Steel Grade Band Saw For Wood
Band saws are made from different materials. depending on what material they are intended for cutting.
Saws for wood are made of tool alloy steel with a hardness of 40-45 HRC. Domestic manufacturers use steel 9HF, B2F (for band saws for metal), etc., foreign manufacturers use their own steels (C75, Uddeholm UHB 15, etc.). When the teeth of such saws are hardened by high-frequency currents, they can acquire hardness up to 64 HRC and higher.
Hardened Band Saw Teeth
Saws for cutting carbon steels and non-ferrous metals of small thickness are also made of tool steel with mandatory hardening of the teeth by high-frequency currents. However, more often for cutting metal, bimetallic saws are used, in which the blade is made of spring steel, and the strip on which the teeth are cut is made of high-speed steel with high m of tungsten and cobalt. After hardening, it acquires hardness up to 65-69 HRC. High speed steel is electronically welded to the base of the saw.
Making a bimetallic band saw
Bimetallic saws are capable of cutting thick metal from tool, stainless, heat-resistant and other steels, titanium alloys and other metals.
Bimetal Band Saw
Teeth with higher wear resistance are obtained by hardfacing them with stellite (an alloy based on chromium and cobalt with additions of tungsten and / or molybdenum) or by soldering hard alloy plates to them. Such saws are superior to bimetallic ones in their cutting abilities. They are used for cutting fiberglass, car tires, cables, reinforced plastics, heat-resistant alloys, graphite, aerated concrete, bricks and other materials that are difficult to cut.
Carbide Tooth Band Saw
Setting band saws into wood is the first step in restoring the profile of the cutting edge. During operation, the location of the teeth can change, so until the correct geometry is achieved, it makes no sense to sharpen the saw part.
There are 3 ways to open the saw:
- classic. the teeth alternately deviate to the right and left sides;
- stripper. the 1st and 2nd teeth deviate in different directions, the third remains even. This profile is created for sawing hard materials;
- wavy. the most difficult option, resembling a wave in shape. Here, each tooth is individually shaped, and this type of setting is usually performed only in specialized workshops.
It should be noted that when wiring, not the entire tooth is bent around, but approximately 2/3 of the upper part. The procedure is performed on a special machine for setting band saws. The cost of such a tool is quite high, so they buy it if you need to adjust several tools. Its presence can become the basis of a sharpening business.
Of course, the first time you can do everything correctly, even on an adjustable machine, it may not work, so at least the geometry of the profile should remain the same as before the start of work.
Design features of band saws
- , which has a hardness of 40 to 46 HRC.
- . When cutting cheap wood, this moment is not so noticeable, but when cutting valuable and exotic types of wood, it is critically important.
- . At the same time, the band tool works quickly and creates a high quality cut.
In order for the machine to always work stably and efficiently, you should approach its maintenance with the utmost responsibility.
Sharpening and setting of band saws on wood should be carried out in a timely manner and competently.
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Profile, teeth and sharpening angle
International classification of tooth profiles.
Tape devices have different geometry of teeth, which depends on the type and characteristics of the materials being cut. Wood tools can be carpentry and dividing. There is also a third type, designed for sawing timber, logs. All these subspecies have their own parameters and the shape of the teeth.
The angle of sharpening of band saws for wood is chosen by the manufacturer based on several points. The main one is that the harder the material, the smaller the rake angle. Below is a table with the main parameters of saws.
What you need to know about sharpening angles
The geometry of the teeth of band saws can be modified depending on the characteristics of the material being processed. This is expressed in the shape of the tooth and the distance between the individual elements of the cutting edge.
The band saw profile is determined by the markings applied by the manufacturer. It looks like this:
- WM. a universal version designed for sawing soft and hard wood;
- AV. used for longitudinal cutting and sawing of hard materials, such as frozen wood;
- NV. has a narrow blade width, so it is ideal for shape cutting;
- NU. a cutting edge with a wide tooth pitch, which provides high performance when cutting soft wood;
- PV. almost a complete analogue of the previous blade, but has a flattened tooth shape;
- KV. the profile is used for wide band saws intended for softwood;
- PU. wide saw blade for cutting hardwood.
