fits into a recess in the chuck and rotates it against the toothed rim, such as a toothed chuck.
How to remove the chuck from an electric screwdriver, for example, to lubricate or replace it if it does not lock the bit properly. in modern models the chucks are screwed on the shaft and secured with the left-hand threaded screw. This is how chucks are fastened in screwdrivers. et al. Unscrew the screw and unscrew the cartridge by turning it counter-clockwise. Detailed instructions on how to do this are available in the documentation of the tool.
How a domestic drill differs from a professional one?
A domestic drill is not designed for continuous and hard work. In producing tools for home use, manufacturers pay much attention to design and ergonomics, focusing on usability, but not on high service life. For example, gearbox in domestic drills is usually made of plastic, or. But, despite the fact that such parts are subject to rapid wear and tear, the domestic drill cope with their tasks quite successfully. Nevertheless, even as a domestic tool, many customers prefer to have a professional drill, equipped with, for example, a metal gearbox or a dust-proof housing. In this case the choice of a professional drill is largely determined by the brand of the manufacturer. Popular tools of such companies as Bosch, Makita, Metabo, DeWALT.
The extended functionality of two-speed drills makes them much more efficient to use than single-speed models. Choosing a slower speed to drill large holes, work with fasteners, mix mortars with a mixer attachment. The second, higher speed is used for fast drilling of small and medium diameter holes. If the drill is not equipped with a two- or three-speed gearbox, some caution is necessary. When drilling large diameter holes at high speed, you should take breaks to avoid overheating. It is important not to overtighten the trigger when tightening screws to avoid overdriving the fastener.
Drill power supply voltage says 230V, can it be used with Russian 220V sockets?
Operation of drills, the characteristics of which indicate the supply voltage of 230 V, not only is not limited in the Russian network of 220 V, but has this advantage, which is called, a reserve of voltage. Such tool will withstand a sudden power surge in the network above 220 V. Nowadays more and more tools and appliances designed for single-phase operation are produced with power reserve. Thus, the buyer does not need to look specifically drills for 220 volts. All goods that you can buy in the store are manufactured by manufacturers taking into account Russian conditions.
Chuck characteristics of 10, 13, 16 mm means the maximum diameter of a chuck and, accordingly, the maximum diameter of the drill bit shank, which allows using this chuck. In drills low-power, not above 500 watts, set the chuck 10 mm, chucks for medium-power drills have the size of 13 mm, they are the most common. They are installed on most imported and domestic models. Powerful drills for drilling large holes are equipped with a 16 mm chuck. This characteristic will be required when buying drills of all kinds, as well as if there is a need to replace an old chuck for a new one.
How to use a drill? Tips and tricks
In today’s environment, the electric drill is one of the most in-demand tools, capable of performing dozens of different functions with the help of auxiliary devices used as attachments. But still the main purpose of the drill is to drill holes in various surfaces.
For this reason manufacturers create new modifications of the tool, improving its basic functional qualities. When buying a drill in the store, it is necessary to have an idea of the tasks that are designed for it.
It helps to know how to use a drill and which drill is the right one among the endless variety of machines.
How it works
An electric drill makes drilling quite simple. To do this, place the drill against a marked surface and press the start button. The drill bit chuck will start rotating by means of an electric motor.
When the hole is ready, it is necessary to release the button and take the drill out of the hole. For screwing in and out screws, it is good to know how to use a mini drill used as an electric screwdriver. On such models are installed convenient levers for switching the motor into reverse mode.
It is very practical when working with fasteners.
In addition, most modern drills have a speed switch that allows you to drill in different materials. The design of such tools includes a gearbox with several gears of different sizes.
Change of speed is achieved by connecting the motor shaft to one of the gears with a switch. The only disadvantage of the mains tool is the inability to work without a power source.
In such cases, you can remember how to use a hand drill or use a battery-powered model.
Most modern cordless drills are designed for two basic modes of operation. The first mode (drilling) is considered as normal mode, and the second mode (percussive drilling) is auxiliary.
