What Oil Can I Use For an Echo Trimmer?
What oil to use for Champion chainsaw. Chainsaw oil. Which one to use?
- Questions and answers
- What oil to use for Champion chainsaw. Chainsaw oil. Which one to use?
What oil to use for Champion chainsaw. Chainsaw oil. Which one to use?
What kind of oil is correct to put in a chainsaw to lubricate the chain?
Chainsaws, as a rule, have a two-stroke or four-stroke engine and two tanks, one of which is filled with fuel, that is, gasoline, and the second should be filled with oil, which lubricates the saw chain. The gas tank in volume may include 0.3-1.0 l of the consistency of fuel with oil, and the oil tank has a smaller volume of almost 2 times.
Using recycled oil to lubricate the chainsaw chain is not recommended.
How to use a chainsaw?
A ratio of oil and fuel volumes is used in which the lubricant will be consumed when the chain is lubricated at the same time, namely after 30-45 minutes of the time that has been worked out, provided that the chainsaw is fully loaded. If the engine is two-stroke, then it most requires the use of a pre-prepared fuel mixture to lubricate the chain.
Circuit electronic ignition chainsaws.
The specific operation of the saw is determined by seasonality. When a two-stroke engine operates, its cycle differs from the cycle of a four-stroke engine of a tool. The use of a mixture of gasoline and oil for the lubrication of some structural elements of a chainsaw, such as a piston or shaft, is one of the main points. Otherwise, an attempt to use a tool that runs on only one gasoline, and not on oil, will not lead to a positive result, but only to damage the tool.
You can use a domestic tool with the use of grade 76 gasoline simultaneously with oil, the ratio of which with the fuel is taken to be 1/25, that is, in an amount of 4%. If you use a saw model from foreign manufacturers, you need a brand of gasoline 92 with branded oils.
These oils are created by manufacturers of chainsaws, while the ratio in the required consistencies is 2.5%, 1:40. Two-stroke engines can be installed on chainsaws of foreign manufacture, but it must be borne in mind that gasoline needs to be refined, without any impurities.
Electronic chainsaw ignition circuit.
The choice of oil per engine is possible, the number of cycles of which can reach 8.5 thousand / min. In chainsaws from foreign manufacturers, cycles are provided that can achieve power in the range from 11 to 14 thousand / min. The use of these lubricants reduces the presence of motor resources of the saw by 7-10%, which boils down to the following: for all types of household and special chainsaws, the use of "Zhiguli" oils is suitable.
If the tool is used at a low temperature, even a correctly made selection of the constituent lubricants does not bring the quality of the oil mixed with the fuel to a positive result, that is, crystallization processes and viscosity increase occur. With all this, the tool should be adapted to the application taking into account the maximum warming up of the engine.
If you follow the recommendations, then the chainsaw must be warmed up before use, especially if the place of its storage was a cold room that is not heated. This will prevent a negative result if condensation occurs in the saw mechanism.
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What oil is used in a chainsaw?
Experienced experts recommend using one fraction of the fuel mixture for two weeks.
The life of a chainsaw is determined by the type of lubricant used when working with inventory. A two-stroke engine saw and fuel tank are used in accordance with the instructions. Often the fuel mixture is made by mixing gasoline and oil, which are combined in a certain ratio. This information must be indicated by the manufacturer in the relevant instructions.
If the inventory is of domestic manufacture, then gasoline bearing the AI-76 brand, as well as ordinary motorcycle oil, is usually used. The proportions in which gasoline and oil are taken are 1/25. If chainsaws of foreign manufacture are used, then the requirements will be different. They are reduced to the use of gasoline with an octane rating of 95 and 92, while a special oil is used that is suitable for these grades of fuel.
Mixes oil with fuel in a ratio of 1/40. Suitable is the use of volumetric cans that help greatly simplify the process of manufacturing the fuel mixture. The use of foreign-made tools requires appropriate refueling with motorcycle oils.
It should be taken into account that certain types of foreign-made lubricants can be used by working with chainsaws, the cycle of which is 8.5 thousand per minute. Mostly used tool with a vibration cycle in the range of 11-14 thousand / min. The use of foreign oils in such saws is the reason for the decrease in motor resources by an average of 8%. If the chainsaw operates at full power, then the lubricant is consumed half an hour after it is turned on.