The tooth pitch is selected individually, depending on the material. For example, when cutting hardwood and metal, only fine-toothed blades are used to avoid damaging the cutting edge. Soft raw materials and thick-walled materials are processed with saws with a large tooth spacing, which allows for a faster production process.
Saw band design
Band saw machine
The band saw belongs to the category of cutting tools and is an integral part of specialized equipment for wood processing. It is a closed belt, on the outer edge of which there are teeth.
For manufacturing, special grades of steel are used. 9HF, B2F or C75. During the production process, the teeth are treated with high-frequency currents. This increases their hardness. It is this fact that affects the spreading of the cutting edges and maintainability. Often, several types of steel are used in the manufacture. The main belt is made of spring, and the cutting part is made of steel with a large m of tungsten or cobalt.
Features of the use of band saws for wood:
- wood requirements. The harder it is, the faster the blade will dull;
- installation conditions. The tension indicator must be observed. If it is less than required, sagging will occur. Strong tension will increase the likelihood of blade breakage;
- periodic sharpening. This will require a special machine.
The implementation of the last point will increase the service life of the belt structure. However, sharpening yourself is problematic. you need to choose the correct layout, observe the angle of processing of the blades.
When buying a used saw, you need to pay attention to the presence of repair welds on the blade. They indicate frequent tool breakage.
Recommendations for the operation of tape blades
Preparation for work. running in the band:
This is a very important point, since the resource of the belt mainly depends on the controlled “running-in” procedure. A sharpened pencil will break immediately, unlike a sharp, but slightly dull, the same principle when preparing the canvas. First, you need to let the blade run in to the machine pulleys, driving it idle through the air for about five minutes. Then, at a lower blade rotation speed, about 70% of the recommended and 50% of the recommended feed speed, cut the workpieces for about fifteen minutes, and only then bring the speed of rotation and feed to normal.
2. Blade tension:
The degree of tension of the band is indicated in the operating instructions for the machine. Professional and industrial models of bandsaw machines are equipped with built-in strain gauges, with which you can control the degree of tension. It is important not to overtighten the web, since due to the constriction, the durability is significantly reduced, which leads to the rupture of the tape web along the weld or the resulting cracks. If the blade is not tight enough, there will be a deviation from the perpendicular cutting plane and a twisted cut.
3. Operation of the blade:
The main indicator of the correct choice of cutting conditions is the absence of strong vibrations during cutting and the type of chips. Optimum cutting requires that each tooth of the band saws cut a certain chip thickness. In practice, the feed is selected according to the recommendations of the equipment manufacturers or according to the type of chips that are obtained during cutting. For thin or dusty chips, increase the blade feed speed or decrease the cutting speed. Lightly curling chips indicate the correct cutting mode. Thick or blue chips indicate excessive feed rate or less than necessary cutting speed. It is also important not to overheat the cutting material of the blade, it follows that intensive watering of the blade with coolant, the cutting zone and the workpiece being sawn is required. Reduce feed if vibrations occur. Monitor the quality of the cut surface, seizure marks and cavities may be the result of incorrect selection of the pitch, processing modes or blade wear.
4. Rest of the canvas:
Resting the blade allows you to redistribute the fatigue stresses arising in the process of work, preserve the properties of the tool material and increase the service life. When working intensively throughout the working day, it is better to work with two canvases, one before lunch, the other after. At the end of the working day, it is imperative to loosen the tension of the blade, and even better, remove the blade from the machine, and, turning it inside out, hang it on a hook.
5. Approximate resource of tape blades:
The durability of the band depends on many factors, including:
– type of machine;
– operating modes;
– processed material;
– cross section of the material;
– canvas material;
– preparation of the canvas;
– observance of operating rules;
– finally, the mood of the worker.
On average, with a correctly selected tooth pitch, the resource of one running meter of the blade is enough to cut 1.5-2.5 m² of solid ferrous metal.
For sawing thin-walled workpieces, such as pipes, sheet metal and the like, belt blades with a fine tooth pitch are required, otherwise there is a danger of damaging or breaking the tooth of the bimetallic blade.
Large workpieces should be cut with coarse-pitch band blades. Coarse pitch increases productivity and leaves plenty of room for free chip formation.
