What brushcutters are used for clearing small areas
Brush cutters for cutting shrubs and small forests
Brush cutters for cutting shrubs and small forests can also be used for strip clearing of clearings. There are two types of brushcutters. with passive and active working bodies. The first ones are equipped with horizontal knives, the blades of which are located at an angle of 28. 32 ° to the direction of movement. They cut well woody vegetation with rigid trunks with a diameter of 5.120 cm at the root system, but at the same time they shift part of the fertile layer. Brush cutters of the second type have rotating working bodies in the form of knife mills, saw blades, inertial saws, etc. They are used when cutting shrub vegetation (growth) with a diameter of up to 6. 8 cm. Among passive brush cutters, DP-24, D- 514A and a number of others.
The bush cutter DP-24 is intended for clearing areas overgrown with shrubs and small forests, during the reconstruction of low-value plantations, preparation of areas for nurseries, etc. It is a removable-mounted equipment for the T-130.1.G-1 tractor.
1. tractor guard; 2. hydraulic lifting cylinder; 3. frame; 4. from-shaft; 5. nasal wedge; 6. horizontal knife; 7. ball head; 8. pushing frame; 9. grinding device drive; 10. ball pin
The main parts of the hedge trimmer are: push frame eight, tractor guard one and a working body in the form of a double-sided wedge-shaped blade four, along the lower edges of which horizontal interchangeable cutting knives are installed 6. Dump four at the base it has an A.-shaped frame, to the transverse beam of which a socket is welded for connection with a ball head 7 push frame eight. A nose wedge is placed at the front of the blade five made of steel sheet (knife) with lateral planes, splitting stumps and pushing cut trees apart. The top of the frame is closed by the frame 3 from corners lined with sheet steel. Push frame eight box-section is connected by pivot pins 10 with tractor crawler carts. The lifting and lowering of the pushing frame with the working body is carried out by hydraulic cylinders 2 hinged device of the tractor. When the unit is moving, the hydraulic cylinders 2 are in a “floating” position, the knives 6 trees with a diameter of up to 10 cm are cut, and the blade pushes them to the sides. If it is necessary to cut a larger tree, then it is first cut with a knife on one side of the blade, then it is pulled back, and then cut with a knife on the other side of the blade.
The weight of the brush cutter is 3320 kg, the coverage is 3.6 m, the productivity for 1 hour of main time is 0.5. 0.6 ha.
The machine for crushing stumps MDP-1.5 is intended for the preparation of strips for planting forest cultures in felling areas with simultaneous crushing of stumps, felling residues, overgrowth and roots and mixing the forest floor with the upper humus layer of soil.
The main parts of the machine: a frame with lugs for connection to the rear hinged system of the tractor LHT-4; rotary working body; working body drive; cross-country skis and tracking hydraulic system.
The working body is a hollow drum, to the outer forming side of which stands with slots are welded for installing and fixing chisel knives. To reduce resistance, the front of the struts has a double-sided sharpening. Chisel knives are fastened in the sockets of the racks by wedges and are placed on the drum evenly in a spiral with an angular pitch of 36 ° and overlapping the cutting plane. Rotation to the rotary working body is transmitted from the PTO of the tractor through a cardan transmission, bevel and spur gearboxes. The working body rotates from the bottom up, the rotation speed is 65 min. 1. The depth of soil cultivation is regulated by rearranging the cross-country skis in height.
How to Use a Walk Behind Brush Mower. The Cyclone Flail Mower
The МДП-1.5 car works as follows. Before starting the movement, the tractor driver turns on the tractor creeper, the corresponding gear and PTO. Then he lowers the machine to the ground in the “floating” position of the tractor hitch. Rotating, the rotary working body loosens the soil, crushes felling residues, comb out and crushes the roots and mixes all this with the upper humus layer. When it encounters a stump, the base plate of the follower hydraulic system is tilted back and turns on the electric circuit sensor. A sound signal is heard in the tractor cab, according to which the tractor driver turns the throttle handle to the “Open” position, and the unit automatically reduces the speed of movements depending on the resistance on the working body. The low speed of the unit and the low rotor speed provide not milling the stump, but crushing it into pieces, as a result of which the process of removing the stump becomes less energy-intensive. After removing the stump, the tractor driver turns off the throttle (moves its handle to the “Closed” position), and the tractor moves at the required working speed.
The width of the working body of the machine is 1.5 m, the depth of processing is 10.25 cm, the diameter of the rotor at the ends of the knives is 1000 mm, the maximum diameter of the removed stumps is 60 cm, the weight of the machine is 2300 kg, the productivity for 1 hour of the main time is 0.4. 0.6 miles.
On heavily cluttered clearings in a unit with МДП-1.5, a wedge-shaped pusher TK-1.2 is hung in front of the tractor, with the help of which large felling residues are moved to the sides.
Wedge-shaped pusher TK-1,2 can be used separately as a tool for clearing strips. To ensure the continuity of clearing, the working body of the pusher has a wedge-shaped shape with an acute angle of entry into the soil. A vertical knife is installed in the center of the wedge in front, to which
plowshares located below the supporting surface and dumps are adjacent. The required depth of travel of the working body is set by changing the length of the upper link of the front linkage. Working body width 1.2 m, pusher weight 400 kg, productivity in 1 hour of main time
Preparation for work of lifters and machines for strip clearing of clearings. In preparation for work, the general operations for all machines are: external inspection, cleaning from dirt and foreign objects, inspection of the technical condition and sharpening of cutting tools, checking and tightening of bolted connections. testing the operation of tractor hinged systems, lubrication of rubbing parts.
In machines with working bodies with a hydraulic drive (KM-1A, MRP-2, ORV-1.5), it is necessary to move the working bodies in idle mode with a delay in the action of hydraulic drives in the end positions. After that, you should inspect the connections of the hydraulic hoses, check for oil leaks. During trial movements of nodes, it is necessary to monitor for grazing surfaces, squeaks and jams.
In machines with rotating working bodies (MUP-4, MDP-1.5), it is necessary to check the operation at idle modes in order to detect noise in drives, heating of gearboxes and other signs indicating possible malfunctions.
Date added: 2020-06-09; views: 167; ORDER WRITING WORK
4.5. Preparatory machines
Preparatory work includes clearing the future construction site from forests and shrubs, removing wood, uprooting and cleaning stumps, removing boulders, arranging temporary roads and bridges over natural and artificial obstacles, lowering the level of groundwater, etc. preliminary loosening of solid and frozen soils with rippers or explosive charges placed in drilled wells (boreholes). For the mechanization of these works, various construction and special machines are used, of which brushcutters, grubbing machines and rippers will be considered below.
Brush cutters and lifters. Brush cutters (4.39, a) are used to clear areas to be built from shrubs and small trees, and grubber (4.39, 6). for uprooting stumps up to 50 cm in diameter, clearing areas from large stones, felled trees and shrubs, as well as for loosening dense soils. These machines are manufactured as attachments for caterpillar tractors. In terms of design, principle of operation and control, they are similar to bulldozers and differ from the latter by the working body, which in the case of a brush cutter is a wedge-shaped blade 3 (4.39, a) with smooth or sawtooth knives 4 in its lower part and a cleaver b for splitting stumps and pushing felled trees apart. The dump of the grubber 7 (4.39, b) in the lower part is equipped with teeth 5 ‘. In both machines, the dumps are mounted on a universal frame 1 with a spherical hinge, the pushing bars of which are pivotally attached to the longitudinal beams of the bogies of the base tractor. The working bodies are raised and lowered by hydraulic cylinders 2. Depending on the operating conditions, by appropriate switching of the hydraulic spool, the blades can be forced into the ground by means of hydraulic cylinders 2 or slide along the surface of the earth without forced deepening. In some models of lifters, the blade can be rotated in a vertical plane relative to the frame with the help of additional hydraulic cylinders, which facilitates unloading of the blade, and when lifting stumps, good selectivity is provided in the directions of forces applied to the stump. The power plant and the driver’s cab of the hedge trimmer are protected from possible falling trees by the enclosing frame c (see 4.39, a).
To work as a hedgecutter, the blade is lowered to the ground and, moving forward at working speed, bushes and small trees are cut, pushing them to the sides with the side surfaces of the blade. Depending on local conditions, they repeat the passage along the previous track or move to an adjacent lane. With long lengths of strips to be cleared, the next penetration begins after turning the machine for movement in the opposite direction, and on short sections it is more productive than clearing according to the shuttle scheme. For this, in reverse, they return the tire to its original position, after which a new working nickl is started.
To work as a grubber, its blade is lowered to the ground and, moving forward at a working speed with simultaneous deepening of the blade, the middle teeth are immersed under the stump, pulling the yoke out of the ground entirely aim partially after several attempts. The resistance of stumps to uprooting is in direct proportion to the diameter of the stump and ranges from 18.20 to 180.210 kN with diameters from 10 to 50 cm, respectively. The total pulling force of the grubber in operating mode is made up of the efforts spent on lifting the stump, the accompanying loosening of the soil and self-propelling.