Experienced professionals recommend using one share of the fuel mixture for two weeks, because otherwise a chemical reaction occurs. At the same time, oil can lose all its properties, and gasoline is capable of oxidation. As a result, clogging of parts, overheating of the motor and jamming of the CPG occurs. The type of oil poured into the tool must be carefully monitored.
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What kind of oil is correct to fill in the chainsaw tank?
The scheme of a two-stroke engine.
When lubricating chain links, chainsaws are poured into a special container. Its use helps to reduce the frictional force that arises between the tire and chain links. The use of special oils with a viscous consistency to lubricate the chain of the chainsaw will give positive results, ensure a long service life of the inventory. In the absence of this substance, oil is suitable.
Choosing a suitable oil that allows you to lubricate the chain with quality, should be depending on the time of year when it will be used. So, in the summer, mineral oils are best suited, the disadvantage of which is the crystallization of the structure of the substance at low temperatures. Therefore, in winter, experts recommend the use of oils with special additives that are synthetic, which makes them less viscous. This helps to use the saw at low temperatures, in other words up to 40 ° C.
The use of semisynthetics seems to be a more suitable option when using the saw at a moderate temperature, fluctuating in the interval. 30. 25 ° C.
Pouring processed engine oil into the tank to lubricate the chainsaw chain is not recommended categorically.
Oil supply for chain lubrication.
Such oils can be highly oxidized, and this is due to the presence of impurities in them, which can cause damage to the chainsaw. However, sometimes during operation of the saws, gear or motor oils are poured into them, which is acceptable.
Motor oils suitable not only for two-stroke, but also for four-stroke engines are made on the basis of base oil and additional substances, that is, additives, which can be different. As solvents, various solvents can be used to improve the process of mixing oils and fuels, their pumpability, and a possible spraying method.
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Conditions for using oils in chainsaws
Synthetic motor oil test results table.
Chainsaws operating at high temperatures can function efficiently due to oils equipped with iron additives. Their main property is to provide lubrication at elevated temperatures.
Important! Experienced craftsmen do not recommend using a tool that has been idling for a long time.
With this operation of the motor, it is not run-in. The use of a chainsaw with a four-stroke engine with oil suitable for it, with its complete combustion, is not associated with special requirements.
Solvent content in push-pull oils can be up to 20%. The result of their use can be negative, since with increasing temperature the quality of the chain lubricant decreases. If the chainsaw is equipped with a two-stroke engine, the oil should not be used with the maximum number of additives, since they contribute to an increase in the degree of viscosity.
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Choice of oil with different engine types for chainsaws
Scheme of the interaction of fuel and air flow carburetor chainsaw.
In order to lubricate the motors of a tool with a two-stroke engine, a combustible fuel solution is used, since oil is not used in the fuel composition. If we take into account the differences between the types of oils used in various engines, for example four-stroke or two-stroke, there is a difference in the methods of their consumption.
High-quality operation of a chainsaw with a four-stroke engine is due to the lack of oil in the combustion chamber, therefore different types of engines have different requirements. For example, two-stroke engines are usually filled with oil, during the combustion of which carbon deposits do not occur as a result.
A four-stroke chainsaw can work for a long time as a result of oil lubrication, which does not have special requirements for its complete combustion. Additives can be selected without taking into account the ash content, the level of which should be more than 2%.
If the chainsaw is equipped with a two-stroke engine, which operates at the expense of oils suitable for four-stroke engines, as a result, ash settles on the walls in the combustion chamber. The ash may remain on the surface of the piston, and an abrasive powder also forms which acts on the piston of the saw according to the principle of sandpaper.
Checks the operation of the chain lubrication system.
Erasing parts of the design of the toolkit is being carried out and its application time is reduced. The presence of settled soot at the end of the use of oil causes harm to the instrument, which is capable of losing the quality of work due to loss of power by its motor.
If soot is deposited in the exhaust openings, then their cross-sectional area decreases, which is associated with difficulties during the exhaust gas exit and power loss. If ash is deposited on the piston of the cylinder, as well as on its head, detonation and drip ignition occur. All this leads to a decrease in saw power, which reduces its useful life.
Two types of oil are made for chainsaws, one of which is suitable to create a fuel mixture. At the same time, brand 92 gasoline is taken in a ratio of 50 parts of gasoline to 1 part of oil (Super 95), used when operating a two-stroke engine, respectively. Different manufacturers of chainsaws produce oil for them under different brands, of which there are a sufficient number. So, 5 liters of gasoline are usually mixed with 100 ml of the substance. If you apply one that is not suitable for the model of the tool used, this will lead to damage to the saw and soon wear.