Sawing soft and tough materials such as aluminum and bronze requires a lot of free space for the formation of chips, they also use large-toothed blades here, as they prevent the chips from accumulating and getting stuck between the teeth.
Types of band saws
All modern blades for a band saw machine for metal, depending on the material, can be conditionally divided into three main categories:
- Saw blades made of carbon tool steel grades. A widely used type of band saw blade for economical cutting of many grades of steel, both unalloyed and alloyed. The tensile strength of this type of saws reaches 80 kPa / mm2.
- Bimetallic blades for a band saw machine for metal with a working part made of high-speed steel. have higher operating rates than products made of a homogeneous material. The most commonly used high-speed steel grade M42 (11P2M10K8) with additions of cobalt and molybdenum providing hardness up to 950 HV and red hardness. The tooth is connected to the spring part of the saw by electron beam welding.
- Carbide tooth bimetal saws. They are used under severe cutting conditions, for working with cast iron and other particularly hard materials. Used for cutting solid workpieces with a diameter of over 60 mm.
Description GOST R 53924-2010
GOST R 53924-2010 was prepared by JSC VNIIINSTRUMENT, introduced by the Technical Committee for Standardization TC 95 “Instrument”, approved and put into effect by Order of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology dated November 12, 2010 N 399-st. GOST applies to endless band saws for cutting bar and shaped rolled metal, castings, sheet material, pipes and other products made of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, as well as non-metallic materials on band saw machines.
GOST R 53924-2010 includes modified basic regulatory provisions of the following international standards:
– ISO 4875-1: 2006, “Metal-cutting band saw blades. Part 1: Vocabulary”;
– ISO 4875-2: 2006 “Metal-cutting band saw blades. Part 2: Characteristics and dimensions”.
The following standards are used in this standard:
GOST 3882-74 Hard sintered alloys. Grades (ISO 513-75 “Hard tool materials for cutting. Designation of the main groups of chip removal and groups of application”, MOD).
GOST 5950-2000 Bars, strips and coils from tool alloy steel. General specifications.
GOST 19265-73 Bars and strips from high speed steel. Technical conditions.
Options for the manufacture of tape canvases:
blades made of tool alloy steel in accordance with GOST 5950;
2. bimetallic blades (cutting part material. high-speed steel according to GOST 19265);
3. blades made of tool alloy steel with teeth equipped with hard alloy according to GOST 3882;
4. blades for friction cutting (under the action of frictional heating) made of steel resistant to fatigue.
Types of tooth setting:
Standard set: Transverse set of each tooth alternately right and left.
Note. does not apply to canvases intended for work on ferrous metals.
Figure. Setting two adjacent teeth through one undistributed.
Setting two adjacent teeth through one unset: Setting one tooth to the right, one to the left, one. without setting.
Figure. Setting two adjacent teeth through one undistributed
Wavy set: Transverse set of groups of teeth with regular change of direction of the set to the right and left.
Figure. Wavy layout
Group setting: Transverse setting of several teeth alternately to the right and left, followed by at least one undisturbed.
Figure. Group wiring
The general setting of the teeth of band saws of all versions. at the discretion of the manufacturer.
The setting of the teeth on the sides of the blade should be equal.
Limit deviations of the wiring. ± 0.05 mm.
The straightness tolerance of the lateral sides of the web in the transverse direction over the entire width of the undivided part should be no more than 2 μm / mm.
The main dimensions of the canvases must correspond to those indicated in the table
The length of endless band saws is determined according to the type of machine used.
Benefits of sawing with band saws
The technology of sawing on band saws is increasingly in demand in modern industries. The main advantages of using tape canvases include:
- the smallest amount of chips and waste from cutting;
- high precision manufacturing of the ends of parts;
- perfectly flat cut surface of the part;
- excellent performance and speed of the equipment;
- low noise and no vibration.
By using bandsaw blades instead of the basic cutting methods with discs and knives, in the end we get the opportunity to save money. Metal is consumed more prudently, the degree of production waste generation is significantly reduced. In addition, the quality of the manufactured products significantly exceeds the analogs of disk or cutting on a hacksaw machine.