II p about the haul-off capacity of grubbing and hedge trimmers with continuous clearing is determined by the formula. (4. ^ 4) the productivity of bulldozers in planning works, and with selective clearing, it is determined by the area of separately cleared areas, taking into account the time loss for the machine to travel from one area to another.
Rippers. They are used for layer-by-layer development of solid soils, including frozen, permafrost and rocky, followed by their cleaning by earth-moving, earth-moving transport or loading machines. placers of minerals, stripping operations.
There are main and auxiliary rippers. The main rippers are manufactured as attachments for caterpillar or pneumatic-wheeled tractors, and auxiliary ones are aggregated with the main equipment of ZTM and loaders for loosening dense soils and caked materials. Secondary rippers increase productivity and expand your primary equipment application. Recently, universal construction hydraulic excavators have been equipped with interchangeable loosening equipment. In construction, bulldozer-loosening units (4.40) are also used, in which they use both bulldozer and loose work equipment. The efficiency of the main rippers depends on the traction properties of the basic tractors. It is most beneficial to use them for the development of permafrost soils, fractured and weathered layered or low-strength rocks (shale, shell rock, brown coal, apatite, phosphorite, sandstone, light and medium limestone, etc.).
As the main, hook and auxiliary rippers are equipped with one or more teeth 6 (Figure 4.-10, a); mounted on the cross beam 2 rigidly or with the possibility of slight angular displacements in the plan through a turn-
nye brackets 5, hinged to the beam. The teeth with a transverse beam are hung on the base tractor through the rack 3 according to the scheme of three-point (4.40, a) or four-point. parallelogram (4.4U, 6) suspensions, adjusting the immersion depth of the teeth with one or two hydraulic cylinders 4. Parallelogram suspension provides a constant cutting angle regardless of the depth of immersion of the teeth, which allows to reduce the working resistance on the teeth, to increase the performance of the ripper, as well as to increase the service life of replaceable tips of the teeth /.
The soil is loosened with the teeth buried in it by the tractive effort of the tractor moving at the working speed. The cross-sectional shape of the notch formed after the ripper is driven is shown in 4.41. To work in dense soils, it is more advantageous to use single-shank rippers with a rigid tooth attachment to the crossbeam, which, in comparison with multi-shank rippers, realize large forces on one tooth.For the same purpose, under the same conditions, multi-shank rippers are converted into single-shank rippers or they are equipped with buffer devices. installed in the upper part of the middle tooth, to work with a pusher tractor, also equipped with a buffer device in its front. When developing layered rocks and sluggish plastic-frozen soils, as well as loosening the crust of frozen soil, usnrits-li are installed on the teeth of the working bodies. which increases the ripping width for each pass and increases the productivity of the machine. Some models of rippers are equipped with remote control systems for cutting angle and changing the tooth overhang from the driver’s cab. The first solution allows you to choose a rational cutting angle depending on the category of the soil being mined, and also reduces the time it takes to penetrate the tips into strong soils. By changing the tooth overhang, it is possible to provide an optimal loosening mode and thereby reduce the number of penetrations during layer-by-layer loosening of the soil.
When developing high-strength soils in a cross way (in two mutually perpendicular directions), the productivity is determined separately for longitudinal and transverse passes, and then its average value is found.
It is possible to increase the performance of the ripper and improve its traction and traction properties due to the rational choice of the direction of the working movement, giving preference to movement down a slope, reserving a part of the soil or rock that has not been removed after previous penetrations with a layer of 5.7 cm, removing snow cover before loosening frozen soils to improve traction mover, joint work with pusher tractors. In the latter case, the energy consumption for loosening the soil approximately doubles, and the productivity increases three to four times.
Brush cutters are used to clear areas from
Brush cutters for clearing shrubs and small forests from construction sites
Brush cutters are intended for clearing shrubs and small forests from construction sites. They are used in road and railway construction when laying a road route, as well as when arranging glades in forests, developing new lands and reclamation work. In winter, hedge trimmers can be used for clearing roads from snow, as well as for snow retention. Brush cutters are classified: according to the principle of action of the working body on passive and active; by the method of aggregation (movement) on trailed and mounted; by the type of control of the working body for rope and hydraulic.
The passive working body is made in the form of a wedge blade (Fig. 53, a). Active working bodies have different designs and are made in the form of saws or cutters (Fig. 53, b, d), mower-type knives (Fig. 53, c), rotating discs with knives (Fig. 53, e) rotating on a flexible communication (Fig. 53, e).
The resistance of wood to cutting has a great influence on the energy intensity of the process of cutting shrubs.
Analyzing the above indicators, we can conclude that brush cutters with an active working body are less energy intensive and therefore more economical in operation. At the same time, brushcutters with an active working body cannot cut tall and thick bushes due to their design features.
The hedge trimmer equipment consists of a universal frame, a removable head, a working body, a working body control system, a tractor guard and a sharpening device. The working body of the brushcutters is a dump, which is a welded metal structure, sheathed on the sides with sheet iron. The sheathed frame forms a dump that, as the hedge trimmer moves, dumps the cut trees and bushes into rollers on either side of the hedge trimmer. Shrubs and trees are cut with knives at the bottom of the blade frame. The knife in the plan has a triangular shape, at the top of which there is a cleaver, intended for splitting stumps and moving apart the felled trees. Good quality cuts in shrubs and trees depend on how sharply the knife blades are sharpened. The sharpening thickness should be 0.2-0.4 mm and it should be maintained throughout the shift, therefore the knives are sharpened every 2.5-3 hours of work with a special sharpening device.
For hedge trimmers with a hydraulic system for raising and lowering the blade, the abrasive wheel is driven into rotation by a gear pump, and for brush cutters with a rope-block control system. using a V-belt drive and a flexible shaft. A removable cast head is attached to the middle part of the crossbeam of the blade frame, which connects the blade to the ball head of the universal frame. A spherical head is welded to the front of the frame, to which the working body is attached. With the help of springs, axles and supports, the rear ends of the frame are pivotally connected to the side members of the tractors. To mitigate the impact of the blade on the pushing frame and limit its rotation, two shock absorbers made of sheet rubber are installed on the ball head on both sides of the blade frame. The cutting height of the bush is regulated by the support tracing ski. To protect the tractor cab from the impact of falling trees and branches, the hedge trimmer is equipped with a stopper welded from pipes and covered with a steel sheet above the cab.
Brush cutters DP-1, DP-4 and DP-24 cut shrubs and split individual trees with a trunk diameter of up to 300 mm. When cutting trees, the hedge trimmer loosens the stumps remaining in the ground, facilitating the subsequent work of the lifters. Bush-cutting knives should not be buried in the soil, as they quickly become dull and begin not to cut, but to tear off the sod cover, thereby worsening the conditions for the subsequent collection of wood pulp. When cutting wood at a height of more than 2 cm from the soil surface, the trunks sag and thereby deteriorate the quality of cutting and the work itself. The brush cutter cuts (splits) trees and stumps (fresh felling) with a diameter of up to 250-300 mm, and with an old felling. up to 350-400 mm in diameter. The brush cutter can practically work at any time of the year. On swampy, weak and moist soils, it is more convenient and preferable to cut the shrub after the onset of frost, since the bearing capacity of the soil increases. The hedge trimmer cuts shrubs and trees of small diameter (150-200 mm) in one pass, and the hedge trimmer splits and cuts trees with a diameter of 300-400 mm from opposite sides in two or three passes. In order to protect a number of nodes from breakage, it is impossible to cut the tree from the side of its inclination, as the knife is jammed; the tractor must not be turned when the tree has not yet been cut, as this leads to rapid wear of the side clutches. Clearing the right-of-way from shrubs using hedge trimmers consists of the following operations: inspection and breakdown of the plot during the seizure, designation of insurmountable obstacles, determination of the technological scheme of movement of the hedge trimmer during operation, preparation of the hedge trimmer for work and daily maintenance of it, drive to the seizure, cutting wood vegetation, sharpening knives, moving along the highway.
They break it up at the grip and choose the method of movement of the hedgecutter during work, taking into account the features of the terrain and the configuration of the right of way.
Circular and parallel brushcutter passes have become widespread when cutting trees and shrubs. The method of moving around the contour of the site is used when cutting a bush on flat areas of a rectangular shape. On sections of the route located on slopes, a scheme with parallel passes from the middle of the section with a turn outside of it and parallel passes from one edge of the section is used. According to these two schemes, the hedgecutter moves along the slope on the grapple.
Cut shrubs and trees are removed with a grubber. It is necessary to constantly monitor that bushes and trees do not fall into the tractor tracks, and periodically clean the radiator of leaves and branches.
Idle runs of brush cutters up to 2-3 km should be carried out in reverse gear, without lifting the blade. To avoid breakage of the brushcutter blade when moving, a log with a diameter of 120-150 mm is tied to it. Moving the hedgecutter with the blade raised, even over short distances, leads to rapid wear of the front support rollers of the tractor undercarriage.