Unsuitable oil, poured into the saw, can simply settle in the cylinder on its walls if it enters the combustion chamber, but does not have time to burn. This approach to the use of chainsaws leads to a slow reduction in the life of the tool or its trimmer. If the total working life of the chainsaw is 400 hours, then this figure can drop to 200 hours.
Lubricate the saw chain with a special adhesive oil, which must be poured into the saw tank provided for this purpose. After turning on the saw, it is pumped up by a special pump in automatic mode, after which the chain is lubricated.
In a can for a chainsaw, which includes two containers, you can pour 6 liters of fuel mixture and 2.5 liters of oil. By changing this ratio, pour 5 liters of the fuel mixture and 3 liters of adhesive oil, the consumption of which will be 1 liter per fuel mixture with a volume of 1.6-2.4 liters.
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Recommendations on the use of special oils for chainsaw chains
Centrifugal clutch chainsaw.
Lubricating the saw bar with a chain should be done with special oil; other types of this substance are not suitable for this purpose. If they are used, the oil pump may fail, as it is equipped with a self-lubricating system for high-quality operation. To use the used, including filtered, oil compositions in a chainsaw means violating the ability of the tool to high revolutions.
The chain requires appropriate storage, which is associated with immersion in oil. If the saw bar is worn, then do not put a new chain on it. It is important to have a chain in stock, and it is best to purchase several chains at once. The optimal number of chains in stock is 4 pieces, which allows you to work with them in turn and periodically grind each of them. This ensures a reduced level of wear on each component, i.e. the tire, chain and drive sprocket.
Professionals recommend not tweaking the chain, but tweaking it using special tools to sharpen the chain. Correction is done every 2 or 3 fillings of the fuel mixture into the saw tank.
One proposed work with the tool requires the preparation of a certain amount of the fuel mixture. However, it is strictly forbidden to operate a chainsaw without oil poured into the tank. When refueling the saw with fuel, it is necessary to immediately provide for its required amount, with which the tire with the chain should be lubricated. The main thing is that its composition is cleaned, without the content of impurities, water, sand, garbage, etc.
Refueling of tanks should be carried out simultaneously, that is, oil is poured together with the fuel mixture into different tanks. Air temperature should be considered. If the temperature is lower than 20 ° C, then it must be diluted with dehydrated kerosene, taking into account a ratio of 4: 1, that is, 1 part of kerosene is added to 4 parts. If there is an adjustment for oil supply, it is maximized.
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How to dilute the oil in the fuel correctly?
Chainsaw position at startup.
Dilute oil in gasoline, following a certain sequence. Previously, it is poured into a canister or other container, after which an appropriate gasoline used in one or another chainsaw is added to the same container. The volume of gasoline should be about half of the required amount of fuel.
Shaking the mixture thoroughly and stirring it, add the second part of the prepared fuel there. Pour the mixture into the fuel tank after thoroughly shaking the mixture in the original tank. Pour the mixture carefully, trying not to spill it.
It is not recommended to fill the fuel to the very top of the tank. Usually leave a little free space on top in the tank. A 0.5 L fuel tank provides a tool power of 2 kW, i.e. 2.7 hp. Fuel is consumed in an amount of 1.2 l / h, so the fuel mixture can last for work for 30-40 minutes with a maximum degree of load on the tool. The greater the power of the chainsaw, the smaller the volume of its fuel tank.
Lubricating the chainsaw chain is recommended only with special oils, the quality of which is guaranteed by the manufacturer of the tool itself. Chainsaw manufacturers are engaged in the manufacture of special oils containing adhesive additives that provide high-quality lubrication of the chain due to the long-term retention of the lubricating composition on it.
It’s better not to save on the purchase of oil, acquiring its cheaper types, and immediately take the adhesive so that the saw chains and the tool itself do not fail. This way you can reduce the damage caused, since the cost of the oil pump, chainsaw chains and tires is a much smaller amount after they break.
Among the other disadvantages of using oil that is not adhesive is the leakage from the tank of a non-working tool. Due to the mismatch of the viscosity of an improper lubricant with the standards during pumping, it does not arrive in the quantity that is necessary, that is, more or less. As a result, the use of oils and fuels in equal amounts will be wrong.
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How should the chain lubrication system work?