Marking and designation of tape blades
An example of decoding from the marking applied to the tape cloth Honsberg BI / M42 S 20×0.9×2362 mm, 10 / 14TPI:
Honsberg. German manufacturer of tape saws;
BI / M42. material of the cutting part of the teeth is bimetal M42;
S. Spectra tooth profile with 0 ° rake angle;
20. web width in mm;
0.9. blade thickness in mm;
2362. length of the “endless” fabric welded into a ring in mm;
10/14. variable pitch of teeth, indicates that there will be 10 teeth on the first inch of the band, 14 teeth on the second, which will subsequently alternate along the entire length every 2.54 centimeters (Inch = 2.54 cm);
TPI is an abbreviation for Teeth Per Inch, which translates to Teeth Per Inch.
Constant band tooth pitch. all teeth are the same and spaced at the same distance.
Variable tooth pitch of the belt. “small” and “large” teeth alternate every inch and it turns out that one inch has one constant pitch, the second. another. Belt blades with a variable tooth pitch are most preferable when cutting metal, since they have a wider working range compared to a constant pitch, and also reduce vibration and noise of the band blade.
The difference between tape blades M42 and M51.
The cutting edge of the M51 blade is slightly harder than that of the M42 blade, but also more fragile. Due to its fragility, it makes sense to use M51 blades when cutting solid workpieces that are not prone to vibrations, for example, it is perfect for sawing stainless steel round timber, which will not be able to cut the M42 blade. The durability of the M51 band blade is usually 10-20% higher than that of saws with M42 cutting edge material. Another important point, M51 blades cannot be less than 27 mm wide, and the finest tooth pitch will be 4/6 TPI (the first inch is 4 teeth, the second inch is 6 teeth). For comparison, for M42 belt blades and 27 mm wide, the finest tooth pitch can be 14 TPI (14 pieces per inch).
Main characteristics of band saws
Obtaining a high-quality cut and the duration of the product’s operation depend on the accuracy of the selection of parameters such as pitch, setting and tooth shape. An important characteristic of a saw band is the tooth pitch, which is the number of saw teeth per inch (TPI). The tooth pitch can be constant or variable. Constant is used when working with solid section workpieces in industrial volumes, variable provides minimal vibration and high cut cleanliness.
For products with a constant step, its value ranges from 1 to 32, with a variable step. 10/14. 0.75 / 1.25. Below are tables of recommended saw pitch sizes for cutting solid steel:
And the recommended step sizes for working with profile and pipes:
How to Resaw Lumber.- WOOD magazine
However, saw manufacturers often offer their own recommendations for working with solid workpieces, profiles and pipes. They should be guided by the selection of saws for solving certain problems.
The next important parameter is the angle of rotation or inclination of the tooth relative to the plane of the blade or, in a more simplified name, the setting. The free movement of the blade, vibration, noise, section of workpieces and the ability to work with thin materials depend on this. There are the following basic options for tilting the teeth:
- Standard is a left tilted tooth, followed by a right tilted tooth and a straight tooth. The most commonly used set-up for cutting workpieces of all steel grades.
- Variable is left, right and wiping tooth. Provides minimal noise and vibration, suitable for working with soft materials.
- Wave routing. for cutting thin-walled rolled products.
- Combined. for pipes, profiles with variable cross-section and packages.
The capabilities of the band saw blade for metal also depend on the shape of the tooth. There are the following basic forms:
- NORMAL (N) with 0 ° rake angle. Designed to work with high carbon alloys, for thin sections and rolled products with variable cross-section.
- HOOK (H) with 10 ° rake angle. for thick-walled pipes and solid billets.
- RP with 16 ° rake angle. work with solid and extra hard workpieces of solid section.
- MASTER. angle 10 ° and 16 °, the presence of a ground chamfer located in the longitudinal direction.
Cutting modes and durability
A high-quality cut and the duration of the saw operation also depend on the optimal selection of the cutting mode. speed and feed. The mode depends on the material of the workpiece, its size and profile. The speed is adjusted according to manufacturers’ tables and on the basis of practical indicators of chip type and thickness. For thin chips, the feed increases or decreases; for thick chips or blue tints, the feed rate decreases or the cutting speed increases. The best option is slightly curling shavings.