In normal mode, such a drill is capable of performing both locksmith and carpenter work. And the impact drilling mode is used when it is necessary to drill a hole in a concrete or stone surface.
These are the basic ways to use the drill for its intended purpose.
Two ratchets make up the mechanism for the percussive drilling impact. They are arranged coaxially.
When switching to impact drilling mode, these elements interact to create a translational motion of the work shaft. Special drills with tipped pins are used for this mode.
The impact mechanism is triggered by the force applied to the drill. It must be between 10 and 15 kilograms. Here’s how to use a drill with the hammer on.
The first thing to look for is a drill bit designed for this kind of work. Metal drill bits differ in the grade of steel from which they are made, as well as the angle of sharpening. Only drill bits like these are suitable for work in cast iron, steel or stainless steel. Drilling in metal is done at low rpm. This makes the drill less hot and slows down the bluntness.
If you know how to use the drill correctly, the result should be a spiral shaped chip flowing smoothly out of the hole. The process of drilling metal is more efficient if pressure is applied to the drill. A notch is made in the place where the drill bit is placed before starting. That’s for getting a better grip on the metal.
To work with wooden surfaces it is necessary to buy drills designed specifically for this purpose.
After marking, the drill is set in the designated point and with a little effort include increased speed. Ideally, the drill will plunge smoothly into the surface of the wood.
Sometimes holes of considerable depth have to be drilled. In this case it is necessary to periodically remove the drill bit by dropping the shavings. Otherwise it can get jammed.
Similar rules explain how to use the drill correctly when working with wood.
Drilling in concrete
When working with concrete, it is recommended to use protective glasses to avoid getting small splinters in the eyes.
For work, it is necessary to have special drills, in the base of which is laid a pobeditovye tip, which has high strength.
Working with concrete produces a lot of dust, which can be reduced by moistening the work surface with water. These introductory data are needed to understand how to use the impact drill.
Start drilling with a switch to impact mode and set the machine to medium speed. When drilling in concrete, force must be applied to the drill, but the load must be transferred smoothly. If there are a lot of holes to be drilled in concrete, a light drill is better. A drill does this kind of work with great difficulty.
The drill is much better suited for drilling in this class of material because of the lower hardness of the surface to be treated. Also use core bits with pobedite tips, and wear eye protection. Set the drill to impact mode and turn it to medium speed.
Drilling is carried out by applying a drill bit load. You can then act in a more confident manner. Brick is a much softer surface than concrete, so drilling with less force. A drill that operates in impact mode can easily cope with such a problem.
How to insert the drill properly?
To correctly insert the drill bit into the chuck, you need to know the following. The hole designed for clamping the tool is no more than 2 cm deep. The deeper the drill bit is seated, the more secure it will be in the chuck. There are two kinds of chuck clamping mechanisms:
In recent years, domestic drills are equipped with a manual (quick-action) chuck. it is easier to build and quicker to actuate.
To fit the drill bit into the chuck, proceed as follows
- Turn the chuck anticlockwise. Jaws must separate a little more than the diameter of the drill.
- Insert the drill bit between the jaws as far as it will go.
- Turn the chuck smoothly clockwise, making sure that the drill bit is clamped evenly on all sides.
- Tighten the jaws by hand or wrench.
It is possible to apply considerable force when clamping the drill bit in the chuck, especially if the drill bit has a large diameter. Keep in mind, however, that you will then have to do the reverse operation to remove the drill bit or replace it with another one. look for a happy medium when clamping the drill bit: clamp the bit securely but allow it to be extracted from the chuck easily. The required force is easily detected after a little practice. muscle memory kicks in.
The main faults of the drill and ways to fix them
No matter how perfect the technique is, sooner or later, there comes a moment when the technological resource is exhausted, and one or another part needs to be replaced.
An electric drill is not an exception. Here is a list of possible, most common problems:
- Malfunction of the electric motor (power supply is good, but the motor does not rotate).