The fuel tanks of the saws are selected according to the volume, taking into account a certain ratio, which allows leaving a tank with a small amount of oil at maximum fuel output. Correct carburetor adjustment determines the amount of fuel used for a chainsaw, otherwise if it is not correct, then the fuel runs out very quickly.
With a slow reduction in the amount of oil during the operation of the saw, in the absence of its reduction, the chain lubrication process is impaired, and the conductivity of the channels where the movement of the lubricant occurs is reduced. It is necessary not only to identify, but also to eliminate all malfunctions. You can measure the performance of the oil pump with the adjusting screw manually.
The correct operation of the lubrication system can be checked by holding the tire, the chain of which rotates, to the illuminated surface. When oil spray appears on this surface, the system is configured correctly. The amount of oil consumed by the chain itself is provided depending on the specific situation.
It is necessary to make the cut of the greatest length according to the hard or dry appearance of the wood with the greatest amount of lubricant, which also applies to the cutting of thick types of bark. If you want to make a cut, the length of which is small, then the presence of wet and soft wood will require the least amount of lubricant.
One of the reasons for the cutting headset to become very hot with subsequent smoke may be the lack of sufficient chain lubrication.
Due to excessive heat, the chain may be pinched in the groove of the tire. The reason for the appearance of smoke can also relate to those cases when the chain is improperly sharpened, dull, or if this happened with a strong chain tension. If the end of the tire has an unattended sprocket, then lubrication does not occur on it, that is, lubrication occurs separately in the presence of a special hole.
If the chainsaw is well adjusted, it can be easily started. For this purpose, the saw is installed on level ground, making sure that the tire does not fall to the ground. Be sure to activate the chain brake, its handle should be moved in a certain direction to the end of the tire. The chainsaw should be started by holding the saw with the left hand by the front handle, and the right foot should rest against the rear handle, which should be pressed to the ground.
Chainsaw oil. which oil is best used to lubricate the chainsaw chains
You are the owner of a chainsaw recently, and do not yet know which oil to lubricate the chainsaw chains is better to use. The lack of this knowledge can adversely affect the tool, since the type and quality of the lubricant depends on how long the tire and chain of the tool will remain operational.
After reading this article, you will fill the knowledge gap, as we will consider the use of oils from various manufacturers and brands to reduce friction between the parts of the saw set. And also we will understand what additional lubricants are used to service the chainsaw in order to maximize the life of its operation.
What oil to use to lubricate chainsaw chains
The answer to this question is quite simple, for this it is necessary to open the instructions for any saw and it will indicate that it is necessary to fill in oil with a good adhesive effect.
Adhesion is an indication of the adhesion of a material, in this case oil, to the metal surface of a tire and chain.
Why is this necessary? The fact is that the chain moves along the tire at high speed, and if oil is used as a lubricant, which have low adhesion, then most of it, by inertia, flies from the end of the tire and lubrication of its lower part does not occur. This phenomenon can be observed if you conduct a small experiment. Start a chainsaw, point the end of the tire towards a bright surface and add gas as much as possible. As a result, oil spots will appear on it, which are proof of the theory.
Chainsaw sprocket grease
To increase the service life and reduce friction on the drive sprocket, the manufacturer equips this mechanism with a needle bearing, which must be lubricated periodically. Stihl multi-purpose grease can be used for lubrication.
If you do not want to overpay, it is better to use an inexpensive, but no less high-quality option, Litol or Litol 24. grease. Due to its viscosity, Litol will easily replace the original one.
Lubricate the sprocket of the chainsaw tire, you can use the same lubricants as the lead, using a special syringe for this. This allows the lubricant to be pressed through the technological holes in the tire to the sprocket bearing.
Adhesive Oil Manufacturers
Almost all manufacturers of chainsaws are engaged in the production and supplies for them, explaining this by the fact that these products are most suitable for use in conjunction with their saws. As far as this information is true, there is no information, but based on the experience of operating and repairing chainsaws, it can be noted that there are no significant differences in the service life of parts or at least visible wear.
But the fact is the fact, manufacturers recommend and it is impossible to hide it. So, back to the manufacturers, and start with the popular Stihl brand.