As for the durability of saws, it depends on the resistance of the material to wear and many other factors, including resistance to cyclic alternating loads and correct operation. As a rule, the canvases of the leading manufacturers are designed for 140. 160 hours of work. This indicator can be increased by removing the canvases for relaxation and, of course, by the correct selection of cutting parameters.
Bimetal. the cutting part of the blade, which is laser-soldered to the base made of spring steel, is a complex alloy of several metals obtained in various ways. Bimetal HSS М42 (analogue 10Р2М10К8) and HSS М51 (analogue 12Р10М4К10) can be manufactured by the method of mutual simultaneous casting, synchronous pressing or electroplating. In the case of band saws for metal, different manufacturers use excellent methods of making them, the quality of the blade, its strength and service life depend on this.
Band saw steel grade for metal
There are the following types of materials from which Wikus band saws are made:
Let’s consider them in more detail.
Tool steel band saws
These band saws are manufactured from a solid strip of high quality alloy and hardened carbon tool steel. A hardened cutting edge and an extremely flexible backing strip guarantee the high quality of these blades. The hardness of the cutting edges of the teeth reaches 65-67 HRC.
Such saws are mainly used for sawing simple materials: unalloyed steels with low tensile strength, for cutting composite materials, for friction sawing on special machines. They are most suitable for use in the repair shop environment.
The production program and scope of each of the canvases can be viewed at the link.
Bimetal Band Saws
The base blade of such a band saw is made of elastic spring steel (analogue. 45HGNMFA). A high-speed steel (HSS) profile wire is welded to the base blade by electron beam welding, after which the sawtooth profile is milled.
After subsequent heat treatment, the cutting edges of the saw teeth have a hardness of 67.5. 69 HRC, and also have the outstanding wear resistance and redness characteristic of high-speed steels. This makes it possible to successfully use bimetallic saws in processing up to 90% of steels and alloys used in industry.
Depending on the brand and composition of high-speed steel, bimetallic saws of almost all manufacturers are divided into 2 main types. M42 and M51.
For bimetallic band saws from Wikus:
Hardness of cutting edges of teeth 67.5-68.5 HRC.
This material is suitable for sawing all major steel grades up to 40-45 HRC.
This allows this tool to be used for cutting high-strength, stainless and heat-resistant steels, including workpieces with a large cross-section and hardness up to 45 HRC.
Cutting edge hardness 69 HRC.
The durability of such a band blade is usually 10-20% higher than that of saws with M42 cutting edge material.
In 2009, Wikus discontinued saws with M51 cutting edge material and introduced a new generation of high-tech material. X3000. This material occupies a special position because it is obtained from high-quality high-speed steel by powder metallurgy. This made it possible, in contrast to conventional high-speed steels (M42 and M51), to achieve the following advantages:
Get a fine-grained structure with a more even distribution of dispersed carbides.
2. Significantly increase the hardness (up to 69-70 HRC), wear resistance and heat resistance, while maintaining the technological plasticity of the material.
3. To increase the reliability of the tool due to a decrease in the likelihood of the formation of defects during cutting, such as burns, chips and microcracks.
4. Increase tool life up to 25-50%.
Sawing austenitic, stainless, acid-resistant and other exotic steels and alloys is no longer a big problem thanks to the combination of the new high-performance cutting edge material X3000 and the optimized geometry of the GIGANT and VECTOR bi-metal band saws.
The production program and scope of each of the canvases can be viewed at the link.
Cutting 304 Stainless Steel at 12 SIMP
Carbide Band Saw Blades
This tool is recommended for high-performance cutting of exotic, difficult-to-cut, heat-resistant and stainless steels and alloys, titanium, nickel, etc. hardness up to 62 HRC. Specially ground tooth geometries with cutting edge hardness up to 1600-3800 HV make the Wikus carbide saw program suitable for the most demanding needs.
These saws are of two types:
The production program and scope of each of the canvases can be viewed at the link.
Diamond band saws
Since diamond is the hardest material in nature (hardness up to 9000 HV), it is able to cut almost any material, metal and alloy. These are aluminum with inclusions of solid particles, and hardened and chrome-plated shafts, hard alloys, ferrodo, tempered glass, marble, granite, quartz, graphite, etc.
