How To Work With A Sander On Wood
How to make a sander Making a sander with your own hands can be quite simple, and sometimes it costs nothing at all. How to do it correctly and what types of machines exist is described in this article.
We make a grinder from an angle grinder
Many might say that an “angle grinder” is an angle grinder, but there are some subtleties hidden here. It should be borne in mind that the angle grinder has very high revs and is often quite a decent weight. To polish the surface of an angle grinder, you must have considerable experience in this matter and use special polishing discs and wheels. The sander has a much lower engine speed and weight. To work with a factory grinder, no specific experience and skill are required.
It is possible to independently make a good grinding machine out of an angle grinder, which is not inferior in its parameters to a factory machine, only by improving its electrical circuit, by mounting the regulator at lower speeds and by using special grinding nozzles.
How to make a sander
When work with a wooden surface comes to an end, the stage of finishing sanding begins. To perform grinding without burrs, scratches, and nicely round off sharp corners of any part, you need to use a wood sander. This tool will help to perform professional grinding, even a beginner who first took the device in hand. If you wish, you can make a grinding machine yourself, using only available tools.
Making a belt sander with your own hands
It is not at all difficult to make a belt sander yourself, you must complete the following steps:
- Select suitable materials and parts;
- Make a solid foundation for fixing the tool;
- Install a suitable countertop;
- Fix the vertical posts with a tensioner and a drum;
- Mount the motor and drums;
- Fasten the sanding tape.
To process fairly large parts and elements, it is necessary to make a large copy of a serial grinder. For example, if you take an electric motor with a power of 2 kW or more powerful with a rotor speed of 1500 rpm, then the gearbox can be omitted. The power of such an engine is enough to rotate a drum about 20 cm in diameter and process parts about 2 m.
You can also use an electric motor from an old washing machine. In this case, the frame is made of a thick sheet of iron, preparing a place for installing the motor and carefully bolting it to eliminate vibration. The design of such a machine consists of 2 drums, one of them is fixed, and the second can be pulled and rotated on bearings around an axis. It is advisable to make the base for the machine from metal or several sheets of thick plywood. The drums are made on a lathe from chipboard. The tape is cut from sandpaper sheets with a width of about 20 cm and fixed on the bed. The larger the table is, the larger the parts can be stacked and processed in the future. Finished product drawings can be found online.
Oscillating wood sander
This electric tool is a multifunctional renovator that is also capable of sanding wood surfaces. It differs from other instruments in its budgetary price and very low power consumption. It can be used to handle sharp corners and places near vertical walls. To carry out this manipulation, a special triangular platform is installed on the grinder, to which a grinding wheel is attached on a self-adhesive base. In addition, the device makes it possible to effectively clean the floor from glued linoleum, tiles, create slots, cut the communication mowing lines.
During operation, the sole moves in a horizontal plane with a minimum amplitude, the platform tops deviate by an average of 2.5 mm (1.7 degrees). Due to these movements, surfaces are processed. This device can be used to sand corners and other hard-to-reach areas. The machine does an excellent job not only with removing wood, but also with smeared or dried glue. In general, the oscillating apparatus is used for finishing in places where other machines cannot cope with their poor performance or sanding spots.
Types of cars
There are several main types of grinders for household use on sale. Each grinder has its own design features and mechanism of action.
For carpentry, joinery, construction and repair work, the following types of power tools are chosen:
- Wood belt sander (LSHM) is designed for rough and aggressive surface treatment, including plastic, metal;
- Brush sanders allow you to highlight the texture of the wood, removing more soft fibers, remove layers of varnish, old paint. The working part is a roller on which a metal or abrasive nylon brush is put on;
- An orbital sander (VShM) is used for a softer finish. Gentle working thanks to circular motions and small working tool amplitude. The outsole is rectangular for easy cleaning of corners;
- Delta sander is a type of flat orbital sander with a triangular sole. Such a device is suitable for processing hard-to-reach places and small areas, as well as depressions, corners, irregularities;
- An eccentric sander is a power tool that allows you to bring the surface to be treated to an ideal state, including plywood. This task is accomplished by the rotational and oscillatory movements of the sanding pad. The device has a high degree of performance, but cannot be used for cleaning inside corners and small surfaces.