Brush cutters are intended for clearing areas overgrown with bushes and small forests, during road construction, laying glades, as well as during reclamation work. The hedgecutter equipment is mounted on a caterpillar tractor and consists of a working body, a truck guard, a pushing universal frame, a removable head, a drive for raising and lowering the working body and a drive for a grinding head for sharpening knives. Brush cutters are classified according to the type of working body. with passive and active working bodies, according to the type of drive. with hydraulic and rope drives. GOST 7655-75 provides for 10 standard sizes of brush cutters on tracked tractors of classes from 3 to 25 tf.
The working body of the brushcutters consists of a blade, knives bolted to the blade, and shock absorbers. The dump is an A-shaped frame welded from corners, on the transverse beam of which a socket is welded with a ball part of the removable head fixed on it. In the front part of the dump, a bow sheet is welded to split the stumps and push the felled trees apart. On top of the frame, there is a frame made of corners, sheathed with sheet steel, which forms a moldboard surface. With a dump, the hedgecutter dumps the cut trees into fells on the sides of the clearing he has laid. Shock absorbers are designed to cushion the impact of the blade on the push frame and limit its rotation on the ball head. The pushing frame is a welded horseshoe-shaped unified structure of two curved box-section half-frames, to the front ends of which a spherical head is welded, which serves to connect the frame to the blade. The articulated connection of the frame with the tractor crawler carriages is carried out by lugs, axles and supports.
In the front part of the frame of the DP-4 (D-514A) hedgecutter, lugs are welded to connect it to the heads of the hydraulic cylinders, intended for raising and lowering the working body. The bush cutter DP-24 has a cable drive for controlling the working body, driven by a winch installed on the rear axle housing of the tractor.
To sharpen the working knives of the brush cutter, a grinding head is applied to it, the main element of which is a special grinding machine with a flexible shaft. The latter transfers the rotation to the abrasive wheel from the gear of the tractor drive reducer and is enclosed in a special armor, over which a rubber sleeve is put on. For sharpening knives, a grinding wheel of the PP type (GOST 2424-75) of electrocorundum on a ceramic bond is used.
To protect the tractor cab from falling trees and twigs, the hedge trimmer is equipped with a fencing welded from pipes and covered with a sheet above the cab. The guard is attached to the base of the tractor cab and by brackets to the front plate of the tractor.
Turn A Stihl Weedeater Into a Tree Cutter! Clearing Brush, Vines, Trees, Brambles in Seconds!
Machines for the preparation of areas for silvicultural work, landscape construction and land reclamation and road works
but. machine for drilling cone rods; b. seed extraction machine MIS-1: 1. frame; 2. electric motor; 3. V-belt transmission; 4. support; 5. drill; 6. guides; 7.tray; 8. clamping cone; 9- handle; 10. movable carriage; 11. emphasis; 12. flywheel; 13. stationary drum; 14. movable inner drum; 15. loading hopper; 16. reducer; 17. sieve device; 18. bed
The cone is placed in a clamping cone and, by means of a handwheel, manually together with a carriage, is fed to a rotating drill, which drills the cone shaft. After drilling, the carriage is retracted by the flywheel, and the processed cone is removed from the cone with a stop and is directed through the tray into the container. The largest dimensions of the processed cones: length 9 cm, diameter 16 cm, electric motor power 1.7 kW; weight. 387 kg.
The machine for extracting seeds from pine cones MIS-1 is used for industrial harvesting of pine cones. It consists of the following parts: bed, outer and inner drums, hopper, sieve bed, transmission system and electric motor for driving. The technological process of extracting seeds from Siberian cedar pine cones is as follows. Cones, falling between the teeth of the inner rotating drum and the stationary outer drum of the machine, are gradually crushed and poured onto the sieve box, where the seeds are separated from the waste. After filling the box with seeds, the machine is stopped, and the seeds are poured from the box into a container (bag). Then put the seed box in place, then the process is repeated.
The machine operates on a voltage of 380 V. It is serviced by 1 person. Electric motor power is 1.7 kW, drum rotation frequency. 4.1 and 4.5 s 1; weight. 325 kg.
Many types of seeds, both coniferous (pine, spruce, etc.) and deciduous (ash, maple, etc.) species, must be mechanically processed before sorting. exsanguination. De-winging of seeds is carried out in special devices. blasting machines, which can be made both as separate mechanisms and combined with machines for sorting seeds. The working surface of the ejector is, as a rule, a mesh cylinder, inside which a rotating drum is placed. On the outer surface of the drum (beats), hair brushes, wooden blocks, rubber and other types of linings are fixed. The heap poured into the cylinder is freed from the wings as the drum rotates as a result of friction. This scheme is used for batch-wise blowers. after bleeding one portion of seeds, they are removed, and then a new portion of non-bleeding seeds is poured into the cylinder. Continuous blowers clean the seeds with a continuous stream, which increases their productivity.
Separation of seeds into fractions is based on their differences in characteristics, aerodynamic, physical and mechanical properties (specific gravity, coefficient of friction, roughness).
Separation of seeds by aerodynamic properties carried out in a strong air jet generated by a fan. In this case, two forces act on the sections: the pressure of the air flow R and the weight of the seed itself G. Sorting can be carried out in an air flow directed vertically or at an angle to the horizon. Light seeds with a constant air flow rate light seeds travel a longer distance and settle in the far receiver, while heavy ones. in the receiver closest to the fan.
Separation of seeds by specific gravity consists in placing the treated seeds in a liquid of a certain density. Unhealthy, damaged seeds with a specific gravity less than the density of the liquid float, and healthy ones sink to the bottom. This separation method is widely used in the separation of acorns.
Separation of seeds according to the coefficient of friction (frictional cleaning) is carried out on inclined hills. The slide is an endless canvas stretched between two horizontal rollers. The surface of the canvas is set at an angle, and to the horizon. The initial mixture from the loading hopper is fed onto a slowly moving web. Seeds, whose friction angle is greater than the angle of inclination of the web (less rough), remain on it and are carried out through the top point of the web into the receiver. Seeds whose friction angle is less than the angle of inclination (less rough) move along the surface of the canvas down the slope and are collected in the receiver for smooth seeds.
Magnetic separation of seeds is used when separating seeds by roughness, when they cannot be separated by other methods. This method is based on the ability of the surface of seeds or impurities to retain magnetic (iron) metal powder. Magnetic separation is carried out on belt or drum magnetic separators. Drum magnetic separator is an electromagnetic tip 6, which is enclosed in a hollow brass movable drum 5. Seeds treated with magnetic powder are fed to a slowly rotating brass drum. The seeds, which have absorbed the largest amount of powder, are attracted by the magnet and are held on the drum until they leave the field of the magnet, after which they fall into the receiver 4 of large roughness. Seeds, less rough, perceive a smaller amount of powder, which is why the force of their attraction to the magnet is less. In this regard, they pass a shorter path and will be allocated to the intermediate receiver 3 of average roughness. Smooth seeds, which have not absorbed the powder, roll off the drum and fall into the hopper for smooth seeds 2. To avoid the displacement of smooth and medium-rough seeds between the hoppers 2 and 3, install a shield 1.
Sorting of seeds by size is carried out on sieves and triers. The size of the seeds is characterized by their width b, thickness h and length l. To separate seeds by thickness, a sieve with an oblong hole shape is used. oblong, oval; the working size of the openings of such sieves is their width. To separate seeds in width, punching sieves with round or square holes are used. The working dimension of a round hole is its diameter, square. side of the square and the diagonal. In most designs of seed cleaning machines, a heap of seeds moves along flat sieves due to the oscillatory movement of the sieves themselves, installed at a certain angle to the horizon. This arrangement of sieves ensures the movement of seeds over the surface of the sieve. On one sieve, the mixture is divided into two fractions. Fraction with the size of seeds or impurities smaller than the working size of the sieve holes, passes under it and is called aisle. A fraction, the size of seeds and impurities of which is larger than the working size of the sieve holes, comes off it and is called gathering. Such seeds and impurities come off one sieve and go to another, installed below the first. Pure product. seeds. can be in the aisle and in the gathering. Thus, to separate seeds into three fractions, it is necessary to have two sieves, into four. three sieves, etc. Large seeds (first grade) are separated last. In addition to flat sieves, cylindrical sorting drums, divided into sections, can be used. Each section has holes of the required size. The principle of seed separation is the same as for flat sieves. Trieres are used to separate seeds along their length. Trier is a horizontal cylinder, on the inner side of which there are cells, the size of which is selected depending on the size of the processed seeds. When the cylinder rotates, seeds with smaller dimensions of the cell are reduced in it and, after rising to a certain height, are thrown out of the cell into the chute. This is the short seed fraction. Long seeds that do not fit in the cells move along the cylinder and are thrown out.