Bandsaw equipment is one of the main components of metalworking production and the manufacture of metal structures, one of the fastest, most accurate and economical ways to cut a significant amount of rolled solid and variable section. An important role in this is played by the characteristics of the band saw, its pitch, setting, durability and other parameters.
The main types of band saws used in modern production are saws from carbon steel grades and bimetallic products, saws with a base made of ordinary steels with high resilience and cutting parts made of other grades of steels. hard or high-speed.
Advantages and disadvantages
Some people think that buying a band saw is a waste of money, just having a circular saw is enough. In fact, the band saw saves you working time and improves the quality of your workpieces. In factories and furniture factories, a band saw pays for itself in a short time and increases productivity.
Saw band advantages:
- Quiet, fast and safe operation.
- The tabletop model is lightweight and does not take up much space.
- Saving energy.
- Handles even logs and beams.
- Will quickly make a shaped cut.
- Reduces the amount of chips.
- Slices do not need to be sanded.
The disadvantages include the low durability of the tooth, which must be ground each time, as well as the need to prepare the machine.
Jet jwbs 10
The wood band saw is equipped with a 600 W motor, so it is used both in sawmills and furniture industries, as well as in home workshops. Has a high speed, making it easy to deal with hard wood. Capable of making precise and fine cuts, which is why it is popular. For precise work, it is equipped with a magnifying glass and a bar with millimeter markings. The structure rests securely on four legs. Thumb screw provides access to internal mechanisms.
Proma PP-250 25601250
The small band saw is designed for sawing plastic and wood products. Has a swivel stop for easy cutting at an angle. Equipped with an economical electric motor that does not require regular maintenance. The body has a branch pipe to which you can connect a hose from the vacuum cleaner. A blunt band saw can be easily changed without the need for additional tools.
Metabo bas 318 precision wnb
The band saw for wood for the power-saw bench has two cutting speeds: 410 and 880 meters per minute. It has a powerful engine that allows you to quickly cut even hard wood, while the movement is smooth, without jerking. The noise level is weak, there is almost no vibration, there is protection against restarting. There is a box for collecting sawdust, which reduces the cleaning time of the workplace. Equipped with double-clamp stops, graduated, metric and guide scales. Equipped with an LED flashlight for high precision. The saw band can be quickly changed thanks to the quick-release lever.
Jet jwbs 9x
The inexpensive band saw has earned a spot in the rankings for its excellent woodworking performance. Its disadvantage is low power, but it does not interfere with the work. Thanks to the belt drive, the machine generates a minimum of vibration. Workpiece thickness. 2 cm. The band saw is easily controlled and adjusted before each job. Equipped with a wing screw for quick adjustment of the band tension. The working area is illuminated by a lamp for comfortable work in a dimly lit room. A graduated scale is available for cutting the workpiece at the desired angle.
Top 10 best models
The rating includes both floor and table band saws, which are the most sold, are safe, have many functions and are inexpensive.
Density, size and pitch of teeth
The setting is the alternate bending of the teeth in different directions: the first to the left, the second to the right, and the third in the center. The more the saw teeth are tilted, the less heat the machine and saw band get. Correct dilution prolongs the life of the equipment, produces a clean cut and reduces vibration. If the teeth are not set enough, the sawdust will stick to the surface of the board. If the saw is set too far apart, there will be teeth marks on the board.
A blade with a certain tooth pitch is selected for each wood:
- 19 mm. requires increased engine power and low feed, easily copes with frozen wood.
- 22 mm. common saw blade.
- 25.4 mm. found on 5 cm wide saw blades, used in high speed work.
The higher the height of the tooth, the easier it is to handle hard or frozen wood, as well as logs. Small teeth are chosen for thin board and shape cutting.
With a low density of teeth, the load on the part decreases, with a high density, it increases.
After each start, it is necessary to re-sharpen the saw band. In this case, you need to ensure that the step remains the same.
Before work, you need to check whether the teeth are well sharpened, since blunt teeth not only require an increase in motor power, but can also spoil the material. It is better to purchase a blade made of carbon steel, as it retains the sharpness of the teeth for longer.
Before purchasing a saw band for wood, you should inquire whether sharpening is required for it, since it is undesirable to sharpen some to avoid breaking their teeth.