- Wear or burned carbon brushes (brushes make a lot of sparks when the unit is running).
- Failure of the motor bearings (you can hear the hum of the motor, but it does not rotate, or the chuck rotates intermittently, with a grinding noise).
Also, unstable operation of the power drill can be caused by an unbroken power cord or a stuck start button. Such problems are solved by replacing the cable and preventive cleaning the button of debris and dust.
Many special tools are needed for repairing the drill at home, including electrical measuring tools. If you don’t have one, it’s cheaper to have the drill repaired at a service center. The carbon brushes can be replaced by the handyman at home. In all new drill models, designers have provided quick access to the brush mounting location and easy replacement of brushes.
Keep safety in mind when working
The drill is source of danger, therefore it is necessary:
- Inspect the unit for damage.
- Make sure that drilling will not damage the installed utilities.
- Do not work in wet areas.
- Keep water out of the tool.
- The drill should be firmly fixed in the chuck, the key should be removed, and the workpiece should be well secured in a vise.
- Avoid putting too much pressure on the body of the tool, and also relieve the pressure when removing the drill from the hole.
- Use goggles, gloves, respirator.
- Wait for chuck rotation to stop and disconnect tool from power at the end of work or to change drill bit.
- Dirt from drilling must only be swept up with a brush.
WHEN IT IS BETTER TO USE A DRILL AND WHEN IT IS BETTER TO USE A TORCH
The principle of the impact drill is based on the forward movement of two ratchets that repel each other as the motor spindle rotates.
Today almost any, even minor home repairs can’t do without an impact drill or a more advanced design called a peorator.The main purpose of an electric drill is to drill holes in various materials, except for stone and concrete.In order to drill holes in materials such as stone and concrete, modern electric drills have been fitted with an impact mechanism.
The hammer mechanism built into an electric drill is not perfect and has a very low performance when drilling in concrete.Things are better when drilling holes in a brick wall, but when intense and frequent operation of an electric drill in this mode, very quickly wear out the percussion mechanism.A worn percussion mechanism reduces the drilling performance in concrete and brick even more, and in addition, there is a heavy load on the electric motor, which causes it to heat up sharply.
Therefore, professional builders use impact drills for drilling holes in concrete and masonry walls equipped with a more advanced percussion mechanism (read the mechanism of the percussion drill).Impact drills are (in my opinion) popular among ordinary homeowners and apartment owners who have nothing to do with professional construction.
But since the price of a good drill is much higher than that of an impact drill, people are willing to buy such a tool.But I repeat, the impact mechanism of an impact drill for a professional builder is of little interest.To help you understand the impact drill, first let us look at the construction of the impact drill.To restore the functionality of a worn-out electric drill mechanism, you need to repair the core drill with your own hands,
when replacing worn-out parts.
Working torque settings
2.1. Screwing in screws
First thing to remember: Do not start the drill in this mode until it has been placed on the work surface. The second rule is: the efficiency of work with fasteners depends on the correct torque setting. thus remember that it is impossible to switch modes during rotation of a chuck. it leads to breakage of the tool. Always start with low torque and only then switch to higher torque to avoid bursting heads or biting heads. It is even better to perform a few test screws beforehand in a closed area or on a piece of material to make sure that the torque is set correctly. The torque regulator not only limits the rotation speed, but also sets the rotation speed and the force. You can set a specific value so that the fastener is screwed all the way in, and instead of the head sinking into the material or the slots being torn off, the socket slips in safely. If you are working with wood, drill a hole with a smaller diameter fastener to prevent the material from splitting later on.
In this mode the electric screwdriver is switched on before it touches the work surface. Each tool has a drilling depth limit that should not be ignored. to make neat holes and fast drilling, hold tool so it is perpendicular to the plane. The load is then distributed evenly. In order not to drill through the material, it is necessary to drill out the front part of the hole in the most accurate way and minimize the pressure on the tool. In general, according to safety regulations, when working with a cordless drill electric screwdriver, you can not put pressure on it: excessive force will not speed up the process, and will damage the accessories and the tool itself. To ensure optimum operation, the tool should be pressed with a constant force. To avoid the drill bit jamming and damaging the drill bit, pull it out of the hole only when the motor is running.