Adhesive oils Stihl
The following adhesive oils are presented on the company’s website for various operating temperatures and having a good lubricating index:
- ForestPlus adhesive oil. recommended for use at temperatures up to.15 ° C, shelf life under storage conditions of 3 years. It is delivered in liter or five liter containers;
- BioPlus. its feature is a plant base, which allows it to quickly decompose when it enters the soil. It is applied up to minus 15, it is delivered in three, five and one-liter containers;
- The latest SynthPlus oil has the ability to maintain performance at minus 25 ° C.
The company offers its customers Husqvarna Bio Advanced oil for use in normal and extreme conditions. The oil is made from plant components and is safe for the environment, supplied in liter and five liter containers.
As an economical solution, the company has Vegoil oil, according to the manufacturer, its consumption compared to others is reduced by 40%. It is delivered in liter containers.
The company also produces bearing grease, which it recommends to lubricate the bearings of the drive sprocket and sprocket on the saw bar.
Less common, but popular with chainsaw owners, are:
- Polar Lube Mineral. Digging Oleo-Mac;
- Adhesive CHAMPION, sold in containers up to 10 liters, which is convenient for use in forestry;
- Makita Biotop;
You can get acquainted with some oils for chains by watching the video below, in it the seller of a large network of tools comments on the use of adhesive oils from various manufacturers.
How to replace the original expensive oil and is it worth it
In situations where it is not possible to use the original, you can replace them with oil for car engines. Cheap automobile oils such as autol or diesel lubrication options, due to reduced adhesive properties, are unsuitable for long-term use.
Some owners, despite recommendations, still use analogues, preferring to change the tire and chain more often, but here everyone decides for himself. Such an oil cannot have any negative effects on the lubrication system, which means that the difference is only in the quality of tire protection against chain friction.
A little bit about lubricating the chainsaw chains
Refining is called oil that has expired in the engine or gearbox of a car. Many owners of chainsaws, trying to save money, use it to lubricate the chain, which translates into serious repair costs.
The reason for these breakdowns is the presence in the mining of impurities of metal chips that settle in the crankcase of the car, and at the time of drainage of mining from the pallet, it merges with it.
Getting on the tire, metal shavings act on its surface as an abrasive. Simply put, instead of protecting the surface, mining enhances wear on the tire, drive sprocket, and follower sprocket bearing on the tire. Workout also affects the chain of the chainsaw, in those places where it bends and increases the risk of breaking the chain mechanism.
Conclusion: to lubricate the chainsaw chains you need to use original lubricants from manufacturers. Running out of the car engine is not permissible. In the absence of high-quality oils, a short-term replacement by clean automobile oils is allowed
what do i need to know Faults, video
Owners of chainsaws are well aware of how to fill gasoline for a chainsaw. But for those who only buy such equipment and do not know how to use it correctly, you need to know that you can’t just take and pour gasoline into the tank. as a result of such an erroneous action, your chainsaw will fail in a short time. The reason is very simple. for two-stroke engines, which are installed on chainsaws, there is no separate lubrication system. It is necessary to dilute gasoline for a chainsaw with engine oil in a special proportion.
The device of the gasoline motor for chain saws
In chainsaws, as in most other similar equipment, two-stroke internal combustion engines are used. Their main advantage over the four-stroke engines that are used in cars is the fact that for 2 x stroke engines it turns out to remove power one and a half times more with the same volume. But there are also disadvantages. you need to add oil for chainsaws directly to the fuel tank, which increases oil consumption. As a result, the mixture of oil and gasoline during combustion in the working chamber turns into an oil mist that settles on the cylinder walls and lubricates the connecting rod and piston group elements.
Oil for 2 x stroke chainsaw engines is diluted in a certain proportion with gasoline and poured into the tank. When the gas in the tank runs out, you need to prepare a new mixture. At the same time, car oil cannot be used in a chainsaw. special oil is required for two-stroke engines.
What oil to pour into a chainsaw?
It is strictly forbidden to use those oils that are used in automobile engines. a special two-stroke oil for a chainsaw is recommended, recommended by the manufacturer. Manufacturers themselves do not produce lubricants with rare exceptions, but work with all well-known brands and often offer their products under their own label. Therefore, in the passport you will definitely find a mention of which 2-stroke oil for chainsaws will suit this particular model.
The following oils are recommended for imported chainsaws:
- Classification of TA, TB and TC (TSC-1/2/3) according to the American standard API.
- 2t JASO standard Japanese chainsaw oil corresponding to classes FA, FB and FC;
- oil of the European ISO standard, class EGB and EGC.
Video: What Oil Can I Use For an Echo Trimmer?