The wood grinder is an indispensable tool for processing walls, floors, interior items and other decorative items. It is able to speed up the process of grinding and polishing surfaces made of natural material several times.
Criterias of choice
When purchasing a specific model of grinding equipment, you should take into account the tasks that the power tool must perform in the future. The choice of professional or household equipment depends on this.
Professional wood sanders are ideal for long, active and continuous work. They will cost much more than household tools. For use without significant loads and long-term work, it is worth giving preference to simpler grinders. If the choice is between a professional device and a conventional one, then it is better to purchase the first option, despite its high cost. If the second was chosen, then when working with it, it is recommended to subject the device to higher loads less. You must pause every 3 hours. Only adherence to simple operating rules will extend the service life of the tool.
It is also important to consider the type of work for which the sander is selected. For smooth surfaces, the best solution would be to buy a belt sander. If there is a need for grinding or polishing decorative wood products, then it is recommended to purchase eccentric models. The ratio of the cost of consumables and the future costs during the operation of the device must also be taken into account.
If you intend to use the grinder indoors, then you should pay attention to the equipment with a built-in dust collector or the ability to connect a vacuum cleaner. Considering that a lot of dust will form during the sanding process, you need to prepare for its appearance everywhere. Manual cleaning of the premises takes a lot of time and effort.
The length of the cord plays a significant role when choosing a grinder model. Since it is inconvenient to work with the device on a short cord, and an extension cord is not always possible to use.
Battery-powered tools are for sale, which are relevant when working in the country and in houses where electricity has not yet been supplied. The cost of such models is high.
How to use a wood sander
The operating rules are detailed in the technical sheet of the device. Each tool has its own characteristics, therefore, you need to carefully study everything before work.
General security measures:
- In order not to injure the eardrum, during work it is necessary to use headphones that absorb noise;
- If the device has damage to the network cable or mechanical damage, then it must not start work;
- Do not work near flammable or combustible materials when processing metal parts;
- To protect against dust, you need to use construction glasses made of glass that does not break;
- To protect the respiratory organs from dust, you must wear a respirator;
- You need to wear construction gloves to protect your hands from injury.
Such models are used for continuous grinding of large surfaces. Capable of handling rough surfaces:
- Rusty metal products;
- Not planed boards.
They are rarely used for polishing work.
This type of grinder has a heavy bottom platform and a lot of weight. Sandpaper can be transported effortlessly along the platform. The operator only needs to move the device evenly over the surface. Unnecessary indentations may occur if the operator brakes the machine in one place. Power ranges from 500 to 3000 watts. From 70 to 600 meters per minute is the belt speed of the apparatus.
The stepped and stepless speed controller has professional models. Additional handles are provided in the kit for work in various conditions. There are two ways to dispose of dust in these models. It accumulates in a dust collector or is discharged into a construction vacuum cleaner.
To prevent damage to materials, the belt sander can be operated with a special frame. An additional stand helps to fix the machine in a static position, which acts as a vice. Thus, the LSHM is fixed in an inverted form. This position allows the cutting tools to be sharpened.
The belt sander has two types:
The first type serves as a file.
The second. Makes the surface treatment with a brush, not sandpaper.
The bristles of the brush are of different types: they are classified from soft woolen to hard iron.
In such patterns, the largest fluctuations occur. The maximum vibration frequency is 20 thousand per minute.
Professional devices are equipped with speed controllers. This function gives you the chance to adjust the grinding speed to a specific material. These models are unique in their kind. Power ranges from 180 to 700 watts. The finer sanding quality prevents material damage from careless movements. There are two ways to attach the abrasive paper here:
- The paper is clamped in a vice;
- Velcro fastened.
Almost all vibratory sanders have holes with a dust channel. A vacuum cleaner hose is attached to it, or a dust bag is installed.
In addition to wooden products, metal and stone products are processed by vibration grinding machines. Such a device even grinds plastic if it is set at low speed. But this is if the apparatus is equipped with a vibration speed regulator. Wooden products are sanded with fine-grained emery paper, and metal and glass products are processed with felt.