For best wood drilling, use drill bits with a pilot screw that holds the bit at the desired angle in the workpiece. To prevent the drill from slipping on metal or a smooth surface, make a small cavity with the core cutter so the drill bit will not slide out of the cavity when it starts to rotate. When drilling large holes in ferrous metals, first drill a hole with a smaller diameter, and periodically lubricate the equipment with a special compound while drilling. Generally, work in different materials can be carried out with the appropriate accessories.
2.3. Operation with reversing and impact functions enabled
If the drill jams, switch the tool off, reverse direction, switch it on again and pull the tool gently towards you. If the bit jams, the electric screwdriver could reverse suddenly with its entire body. hold the tool firmly in your hand. The reversing function is also used to unscrew fasteners. The tool head rotates in the reverse direction but retains speed and torque. The reverse reversing button is generally protected against unintentional pressing.
The impact function allows you to unscrew stuck fasteners and drill through brick, concrete, and other hard materials with the appropriate bit. It is important to remember that the function is only activated when the tool is switched off. you must not change modes or functions during operation. But most importantly. you can not abuse the impact function of the cordless drill. If it is not a powerful professional tool and you have a lot of drilling to do, use a torch, because cordless screwdrivers are not designed to operate in this intensive mode. over, its impact force and amplitude are small, and the impact is not as effective as with a torque wrench for design reasons.
How to fasten a bit or drill bit
There are two ways to attach the drill bit or bit to the cordless screwdriver. First method manual. The bit is inserted into the chuck and tightened by hand. The second way – is to tighten the bit or drill bit with the rotating chuck, hold it with the other hand. Checking whether you have fastened the bit is very easy. Try just one screwdriver and you will see whether or not the bit screws in.
When asking how to use an electric screwdriver for starters, you need to consider the application of the tool.
Drilling metal and wood with an electric screwdriver
In order to drill into solid materials, the right drill bit must be selected and the right mode must be set. It is done with the rotary part of the tool, which is directly behind the chuck. Then the drill must be positioned at the desired point and the start button pressed.
Pay attention! It is important to keep the device at a right angle to the workpiece. Otherwise the drill bit can break.
Wooden surfaces must be drilled properly
Drilling in concrete and stone with an electric screwdriver
To answer the question of how to properly drill with an electric screwdriver in concrete, you must first pay attention to the choice of drill bit. It must have a hammer bit. Drills with a diameter of 6 mm are usual. Too thick devices are not suitable, because the power of an electric screwdriver would be too low.
The tool must be held perpendicular to the axis. Do not apply too much pressure on the drill bit. From time to time you need to loosen the pressure.
Screwing screws, self-tapping screws and bolts with an electric screwdriver
This is the main purpose of an electric screwdriver. Each tool has a series of numbers that indicate the tightening torque. The thicker the fastener and the harder the material, the greater the value to be set.
To drive self-tapping screws into roofing metal, you need a value of 12-14. For screwing ordinary self-tapping screws in wood 8 is enough.
You also need to know how to insert a screwdriver into an electric screwdriver. While screwing fasteners, you need to press the bit down quite hard, so that it slips.
There are two basic types of electro-pneumatic impact mechanism. using an oscillating (drunken) bearing or, in other words, a crank mechanism. Instructions and video
on how to disassemble it correctlypeorator Interskol repair. The first variant is used for light and, partly, medium-sized gimbals, the second variant for medium-sized gimbals. For medium not heavy.
The illustration below shows a diagram of a lightweight. Its percussion mechanism consists of oscillating bearing
During operation, the rotation from the electric motor is transmitted to the inner sleeve of the oscillating bearing. At the same time its outer sleeve together with the perpendicular axis connected with the piston makes oscillatory movements. Between the piston and the ram there is an air gap which, due to the alternating overpressure and underpressure, causes the ram to repeat the oscillating motion of the piston striking the striker. The latter again strikes the tool in the chuck. Thus, the energy of the electric motor is transformed into the impact energy of the tool.