As for domestic chainsaws, high-quality oil is also recommended for them. If it is not possible to purchase, then you can use a lubricant designed for motorcycle engines of the 2-stroke type.
What kind of gasoline to fill in a chainsaw?
Manufacturers strongly recommend using only high-quality gasoline for chainsaws, with an octane rating of at least 92 and an ethanol content of not more than 10%. It is not recommended to use opaque gasoline with impurities. they will quickly clog the fuel system and engine.
IMPORTANT: it is not necessary to prepare the gasoline mixture for the chainsaw just before pouring it into the tank. this can be done in advance. over, many manufacturers produce ready-made containers with several compartments, for example, for gasoline and oil or gasoline, oil and ready-mix, and also complete such containers with a special measuring syringe. With its help, oil is collected in a chainsaw in the proportion that is required. But if the mixture is prepared in advance, then its maximum storage period should not exceed 10 days. over time, the octane number of gasoline decreases, and due to the fact that part of the gasoline disappears from the mixture, the proportion of oil and gasoline for the chainsaw changes.
Is it possible to pour 95 gasoline into a chainsaw?
Almost 75% of manufacturers in the passport to the chainsaw indicate that it is necessary to use AI-92 gasoline. Those owners of such equipment who first encounter it and do not know what gasoline is needed for a chainsaw draw parallels with car engines and conclude that the higher the octane number, the better. As a result, not understanding how to dilute gasoline for a chainsaw, dilute the oil and AI-95 gasoline.
The thing is that the increase in the octane number is achieved by introducing various additives into gasoline, as is done in AI-95 and AI-98 gasoline. Additives are harmful for two-stroke engines due to their special design, therefore, AI-92 gasoline must be used, especially in our country. Firstly, this is correct and will extend the life of the motor, and secondly, cheaper. But for some manufacturers, for example for Stihl, you can use the AI-95, but it’s better to take it at good proven gas stations.
How to breed gasoline for a chainsaw?
Before pouring fuel into the tank, it is necessary to prepare a gasoline mixture. The ratio of oil and gasoline for a chainsaw is regulated in strict proportions. as a rule, they are indicated in the instruction manual. In the event that you do not know how much oil to pour into gasoline for a domestic production chainsaw, it is recommended to use a ratio of 1:15. 1:20. That is, for 1 liter of gasoline use 50-70 ml of oil.
As for imported equipment, then the proportions are completely different. For example, how to dilute gasoline with 2 kW Husqvarna chainsaw oil? To do this, we look at the instructions and see that the manufacturer recommends using a 1:50 ratio, i.e. per 1 liter of gasoline is used no more than 20 ml of oil. If there is no passport (lost, torn, etc.), use the Internet or contact a service center. so you will know exactly how much oil you need to fill in gasoline for a chainsaw. An increased amount of oil threatens with increased soot and clogging of the cylinder, which will lead to a break in the piston rings and a decrease in compression, moreover, it is expensive. If the amount of oil for chainsaws in the mixture is low, this will lead to overheating of the engine and a sharp decrease in its resource.
If you don’t know how much oil to pour into a Chinese chainsaw, and there is no passport on hand, then this proportion is approximately 1:25, that is, 40 ml of oil per 1 liter of gasoline. In general, the amount of oil directly depends on the layout. the denser all components are installed, the less oil is needed.
Before preparing a gasoline mixture for a chainsaw, you must first pour gasoline into the canister, and only then add oil, not otherwise. Otherwise, more viscous oil will stick to the walls and bottom of the canister and dissolve worse, which will violate the correct proportions of gasoline and chainsaw oil.
Choosing chainsaw chain oil
In addition to the motor, there is another important unit in the chainsaw with many moving parts. the chain. It uses not motor oil, but chain oil for a chainsaw. it is cheaper and has completely different properties.
How to use oil for a chainsaw chain depends on its “age”. If your chainsaw is new and under warranty, you will have to use ONLY branded oils recommended by the manufacturer. Otherwise, if the saw fails in the service center, it will immediately be removed from the warranty, as the use of lubricants that do not meet the manufacturer’s requirements is a violation of the operating conditions. On the other hand, branded oils are really high quality:
- allow to work in a wide temperature range from 30 to 50 C,
- high adhesion improves the “sticking” of oil to the chain and reduces its consumption;
- additives reduce friction and extend the life of the chain.