The machine for cleaning and sorting seeds M OS-1A serves for dewing, cleaning and sorting seeds of coniferous and deciduous species, extracting them from earrings, pods, capsules, berries, as well as cleaning seeds from impurities. It consists of an electric motor 1, a fan 2, a fan damper 3, a sediment chamber 4, a vertical channel 5 for air cleaning, a gate of a receiving hopper 6, a feed hopper 7, a tedder 8, a damper of a feed hopper 9, a dusting drum 10, a V-belt drive 11 of a draining drive and a sieve drum, a bunker of a wiper 14 and a receiving bunker 15, a feeder 16, a seed collector of uncleaned and uncleaned seeds 19, sieves 20, 21, 22 and a section for the exit of large impurities 23. The seeds intended for cleaning and sorting from the loading bunker 7 enter the drum 10 of the wipers through the hole regulated by the damper 9. A more even passage of seeds is ensured by rotating the tedder 8. Brushes 12, installed on the rotor of the sparger, intensively mix the seeds.
The separation of seeds from the wings and the extraction of fruits from them are carried out by friction of the seeds against the mesh of the drum 13. The processed heap, passing through the mesh openings, enters the bunker of the dewinder 14, and from it into the receiving hopper 15, from which the feeder 16 through the window 17 controlled by the shutter 6 is directed into the vertical channel 5 of the air cleaning. After that, the heap falls through the chute 18 into a rotating sieve drum, consisting of three sieve sections 20, 21 and 22. Sieve 20 has small holes, and sieves 21 and 22 are round. Entering the sieve 20, which has the smallest holes, small seeds and impurities pass through them and settle in the receiver for small seeds, the remaining heap leaves the sieve and goes to the sieve 21 with more valuable holes. This section separates the medium seeds and collects them in the seed hopper. The remaining large seeds and large impurities come off the sieve 21 and enter the sieve 22 with the maximum hole diameter, where large seeds are separated, which are collected in a receptacle for large seeds. Large impurities leave the drum through the window of section 23 and are collected in the receiver for large impurities. If you do not need to sort the seedless seeds, then turning the tray 18 by 180 °, the heap is directed to the seed collector 19. The assembly units are driven from the electric motor 1 using V-belt gears 11. From one end of the shaft, fan 2 is driven, and from the other. the main shaft 25. From this shaft, the rotation is transmitted to the feeder 16 and to the drum 10 of the dewinder. From the same shaft, rotation is transmitted to the intermediate shaft 24, and from it. onto the sieve drum shaft. By turning the flap 3 you can adjust the air flow rate.
Tasks and methods of clearing forest areas and preparatory work at landscaping facilities. Branch pickers. Brush cutters. Hand-held motorized tool. Stump grubbing and milling machines. Stone harvesting machines. Rippers. Machines and implements for leveling road and earthworks: bulldozers, graders, scrapers, rollers. Machines for excavation and loading of soil: single-bucket and multi-bucket excavators, dragline.
According to the Forestry Code of the Russian Federation, forest users are obliged to clean cutting areas from felling residues. There are the following types of clearing:
-collection of felling residues in heaps or shafts, leaving them for decay;
-crushing of felling residues into lengths of 0.5. 1.0 m and scattering them over the cutting area with obligatory landing (pinning to the ground);
-collection of felling residues in heaps or shafts with their subsequent incineration;
-laying of felling residues on skidding trails with subsequent crushing by a tractor;
-“Solid fire”. incineration of felling residues throughout the entire area of the cutting area without prior collection. Prohibited by modern silvicultural requirements and sanitary regulations;
-The collection of felling residues can be carried out both manually and using specialized machines called pickers.
-Collection of felling residues manually is carried out: in case of non-clear felling; with clear felling with the obligatory preservation of evenly distributed undergrowth; in small felling areas, where the use of special pick-ups, taking into account the need for their relocation, is impractical. The pick-up is a skidder equipped with special equipment for collecting branches, tops, deadwood and other logging waste in unrooted felling conditions, i.e. in the presence of stumps that impede its movement in the felling area.
Technologically, the following types of machines for cleaning cutting areas are distinguished: for collecting branches, twigs and other small residues into shafts or heaps, leaving them on the area of cutting areas; for collecting tops, deadwood and trunk timber with their subsequent loading and removal from cleared cutting areas.
By design, pick-ups are divided into the following types: with a rake or jaw collecting body; with attached or trailed equipment; with a mechanical or hydraulic drive of the collecting body; with front or rear (in relation to the tractor) location of the collecting body; based on skidders or general purpose tractors.
The most common type of pick-up is a rear-mounted rake pick-up mounted to the rear of the tractor..
Branch pick-up PS-5, PS 2.4 is intended for collecting in shafts and heaps of logging waste and illiquid wood in clear-cut areas with simultaneous loosening of the topsoil. Mounted on the TDT-55A tractor.
The main assembly units are: a movable and fixed frame, ten collecting teeth, a mechanism for raising and lowering the teeth, supporting cables.
Moving along the felling with the tines lowered, the pick-up collects waste on a 3 m wide strip. As they accumulate in front of the tines, the tractor driver lifts the pick-up into transport position and dumps the waste into heaps. Articulated, independent fastening of the teeth allows each tooth to overcome obstacles separately, without affecting the work of the rest.
The set of attachments for the pick-up includes: a frame mounted on the tractor shield or on its chassis (in the version with a hydraulic drive); subframe; connecting arms pivotally connected to the collecting teeth and sprung by a sheet steel leaf spring. Each tooth is suspended from the subframe with a rope.
A frame with connecting levers and collecting teeth constitutes a rake, which can be lifted by a lifting rod with a loop and a rope of the tractor’s skidding winch or by a hydraulic cylinder rod to dump the assembled pack and lowered again to collect felling residues.
The collecting teeth, without releasing the collected residues, freely pass stumps, surface roots and other obstacles. The design and geometric shape of the collecting teeth allow them to roll up these residues into packs without raking the soil and carry out the podzol, self-cleaning when dropping packs into the shafts and not clogging up during operation. The disadvantages of this pick-up are: pressing of branches into the ground by tractor tracks; limiting the volume of the pack collected by the rake in height and width; the tractor driver does not have a view of the points of approach of the teeth of the raking body directly to obstacles, which leads to frequent breakages of the teeth; inadequacy of waste removal for further disposal; the use of not the entire area for planting forest crops, since waste heaps remain in the felling area and are carriers of forest pests and diseases.
On the territory of the state forest fund there is a large amount of undeveloped land overgrown with bushes, forest clearings, swamps, lands that have come out of agricultural use. The development of such territories is a reserve for increasing agricultural and forestry production. Depending on the condition of these areas, the shrub can be removed with uprooting gatherers, cut with hedge trimmers, milled tree plantations and small stumps together with the soil, used chemicals to accelerate decomposition, plow the shrubs with special plows.
Areas littered with shrubs with stems up to 6 cm in diameter and up to 4-5 m high should be plowed in with shrub or bush-bog plows or heavy disc harrows. A larger shrub with a trunk diameter of up to 12-15 cm and a height of up to 10 m, cut with hedge trimmers or uprooted with rooting harrows.
On clearings with a stump diameter of more than 15 cm, machines for stripping strips, grubbing-gatherers, grubbing machines are used.
For clearing forest areas from dead wood, branches cut off by bushes, etc. use bunch pickers, bush rakes.
Brush cutters. In small areas, manual brush cutters are used. Brush cutters are also used in forest thinning. Depending on the principle of action of the working body, brushcutters are divided into two types: a) with passive and b) with active working bodies.
a) blade with knives, b) knife roller; c) circular saw cutter; d) milling drum; e) horizontal knives; f) recessed disks with knives; g) mower knife (type segments; h) rotating knives with flexible connection; i) chopping chains
Passive working bodies can be made in the form of a blade with knives (Figure 2.1, a), installed at an angle to the direction of movement and parallel to the surface (D-514A, DP-24) or in the form of a roller (Figure 2.1, b) with mounted on its outer surface with knives (KOK-2). The most common brushcutters with horizontal knives. For hedge trimmers with a knife roller, the knives are parallel to the roller axis. During the movement of the brushcutter, the roller rotates and the knives chop and break dry and fragile bushes, and larger and green ones. flattened and scattered over the soil surface.
Brush cutters with rotary active working bodies can be cutting (disc, segment, milling) or impact action. The disk working body (Figure 2.1, c) is a circular saw or cutter (“Sekor-ZM”, MTP-43) with cutting teeth. The working body in the form of a milling drum (Figure 2.1, d) can be made with disc-shaped or flat knives (MPG-1,7. KOM-2,3, KOG-2,3). The working body of the brush cutter can be made horizontally located rotating knives (Figure 2.1, e) or in the form of rotary drums with hinged knives (Figure 2.1, e). These slimes of working bodies are not widely spread. The circular saw is installed at the end of the handle, which is pivotally connected to an internal combustion engine (Sector-ZM) or to a bracket mounted on a tractor or base machine (MTP-43). The saw is driven by the engine or the PTO shaft of the tractor. Chopping wood with hedge trimmers with rotary working bodies, scattering and mixing it with the soil contribute to its faster decomposition and the destruction of harmful insects.
Brush cutters with mowing (segment) type working bodies (Figure 2.1, g) are segment knives that reciprocate relative to each other (USB-25KA). The moving segments are driven by the tractor PTO shaft.
This type of hedge trimmer is used in places that do not have stumps and with a stem diameter of no more than 5 cm.It is mainly used in landscape construction.