The pneumatic hammer mechanism has a self-shutoff function when idling. office, when the tool (drill, drill bit) is not pressed to the work surface, the ram moves forward, opening an opening in the housing for the air inlet not outlet. And so this compression not rarefaction in the working air cavity is not created, disengages, not Peoratorworks without impact. When you press the tool on the work surface, the hole is blocked by the ram, compression occurs in the air cavity, and the hammer mechanism does not work.
Techniques for proper operation of the peorator
To learn how to work with the device, you need to follow certain recommendations:
- It is forbidden to press the tool hard at work to avoid damaging it.
- Do not carry out the entire operation in one go. From time to time the auger needs to be cleaned.
- When selecting accessories, the type of work and characteristics of the tool must be taken into account.
- The appliance must not be mechanically damaged or subjected to constant overheating.
- It is a must to use rubber gloves while working. They help to extinguish vibration.
The design and operation of an electric drill
Electric drill is a popular construction and assembly tool that performs drilling work. This is not the end of its scope of use. Thanks to the mass of attachments, the tool can perform a whole set of functions, from stirring construction mixtures, polishing and ending with the sharpening of drills. In this article, the master plumber will break down the device and principle of operation of an electric drill.
Every good owner has a set of home tools, which he needs to carry out repair and construction work at home, as well as in the cottage and the yard. Someone buys only the most necessary tools. And someone buys up everything in a construction store. In any case, the drill is always in the arsenal of the home craftsman, because without this tool, many works are not possible.
The first electric drill began just after the invention of the electric motor. Since the 1860s, these machines have been introduced in various industries (mining, medicine). As electric motors became more sophisticated, “tool” versions of electric drills began to appear in the 1880s, and were used in factories and shipyards.
Technically, an electric drill is a portable tool that is used to drill holes in walls and other horizontal and vertical surfaces. In addition to its basic function, the drill is often used as an electric screwdriver or construction mixer.
The drill works on the principle that the electric motor transmits the torque via a gearbox to the chuck, which fixes the drill bit. Thanks to the use of a speed-reducing mechanism, the drill rotates a little slower than the motor itself, but with increased force, so it does not stop when resistance is encountered.
In principle, all drills have the same design. all units and parts are shown in the photo. Impact models have additional stationary ratchets that interact with each other to make the drill progressive–impact motion for drilling particularly strong walls of reinforced concrete.
The principle of operation is quite simple: by pressing the start button, the user makes the current access to the motor brushes, which unwind the motor rotor to the necessary speeds for operation. The torque is transmitted via the spindle to the gearbox. it ensures the rotation of the chuck with a drill bit clamped in a special device. This interaction results in the drilling of various materials.
The collector motor consists of three main parts: the stator, the rotor, and the graphite brushes.
It is usually made of special grades of electrical steel, which have a very high degree of magnetic permeability. Structurally, it looks like a cylinder with slots, where the winding of copper wire is inserted. there are two of them facing each other. The stator is permanently fixed in the drill housing.
Its second name is the rotor, because it is in constant rotation when the tool is running. The armature is a shaft with a pressed-in core of similar steel to the stator. Along the entire length of the rotor there are grooves at regular intervals into which the winding is inserted. They are wound from solid copper wire, and the taps are attached to the collector plates. The entire anchor is divided into segments, its collector is rigidly mounted on the shaft shank, the whole structure rotates during operation on bearings mounted on both sides of the shaft.
Brushes with built-in springs move along special guides in the stator housing when the motor is running. they transfer voltage to the rotor, so there is constant sparking between them and the armature housing, indicating that everything is normal. During operation, the brush body, made of pressed graphite, wears out due to constant friction, so they are periodically inspected and replaced.