If the saw is removed from the guarantee, and the purchase of branded oil for the chainsaw chain does not fit the budget, you can use any transmission or motor oil. It is advisable to change it 2 times a year: in winter use a more liquid oil, in the summer. a thicker one.
What kind of oil to lubricate the chainsaw chain also depends on the wood you have to work with. For dry wood, gear oil is recommended, for raw wood it is better to use some kind of oil for diesel engines.
Common Chain Issues
How to adjust the oil supply to the chainsaw chain?
If the oil supply to the chain is incorrectly regulated, the chain may overheat (insufficient supply) or increased oil consumption and oil contamination of the wood (too high supply). Therefore, adjusting the oil supply to the chainsaw chain is a very important process, since both the consumption of the oil itself and the long-term operation of the chainsaw itself depend on it.
How the oil is fed to the chain of the chainsaw. depends on the position of the screw for adjusting the plunger of the oil pump. In the factory setting, the screw is set in the middle position. To reduce the oil supply, turn it off at the “-” mark, to increase it, to the “” mark.
Why doesn’t oil get to the chainsaw chain?
In the case, the oil does not go to the chainsaw chain at all, which means either the drive of the oil pump itself is out of order, or there are problems with air suction.
- Damage to the oil pump. If the screw still does not feed oil to the chainsaw chain, the drive, which is a plastic ring with grooves, is broken. Over time, the grooves may wear out and the drive will fail, after which it will just have to be replaced.
- The hose through which oil under pressure is supplied to the chain has slept or worn out. It must be re-secured to the fitting or replaced.
- The grooves along which the oil is supplied to the chainsaw chain are clogged. this is the most common phenomenon. They need to be cleaned, after which the flow will resume.
Why is oil flowing from a chainsaw?
If you notice oil from a chainsaw flowing out, then this is a malfunction and there may be several reasons for it:
- Most often, oil flows from the chainsaw chain if the fuel tank is leaking. Carefully inspect the tank for cracks or tightness of the tube to the fitting. If there are violations, eliminate them.
- The oil channels are clogged, as a result of which the oil does not enter them, but drips onto the ground. It is required to clean the channels with pressure. this will fix the problem.
What oil to use to lubricate the chainsaw chains: tips and tricks
Chainsaw headset works in difficult conditions that adversely affect its durability. The oil for the chainsaw chain supplied to the working area prevents overheating of the working parts and contributes to efficient sawing of hardwood. The smooth running of the chain removes part of the load from the power unit.
The designers of the chainsaw equipment recognize the need for full-fledged lubrication of the headset, so in the compact designs of modern chainsaws there is a place for a consumable oil tank and an oil pump, with fixed or adjustable performance.
Benefits of Higher Price Oils
Branded chain oils include useful antioxidant, anticorrosive, stabilizing components and additives that help preserve the working properties of the oil and increase the wear resistance of working equipment in difficult operating conditions.
The quality of branded supplies is a reference. Most of these are products from leading manufacturers of Stihl, Husqvarna, Echo, Daewoo and several others. Over the past few years, the quality of Chinese chain oils produced in state-owned enterprises has improved markedly.
Owners of chainsaw equipment independently decide which oil to use to lubricate the chainsaw chains. In the best case, this is a consumable product adapted to the climate of the region recommended by the instruction manual for this model.
Evaluation of the operational advantages of the so-called universal oils should be treated critically. In reality, this is not a very successful advertising move. To date, not a single manufacturer respecting its reputation has received information on the start of production of 100% universal oil.
Practice has shown that the wrong choice of chain lubrication increases the load on the engine by 7-10% and also reduces the working life of the saw set.
Branded or standard oil for lubricating the chainsaw chains in terms of density, viscosity, degree of purification from impurities and other performance characteristics meets the requirements of special standards.
- Organic and mineral compositions in terms of working properties are not significantly different.
- Experienced users recommend working on organic consumables if the intervals between the use of a chainsaw do not exceed a few days.
- Anticorrosive and other protective properties of more expensive mineral oils are used if the tool is used for infrequent one-time work.
Check the oil for compliance with the external temperature, and at the same time the lubrication system for operability, is not difficult. To do this, hold the headset for a medium-speed saw over a blank sheet of paper for a few seconds.
By the breadth and saturation of the oil strip, one can judge the suitability of the composition for continuous operation at a given air temperature and the performance of the built-in oil pump.