Brush cutters with rotating knives on a flexible connection (Fig. 2.1, h) and chopping chains (Fig. 2.1, i) belong to the cutting type working bodies. They are attached to the tractor and rotated from the PTO shaft. These machines are designed for impact to break or cut vegetation, turning it into a pulverized mass. This type of hedge trimmer is mainly used in agriculture.
Thus, in brushcutters with passive working bodies, cutting wood with a blade is ensured not only by its pressure on it, but also occurs from the simultaneously sliding movement of the knife along the wood. For brushcutters with active working bodies, there is no sliding movement of the knife. The cutter acts only as a wedge on the material being torn.
Brush cutters with passive working bodies use several times less energy to cut wood compared to hedge trimmers with active bodies. However, when taking into account the energy consumption for raking and removing wood after brushcutters with passive organs, this advantage turns out to be not so significant, although it does take place. In this regard, brush cutters are mainly used in forestry. with nassive working bodies (D-514A, DP-24, KB-4A, MK-11).
Bush cutter DP-24 is a removable equipment for the T-130 tractor. designed for clearing areas overgrown with bushes and small forests, during the reconstruction of low-value plantings, road construction, laying routes for drainage canals. It consists of a working body, which is a wedge-shaped blade 4, along the lower edges, in which horizontal interchangeable cutting knives 6 are bolted at an angle of 64 ° to one another; universal push frame 8 and guard I. Blade and V-shaped frame, to the transverse beam of which a ball socket is welded for connection with the ball head 7 of the universal push frame.
Grubbing tree stumps is the most time-consuming operation in the preparation of felling for reforestation. The release of forest areas from stumps and large unwanted vegetation depends on the species and diameter of stumps and trees, the age of their felling, the mechanical composition of the soil and its moisture content. Stumps with a deep taproot and deep, highly branched taproots (oak, pine, larch) have the maximum resistance during uprooting, minimal lateral surface-creeping roots (aspen, alder, spruce).
Stumps are difficult to uproot on heavy clay soils, lighter than sandy and peaty. When uprooting oak, pine, larch on clay soils, an effort of up to 500 kN is required, and on peat bogs. up to 80 kN. Removing stumps on wet soils is easier than on dry ones. The effort spent on lifting depends on the method of lifting.
When uprooting a stump in the horizontal direction, an effort of 50-80% less is required than in a vertical direction or when uprooting a stump around a vertical axis. If the pulling force is directed horizontally, then the roots do not break off at the same time.
There are two types of lifting: direct and separate.
When direct uprooting forestry vegetation is uprooted, raked into shafts or heaps at the boundaries of the cultivated area and, when dry, is burned or processed. In this case, together with the stumps and roots, a lot of fertile soil is taken out, and pneumatic holes remain on the cultivated area, which must subsequently be filled up.
With separateom uprooting The uprooted woody vegetation remains on the cultivated area until it dries up and only after that it is shaken off the ground and is collected for burning or sent for processing. In this case, the amount of fertile soil removed is two times less than with direct uprooting.
Forestry vegetation with a diameter of up to 25 cm is uprooted using grubbing machines (D-513A, MP-7A, DP-8A, MP-2), and more than 25 cm with uprooting machines (KM-1, KM-1 A).
Lifting gatherers are arranged according to the same design scheme Their device will be considered on the example of the lifting gatherer MP-7A.
Root-collector MP-7A (Figure 2.3) is intended for uprooting shrubs and small forests with a diameter of up to 11 cm, single trees with a diameter of up to 45 cm, extraction of stones up to 3 tons from a depth of 40 cm, clearing fellings from dead wood and felling residues,
transporting the uprooted material by pushing over a short distance. It is used on mineral and moist peaty soils
On the pushing frame there are two hydraulic cylinders 6 for turning the attachment around its hinge on the pushing frame. The attachment consists of a blade 3 with five welded teeth 1 for removing stumps and stones. To increase the grubbing width of the grubber when uprooting shrubs, dead wood, etc. to the dump on both sides, extenders 2 and 5 are attached with two teeth each, which are fastened in the upper part with the help of flanges, and in the lower part with the help of beam 4. To cut the roots of large stumps to a depth of up to 60 cm behind the tractor on its rear wall of the body the rear axle is mounted with a corneer, consisting of a knife, an upper link, a rack, a beam, a hydraulic cylinder for changing the position of the upper link and two hydraulic cylinders for lifting and lowering the corneer.
Rooting machines KM-1. KM-1 A. Designed for strip clearing of clearings from stumps and dead wood when preparing them for forest crops, as well as for continuous uprooting of stumps when developing clearings for nurseries, agricultural land, fire breaks, etc. The device and operation of the lifting machines are the same and differ in the basic tractors. The KM-1 machine is hung on the LKhT-55M tractor, and the KM-1 A on the LKhT-100 tractor. The machine design is an assembly consisting of a base tractor 1 (Figure 2.4, a) and an attached lifting equipment. The lifting equipment is installed in the front of the tractor and using two special brackets 2 and includes two hydraulic cylinders 3 for raising and lowering the frame 5, two hydraulic cylinders 4 for turning the working body 8 and two dumps 6 located on the sides of the frame at an angle of 90 ° to each other, hinge 7 and chain 9.
but. scheme; b. forces acting on the working body; in. methods of uprooting; 1.base tractor; 2. bracket; 3. hydraulic cylinder for raising and lowering the frame; 4. hydraulic cylinder for turning the working body; 5.frame; 6. blade; 7. hinge; 8. working body; 9.chain
On the frame 5 of a welded structure, bearings of the axis of the working body, brackets for fastening the dumps, lugs for connecting with the hydraulic cylinders 3 for lifting the lifting equipment and with hydraulic cylinders 4 for turning the working body are installed. The frame is pivotally connected to the tractor by means of a bracket. The lifting force perceived by the frame through the supporting surface is transferred to the ground, thereby relieving the tractor undercarriage.
The working body 8 is a two-armed lever with lugs in the upper part for connection with the rods of the hydraulic cylinders 4 of the rotation of the working body and three lifting teeth in the lower part. The working body is connected to the frame by means of a hinge 7. Chain 9 serves to hold the lifting equipment when moving
Grubbing of stumps with KM-1 and KM-1A grubbing machines can be carried out in the following ways:
When the machine approaches the stump, the tractor driver is at a distance of 1.0. 1.5 m from it lowers the lifting equipment and by moving the tractor forward deepens the teeth under the stump. After deepening with the help of hydraulic cylinders, the rooting teeth of the working body are turned upward and the stump is uprooted from the ground. In this case, the lifting force is perceived by the soil through the frame. The pulling force can be up to 150.100 kN. Large stumps writhe this way.
The teeth are buried under the stump and shifted by the pushing force of the tractor while lifting the lifting equipment by lifting hydraulic cylinders. Small and medium stumps are uprooted in this way.
With the teeth buried under the stump, the stump is shifted by the pushing force of the tractor. In this way, small stumps are uprooted (Fig. 2.4, c.III).
Grubbing of stumps by grubbing-gatherers can be done by method II (large stumps) and method III (medium stumps). Small, tall stumps and trees are uprooted when the tractor is moving. In this case, the lifting equipment rests against the stump at a certain distance from the soil surface.
MRP-1 and MRP-2A machines are used for clearing strips in felling areas with minimal removal of the upper humus layer of the soil by displacing felling residues, deadwood into the space between strips, breaking and removing large roots from the middle part of the strip, as well as for removing stumps with a diameter of up to 40 cm.MRP-2 machine is aggregated with a tractor LHT-55M, and MRP-2A. with a tractor LHT-100, equipped with a front mounted system SFN-3. The designs of both machines are the same. The main assembly units are: blade 5, a rooting device with teeth 2, two top rods adjustable in length 7. The blade 5 is made in the form of a wedge, including the left and right moldboard surfaces, a lobovik 4, U-shaped and a bottom that serves as a support when uprooting stumps and ensures the stability of the blade stroke in depth when clearing the strips. The rooting device consists of a rotary shaft 3, two rooting teeth 2, a drive lever 1 and three hydraulic cylinders 6 and 8. A hydraulic cylinder 6 is installed between the upper part of the blade and the upper end of the drive shaft and serves to rotate the teeth. Two hydraulic cylinders 8 are installed between the upper ends of the mounting brackets and the lower rods 10. The shaft is passed through the walls of the lobe; teeth are fixed on the outer ends of the shaft on the splines, and in its middle part inside the forehead there is a drive lever. When the unit moves, the blade, lowered to the ground, pushes the felling residues and deadwood to the sides, breaks large roots with its teeth, extracts them to the surface and removes them outside the cleared strip.
In addition to the above-described machines, the preparation of felling areas for reforestation is carried out by milling the aboveground part of the stump to the soil level
(MUP-4, MPP-0.75) and milling of the aboveground and partially underground part of the stump simultaneously with the preparation of the soil in strips.
Mashina for removing the above-ground part of MUP-4 intended for the preparation of felling sites for planting forest crops, the construction of trails and temporary roads for the export of timber.
The MUP-4 machine is an aggregate consisting of a TDT 55A tractor and equipment mounted on the tractor in the factory and its front part.
The main assembly units of the stump removal machine are: boom, milling tool, control handle drive mechanism, frame. The working body of the machine is a cone cutter with cutting elements fixed on it. incisors. The incisors are installed on the cone and around the circumference of the lower base.
When preparing felling sites for the creation of forest plantations, the MUP = 4 machine removes the ground part of the stumps in strips 2.5-4.0 m wide, depending on the technology adopted and the technical means used in subsequent operations. To do this, the operator drives the car along the intended route and stops it at the boom reach of the manipulator. After that, the drive of the working body (cutter) is switched on by means of two control knobs of the tractor distributor, the operator lowers the cutter to the soil surface and brings it to the stump. At the same time, the cutting elements, having come into contact with the wood of the stump, grind it, forming chips, which are thrown forward and to the left in the direction of the machine.
Machine for cutting stumps MPP-0.75 designed for cutting stumps in clearings by milling.
The components of the machine are: frame, cardan shaft, bevel and spur gearboxes, milling shaft with knives, attachment. It is aggregated with the MTZ-82 tractor, equipped with a creeper.
Before starting work, the tractor driver turns on the power take-off shaft, after which the tractor moves over the stump, then the machine is lowered, the creeper is turned on. The counter-rotating milling shaft with knives mills the stump, crushing it into chips, which are thrown forward. After cutting the stump, the creeper turns off, the machine moves to another stump.
Forestry milling machine MLF-0.8 serves for loosening the soil hi clearings with simultaneous crushing of felling residues up to 12 cm in diameter, overgrowth and stumps up to 20 cm.It is aggregated with tractors DT 75MH, LHT-55M and LHT-100.
The machine is semi-trailed and consists of a front frame, transmission, a milling drum, a baffle plate with two hydraulic cylinders, support wheels, a hitch, support skis, a rake grate, a rear frame with two hydraulic cylinders.
When the machine is moving, the milling drum with disc knives loosens the soil and crushes felling residues on the way. When meeting with stumps, the baffle plate rises up, overcoming the resistance of the hydraulic cylinders, and the milling drum, without protruding, crushes the stump.
Machines and implements for land reclamation and road works. Ditchers, ditchers and sewer cleaners. Excavators. Roadworks machines. Scrapers. Graders. Pit diggers. Dividers. Terracers.
Forest drainage technology provides for the organization of the drainage area, cutting the canal route, clearing stumps and roots, arranging a network of canals and ditches.
Work on the arrangement of a drainage network on forest lands begins with the preparation of canal routes and the regulation of water intakes. Route preparation works improve the quality of the constructed canals, safety and productivity of reclamation equipment. These works include: cutting down large trees, small forests and shrubs; skidding of harvested marketable timber; cleaning of trails from felling residues and illiquid wood; uprooting stumps.
The route of the canal, on which the work of continuous canal duggers is planned, must be pre-planned so that it has a constant slope. The planning is carried out first by the transverse course of the bulldozer, and at the final stage, sometimes by the movement of the bulldozer along the track and the device of the trough along the entire length.
The basis of the drainage system in forestry is the water supply network. open canals and water intakes. Open canals-dehumidifiers quickly remove surface water and do not create stagnation, they are available for inspection and repair. In addition, the construction of open canals is cheaper.
Open channels are divided into three groups according to their purpose: regulating dehumidifiers, fencing and conductive.
Conductive channels are designed to drain water collected by enclosing and regulating channels into the water intake.
At some sites, dehumidification is carried out in two stages. First, large water-supply canals are laid, and along them on the discarded soil, roads are arranged for the removal of ripe timber. Then a smaller regulatory network is laid.
When laying a forest-drainage network, the main scope of work is earthmoving work, which is carried out by trenchers and bulldozers.
When using trenchers, in order to avoid breakdown at the mouth, the laying of the regulating network begins from the channel of the higher order. For this, the unit is fed in reverse to the channel, and the working member is lowered so that it is at the level of the bottom of the channel going. After that, setting the creeper to the desired speed range and choosing the required speed, proceed to laying the channel.
In forestry, in most cases, trapezoidal canals are built. When draining swampy forests, the distance between drainage canals should be 190.220 m. It depends on the composition of vegetation, underlying soil, slope of the soil surface. Distance between collectors. up to 1600 m.
Technological complexes of machines used for drainage reclamation:
To carry out work on forest drainage reclamation, three main sets of machines are used.
For laying routes with the subsequent production of canals of an open forest-drainage network on excessively humid lands.
For the construction of canals of a forest-drainage network on treeless areas and wooded lands along paved routes with excessively moist mineral and peat soils.
For the repair of canals of the forest-drainage network, compatible with thresholds and operational passages, on excessively moistened and peaty soils.
When preparing the routes, along with the use of special forest machines, technical means are also used, borrowed from other sectors of the national economy. For the operation of removing bushes and overgrowths of soft-leaved species, a DP-24 brush cutter, an MTP-13 machine for cutting small forests and forests, and LP-2, LP-19A feller bunchers are used. Removal of commercial timber is carried out using a self-unloading machine TLT-0.8, uprooting of stumps on the tracks. grubbing-gatherers on a universal frame MP-7A, MP-8A and a grubbing machine KM-1A.
When laying channels of an open drainage network, a set of machines is used, including a hydraulic excavator EO-4121, a mechanical excavator
E-304V, plow trenchers PKLN-500A and LNK-600 and milling forest trencher LKF-0.8, which is used in the construction of control channels. The leveling of the soil along the canals after operation is carried out by the excavator with a DZ-109HL bulldozer or with OB-3 and OB-4 bulldozer equipment.
The technological complex of machines for the repair of canals of the forest drainage network includes forest reclamation bulldozers, the excrawler-mounted cavators, which are used in other sectors of the national economy. This complex uses special machines developed for forestry, a KLN-1.2 channel cleaner with a replaceable working body and a forestry milling channel dredger KLF-0.8.
Machines used for forest drainage reclamation
The bush cutter DP-24 is designed for cutting shrubs and small forests in the preparation of routes for reclamation systems and roads, as well as in the development of forest areas covered with tree and shrub vegetation.
The best quality of work is achieved in winter when the snow cover is up to 0.3 m. Productivity when cutting shrubs is 1.1. 1.4 ha / h, small forest. 0.6 ha / h. Coverage 3.6 m.Diameter of cut trees. up to 12 cm.Weight 17,000 kg.
Forestry machine MTP-13 it is used in the preparation of routes, the construction of plantations and the development of woodlands covered with small forests, as well as when digging canals, reservoirs. It consists of a boom with a rotary stacker, a disc cutter, a hydraulic motor, a single-stage gearbox, a bunching device. Raising and lowering the boom and turning the tusks of the depositor are performed using hydraulic cylinders.
The productivity is 0.18 ha / h. The maximum diameter of cut trees is 25 cm. The width of the prepared strip is up to 13 m. Weight is 25,000 kg.
Root lifters MP-18, MP-7A and MP-19-3 (based on T-130MBG-1) are equipped with active wriggling teeth. The design of the blade provides for the installation of two additional easily removable teeth-wideners for using the unit as a grubber-collector. The pushing frame of the MP-18 lifter has a flange for attaching a universal spherical (ball) head, which expands the applicability of the machine.
Rooter MP-19-3 differs from MP-7A in the design of fastening teeth-extenders.
The productivity for 1 hour with selective uprooting of stumps M P-18 is 45 stumps, MP-7A. 55 stumps. The diameter of the twisted stumps is up to 55 cm. The capture width with the MP-18 extension is 2.5 m, MP-7A. 3.4 m. Weight MP-18. 20 t, MP-7A. 22.1 t.
Bulldozers designed for layer-by-layer cutting and movement of soil during the construction of road embankments and excavations: leveling of soil showered with excavators, scrapers and other machines for clearing areas from shrubs and small forests; leveling; cavaliers for forest drainage. Bulldozers can be with a non-rotating blade permanently installed at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the tractor (DZ-42G, DZ-101L, DZ-110V), and a rotary blade, which is placed at a certain angle in the horizontal and vertical planes (DZ-109B, MK.21).
Bulldozer equipment OB-3, OB-4 is intended for moving soil during the repair of forest roads; clearing the forest threshold from snow; cleaning drags from dead wood; leveling the butt of wood; small-scale excavation work (backfilling of trenches with soil, leveling the soil, leveling of sites), some energy-intensive forestry work (clearing forest areas with the removal of felling residues, shrubs and stumps up to 12.16 cm in diameter); creation of barrage fire strips.
Blades are not reversible. OB-3 is hung with the help of the SNF-3 frontal hitch on the LHT-55M, LHT-100 tractors; dump OB-4. with the help of SNF-4 hitch on the tractor LHT-4.
Excavators EO-4121B, EO-4125, EO-3122, EO-4ShG, ZO-4112 on caterpillar tracks are intended for general construction works.
Replaceable working equipment: front and back shovels and dragline, grab, crane, hydraulic hammer or piling equipment.
Excavators EO-4121B and EO-4125 are equipped with A-01M engines with a power of 95 kW, EO-3122 has a D-240 engine with a power of 55 kW, and EO-4111G and EO-4112 have a D-108-3 engine with a power of 60 kW. The drive of the working bodies on excavators EO-4121 B, EO-4125 and EO-3122 is hydraulic, on excavators EO-41 IG I EO-4112 cable-block, pneumatic control. Wheeled excavators EO-2621V-2, EO-3311D, EO4 3322B, EO-3323 are intended for general construction work and have the same replaceable working equipment as caterpillar.
In forest drainage reclamation, forest trenchers PKLSh 500A and PKNU-0.6 are used to set up a shallow open drainage network. Their use is most effective when carrying out surface drainage in peaty soils when aggregated with tractors T-130MBG. When processing the soil, the PKLN-500A plow can be aggregated with the LHT-55 and LHT-100 tractors. Canal plows can work on soils with any thickness of moss cover and degree of sodding, overgrown with shrubs up to 3 m high.
Rotary ditcher MK-23 is intended for digging channels on a pre-planned surface of mineral soils of I-II categories with natural moisture content without stony inclusions at an ambient temperature of O. 4 ° C with a dump of soil on one side of the channel. It consists of a frame with a blade, a transmission unit with a guide casing rotor, a dozer blade.
The depth of the channel is 0.5 m, the width along the bottom is 0.4 m. The rotor diameter is 1555 mm. The number of blades is 8. Weight 10,000 kg.
Forest channel cleaner KLN-1,2 is a special forest reclamation machine of the milling type, which provides cleaning of channels up to 3 m wide at the top on soils of I. II categories. The machine can be used to repair forest road ditches. It consists of a working body. a cutter; gear cutter drive; attachment of the working body with a platform, a rotary column, an arrow and a rod.
The configuration of the milling tool corresponds to the slope factor of 0.75. This machine provides the highest quality care on a well-leveled cavalier. KLN-1,2 is aggregated with a TDT-55A tractor, equipped with a creeper.
Performance on soils of category I is 50 m 3 / ‘h Cutter rotation frequency 192 min “1. Working speed 0.11. 0.51 km / h. Specific ground pressure 0.040 MPa. Weight 9800 kg. Rotary duct cleaners MR-14 and MP-16 are intended for cleaning the bottom of canals from bottom sediments and vegetation in peat and mineral soils, dry or with a water level of up to I) cm, as well as for leveling cavaliers.
Components: rotor-thrower with three blades, dozer blade.
The MP-14 duct cleaner is an upgrade of the previously produced MR-7 machine, and the MP-16 duct cleaner replaced the MP-14 machine.
The MP-14 is aggregated with the DT-75B tractor; MR-16. with the T-130BG-1 tractor.
The productivity when cleaning channels MR-14 is 50 m 3 / h, MR-16. 69.5 m 3 / h. Capture width MP-14. 2900 mm, MP-16. 4800 mm. Cleaning depth MP-14. 2.0 m, MP-16. up to 1 m. Weight MP-14. 11,500 kg, MR-16. 21,000 kg.
Excavators. Excavators are designed for soil development: digging, moving from the mining site to the side and unloading from the bucket near the excavator into the dump or into vehicles for further transportation.
Depending on the structure of the working bodies, there are several types of excavators:
-universal, having several types of replaceable working equipment;
-special, having one type of working equipment;
full-revolving, in which the working equipment can rotate 360 ° during operation;
-part-turn, in which the working equipment rotates 180-270 °.
Depending on the undercarriage, there are crawler excavators, wheeled excavators (on an automobile, on a wheeled-tractor and on a railway), with a walking course and floating.
Depending on the power equipment, excavators are equipped with an internal combustion engine, electric and steam. According to the control method, they are divided into excavators with rope-block and hydraulic control.
Excavators for one purpose or another have corresponding brands with letter and digital designations: E. single-bucket excavator; EM. bucket excavator; ES. construction excavator; EK. quarry excavator; ESh. walking excavator; ET. trench excavator, etc. The letter designation is followed by numbers that usually indicate the bucket capacity (in cubic meters, decalitres or liters) and the model number. For example, the E-505 brand is deciphered as follows: E. single-bucket excavator, 50. bucket capacity, dal, 5. fifth model. Brand ESh-14/75 means: ESh. walking excavator, 14. bucket capacity, m 3. 75. boom length, m.
Replaceable working equipment of excavators. The most common universal full-revolving crawler excavators with replaceable working equipment. Replaceable working equipment consists of a front shovel, a back shovel, a grab, a crane, a plow, a backfill, a dragline, a lifter, a copra.
The front shovel is used for excavation, excavation and loading of excavated soil. Its main parts: bucket / hinged bottom, boom 2, hilt 3 for attaching the bucket to the boom and lifting rope four. The unit is located at the bottom of the face and at a constant angle of inclination of the boom digs the soil from the bottom up.
The shovel is mainly used for excavation of ditches, excavation of narrow and long ditches such as trenches and has the following equipment: ladle one, arrow 2, handle 3, by which the bucket is attached to the end of the boom and the hoisting rope four. The angle of inclination of the boom to the horizon during operation changes (the boom lowers when collecting soil and rises when transferring and unloading), and the bucket moves towards the excavator, first from top to bottom, and then from bottom to top.
The grab is used for loading and unloading sand, gravel, crushed stone, peat, coal, forest materials and excavation of soft soils. It is a double-leaf bucket. The bucket flaps (jaws) are closed and opened using a traction rope through a chain hoist mounted on the bucket. The crane is designed for moving and loading all kinds of goods, as well as for other work usually performed by cranes. The crane has a hook one, boom 2 and hoisting rope 3. Lifting height and lifting capacity for the same excavator depends on the length of the boom and its angle of inclination.
The plow is used for leveling works in the road business, as well as for loading onto vehicles of the earth removed in the course of grading the site. Its bucket makes a working movement under the action of a lifting rope, and an idle one (opposite towards the excavator cab). under its own weight with a slightly raised boom.
Scraper backfill on a rigid support is used for backfilling trenches. Its working body operates on the same principle as that of a plow. The shape of the bucket (scraper) has been slightly changed and adapted to the working conditions.
Dragline scoops soil well below the level at which it is. It has the following equipment: bucket one, hoisting rope 2, by means of which the bucket is suspended from the boom 3, and traction rope four. The boom during operation maintains a constant angle of inclination to the horizon, and the bucket moves from top to bottom.
The shortcut is used when clearing areas from stumps and small forests. Its working body looks like ticks one, clamping a tree stump or trunk while pulling a rope 2. After the stump is uprooted, it is lifted for loading onto transport with a hoisting rope 3.
K oper is used when driving piles. It has an arrow one, guide truss 2 with oblique 3, hammer four and hook five for lifting and installing piles before driving them into the ground.
The E-352A excavator is most widely used in forestry. This full-revolving, versatile excavator is used for digging drainage channels, as well as for various small-scale main and auxiliary excavation works. This excavator is equipped with wide tracks with low specific ground pressure, so it is relatively easy to navigate through swamps. The excavator is equipped with a backhoe and dragline. Depending on the type of replacement equipment used, the 7.5 m lattice boom is increased to 12 m with the help of two inserts (1.5 and 3 m). The engine of this excavator drives three winch drums: four, boom-lifting nineteen and traction
Scrapers. A scraper, or a mechanical shovel, is designed for cutting the soil, transporting it with subsequent laying and leveling in an embankment or dump. All these operations are performed by a working body in the form of a bucket, which has a knife on the leading edge of the bottom. The scraper service mechanisms include: mechanism for raising and lowering the bucket or frame; bucket unloading mechanism; control mechanism drive; running gear and hitch. Scrapers are trailed, semi-trailed and self-propelled. Trailed scrapers are divided into biaxial and uniaxial. Scrapers with hydraulic and rope-block control are distinguished according to the control drive. Positive qualities of hydraulic control include smooth operation, ease of operation and compactness. The disadvantage of this control is the sensitivity to the properties of the oil used and the ambient temperature.
The rope-block control system is reliable and trouble-free in operation and provides high speeds of individual bucket operation cycles. Some disadvantage of this system is its cumbersomeness. With a rope-block control system, the tractor must have a mounted two- or three-drum winch. The most characteristic design feature of various brands of scrapers is the way the bucket is unloaded. By the method of unloading, scrapers are distinguished with free, semi-forced and forced unloading of the bucket. In the first case, the soil is poured out of the bucket by tilting it forward, in the second. by tipping the bottom of the bucket together with the rear wall. When forced unloading, soil is pushed out of the bucket as a result of the movement of the rear wall.
Scraper D-541 is a two-axle machine trailed to a T-74 tractor with a hydraulic drive on pneumatic cylinders. It consists of front and rear frames, which are hinged together. On the front frame there is a hydraulic ram cylinder, on the rear frame there is a piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder. 226 The bucket and bucket flap are interlocked by the articulated link system and are suspended from the rear frame. When the scraper is in operation, the lower position of the hydraulic lift piston corresponds to the working position of the bucket; the flap is then open. With the piston in the middle position, the bucket is set in the transport position, in which the valve is closed. With further upward movement of the piston, the flap opens and at the same time the bucket turns to the unloading position. Scraper bucket capacity 2.25 m 3.maximum cutting depth 130 mm.
Scraper DZ-20B (D-498B) belongs to the group of machines with forced forward unloading of the bucket, designed for large volumes of cutting and transportation at a distance of up to 2000 m. Trailed scraper on a biaxial pneumatic stroke with hydraulic control and an automatic bucket control system.
Traction. tractor of 60 kN class. Bucket capacity 8 m 3.
MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT FOR PLANNING AREAS. A grader is most often used to perform a complex of earthmoving work, mainly planning. With its help, they plan slopes and excavations, level embankments erected by scrapers, profile grader roads, clear roads from snow, terraced slopes during forest reclamation works, make small (up to 1 m) embankments, as well as irrigation ditches. The grader has a working, knife-like body installed between the front and rear axles of the machine.
There are trailed and self-propelled graders (motor graders). Trailed graders with blades with a knife 2.5-3 m long are light machines, and those with a working body length from 3.5 to 4.5 m are heavy machines. In the USSR, the most common, in particular in forestry, are the D-20BM heavy grader and the D-144 motor grader (self-propelled).
The D-144A motor grader is designed for leveling and grading of dirt roads, slopes, embankments, as well as for leveling crushed stone, gravel and other materials on the road surface. Blade length 3600 mm, cutting depth 400 mm. The grader is equipped with a 74 kW KDM-100 engine. The management of working operations is mechanical. Forward speed from 2.25 to 26.7 km / h; back 3.87-6.56 km / h.
Rollers. The surface layer of the soil is compacted during the construction of roads, reservoirs, ponds. It is possible to compact the soil by rolling it with rollers, mechanical rammers, vibration mechanisms. Depending on the mass, rollers are distinguished between light, up to 60 kN, medium, from 60 to 80 kN, and heavy, over 80 kN. Each roller is characterized by the specific pressure per 1 cm of drum length, which for light rollers is from 7 to 45 daN / cm, for medium rollers. from 45 to 80 daN / cm and for heavy rollers from 80 to 120 daN / cm.
According to the method of movement, rollers are divided into trailed and self-propelled. Trailed rollers are driven by tractor traction, self-propelled ones. from an engine installed on the roller itself. According to the number of rolling rollers. the main working bodies. the rollers are divided into single-drum, two-drum and three-drum.
The smooth two-drum water-filled roller is designed for soil compaction, as well as for compaction of meadow-bog soils. The weight of the roller with water is 4.3 t, the working width is 2.5 m.
The cam roller has a staggered cam system on the surface. The mass of the roller without additional loading is 3200 daN, with additional loading. 5000 daN. The width of the rolled strip is 1300 mm. Traction, both for the smooth and for the cam roller, is a tractor of 30 kN class.
Two-drum motorized roller with a mass of 2000 daN is designed for compaction of soil by the rolling method during the construction of various earthworks and roads.
Hole diggers. Hole diggers are used to prepare planting holes and when planting large-sized seedlings in clearings, landscaping areas, when laying nurseries. The pit diggers are equipped with active working bodies with a vertical axis of rotation. The working body is a single-, double-threaded or other type of drill with additional devices and a drive shaft connected to the PTO of a tractor, a separate engine (motorized drills) or with a hydraulic motor.
By the shape of the transporting surface, the borax are bladed and screw. Lobe drills are more suitable for digging wide holes for planting large-sized seedlings, since they scatter the soil a lot, and when planting fruit trees, the root system is sealed with imported soil. Screw drills are more suitable for planting forest crops. Single-pass drills are lighter, but poorly balanced. Two-start drills are heavier and more balanced. In the lower part of the drills, plowshares are installed to cut the soil in a horizontal plane and transfer it to the surface of the drill. In the lower central part of the drill, the tips of the perks are installed, designed for cutting the soil in the center.
Pit digger KYAU-100 serves for the preparation of planting holes for planting large-sized seedlings of fruit, nut and forest crops, as well as on terraces, slopes, along the bottom of ravines, when developing small-contour areas, etc.
The greatest depth of the fossa is 60 cm; angular velocity 12.18 s’; weight 300 kg. It is aggregated with tractors of traction class 1.4 (MTZ-8O / 82).
Site makers are used for preparation and sites on ravine and ravine and mountain slopes for planting forest crops. They are of continuous action, preparing stepped platforms with continuous movement of the factor, and cyclic action, preparing the platform when the tractor is stopped. The working bodies of the rotary-action platform makers can be milling drums, rotating discs with loosening knives and drills.
Plotskodelatel PND-1 continuous action serves for soil preparation in the form of stepped areas on gully and mountain slopes with a steepness of up to 20; Width of areas is 1 m; length 1.2 m; weight of the platform maker 850 kg.
Site developer OPGN-1 serves for the construction of stepped platforms with the simultaneous formation of landing holes on mountain and ravine-gully slopes of steepness up to 25 °. When preparing sites, the unit moves down a slope. At the site of the platform, the unit is stopped, the tractor driver starts the machine and turns on the PTO of the tractor. The blades of the working body cut out the soil from the upland part, crumble it and move it to the bulk part of the future site, and the casing keeps the soil from scattering.
Platform diameter 1 m; loosening depth up to 20 cm; hole diameter 30 cm; hole depth up to 50 cm; weight of the platform maker is 110 kg. It is aggregated with tractors of traction class 3. 5.4. Terracers are used to process mountain and gully slopes with a steepness of 12.40 °. Terracing of such areas allows collecting surface runoff of sediments, weakening or completely stopping erosion processes. At the same time, the water regime of soils is improved and favorable conditions are created for the mechanization of all technological operations for the cultivation of forest plantations. In forestry, the most widespread are terraces with passive working bodies. They are distinguished by simplicity of construction and maintenance, high reliability and low cost.
Terracer for stony soils TK-4 intended for the construction of terraces with a bed width of 3.4 m for laying forest and fruit crops on slopes with a steepness of up to 40 ° with very stony soils, as well as the construction of dirt roads and approaches to various
When terracing a slope, the unit makes reciprocating movements.
4.4. Fertilizer machines.
Physics. mechanical properties of organic and mineral fertilizers. Classification of machines for applying fertilizers, Machines for applying organic, mineral solid and liquid fertilizers. Local, intra-soil fertilization. Fertilizers. Promising directions in the development of processes for applying mineral fertilizers and new machines for these purposes. Labor protection when working with mineral fertilizers. Feeding devices for machines and implements. Features of feeding green spaces in urban conditions.
The value of fertilizers and their types. When creating forest crops and forest shelter belts on sandy, poor, washed away soils, as well as when developing waste agricultural lands, the use of fertilizers is an important factor in their growth. In forest and ornamental nurseries, the introduction of fertilizers into the soil is also one of the most important agrotechnical measures that can increase the yield of standard planting material.
The soil contains many times more nutrients than is required for high productivity. But, nevertheless, the introduction of even small doses of fertilizers increases the productivity of plants. This is due to the fact that only a small part of the nutrients in the soil is in the form available to plants, since they absorb nutrients from them in the form of weak solutions. However, if we remember the content of mineral salts in fertilizers, plants, mainly young ones, suffer from them. This must be taken into account when applying fertilizers, especially if they are applied to nests or rows of sowing and planting.
By chemical composition, fertilizers are divided into mineral and organic.
Minenatural fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potash) are a product of chemical production. They are produced in powdery or granular form, with a granule (fertilizer) diameter of 1-5 mm.
The physical and mechanical properties of mineral fertilizers depend mainly on their moisture content, since when it changes, the flowability of fertilizers, their dispersibility, and the ability to form bridges change.
Organic fertilizers (compost, manure, slurry) are local products, and peat, lime tuffs are mined for mining near farms. Organic fertilizers that were in the form of a cohesive wet mass (manure, peat, composts) and in the form fluidand (slurry, aqueous ammonia).
Agrotechnical requirements for fertilizers and machines. To ensure the normal operation of fertilizer machines, the following requirements are imposed on fertilizers:.
I. All types of fertilizers must be prepared for application to the soil. The main operations for the preparation of mineral fertilizers are: crushing, screening and mixing. Organic fertilizers are usually mixed to produce various composts.
Fertilizers must have a certain size of granules or lumps, caked fertilizers must be crushed and sifted through a sieve with a hole size of 2-3 mm before being introduced into the soil.
Mineral fertilizers must have a certain moisture content. The following requirements are imposed on fertilizer applicators:
-When spreading or applying organic fertilizer, the machines must ensure that the fertilizer is evenly distributed over the soil surface.
-Fertilizers should be applied evenly to a certain niche, set by technology for the corresponding breed, age, etc. With ordinary fertilization, deviation from the set depth is not allowed. 1 cm.
Machines should equally well ensure the uniformity of sowing or spreading of both small (50 kg / ha) and large (2500 kg / ha) doses of fertilizers.