The problem is how to replace branded chain oil, which is not on sale, is relevant for many peripheral regions. According to experts, a full-fledged analogue is identical in basic characteristics to products of well-known brands Stihl and Husqvarna. The engine and chain oils of these manufacturers have proven themselves in every respect from the best side.
Given the capabilities of the proposed range, the consumer can opt for a more expensive chain oil or its budget equivalent. In addition to branded products, Enkor, Nanotek Standard and Nanotek Premium oils are listed, preserving operating properties at temperatures up to 30 ° С.
Mineral-based versions of oils are represented by the brands Makita and Makita Oregon, the identical lubricating characteristics of organic chain oils Makita Biotop, Stihl Bio Plus, which are sold in packaging volumes from 1 to 25 liters.
Professional sawmills mostly prefer branded lubricants of the same brand. The constant use of the same brand of oil allows you to study its capabilities and use them with maximum efficiency.
Adjustment of oil density to external temperature factors
The use of chain oil at a low temperature of up to 20 ° C negatively affects the performance of the oil pump and the durability of its drive.
In the absence of the required material, the problem is solved by diluting the oil thickened in the cold. As a solvent, dehydrated kerosene is best suited.
Such an additive will provide complete lubrication of the headset, but it is recommended to significantly limit heavy loads when working with diluted oil.
Price features of the offered assortments
High-price European chain oils are recommended for the operation of professional chainsaw equipment operating in difficult, even extreme conditions.
The cost of consumables is fully compensated by the performance of large-scale sawing operations, reliability, almost complete production of the designated service life by the saw equipment.
Domestic chain oils are mostly produced from their own raw materials of imported additives and using modern technologies.
In terms of quality and operational characteristics, the Russian range is not inferior to similar products of European brands, but costs significantly less.
Chinese middle-class saw sets for wear resistance and durability are inferior to European counterparts. This imbalance is partially eliminated by the use of manufacturer-recommended chain oils developed by Chinese experts.
According to suppliers of consumable components, the presence of special additives in Chinese chain oils has a positive effect on the performance of standard tires and saw chains, as well as chainsaw equipment in general.
All of the above applies only to the products of large companies. The benefits of using chain oils from small private enterprises have not been proven in practice.
Danger of using oil counterfeit
The performance properties of cheaper fake oils are inferior to proprietary developments in basic parameters. The problem is that, relying on the expected quality of the product, users operate their full-load chainsaw equipment.
The use of surrogate oils initiates accelerated wear of the material part, in some cases it is the basis for cancellation of factory warranty obligations by service departments.
The consequences of unjustified savings
Many owners of budget chainsaws equipped with simple lubrication systems with constant performance are concerned about increased oil consumption. The average price of a quality product is three times less than the cost of its motor analogue, however, cases of using various oil substitutes are not uncommon.
Used in different proportions, spindle, diesel and motor oil for automobiles are not suitable for the full lubrication of the headset in their working properties.
It is not difficult to really calculate how much you can save on the use of a surrogate. Unfortunately, the profits cannot compensate for the accelerated depreciation of the old and the costs of acquiring a new headset.
The constant use of substitutes reduces the life of an expensive saw set by 30-40%. Depreciation is significantly accelerated if you fill in a chainsaw lubrication system, which has worked out its working out resource.
For complete lubrication and cooling of the chain or pouring into the gearbox, none of the compositions proposed by users are suitable. Not the best replacement option is the M8 winter engine oil, which, under conditions of a general shortage, was refueled by Druzhba chainsaws and their prototypes.
Advantages of automatic systems
Chainsaws less expensive in oil consumption, equipped with automatic lubrication systems. Depending on the engine speed, the oil supply is dosed by a variable displacement pump.
At idle speed, oil is practically not consumed. In models with automatic lubrication, the consumption of working material is reduced by almost half.
Pro recommendations on the selection and use of chain oils
The operation of the lubrication system must be periodically monitored. Lack of oil supply is easily determined by the increase in engine load and the smell of overheated wood. The crown and bearing of the drive and driven sprockets need additional lubrication.
It is recommended that new and already used saw chains for long-term storage in unheated rooms be placed in oil baths. This method compares favorably with the application of grease, since it eliminates the formation of condensate moisture and local corrosion.
Chainsaw oil. what to use for chain lubrication, for gasoline, ratio and proportions
Hello everyone! In this article, I will tell you how to use chainsaw oil. The information presented here is based both on my personal experience using saws and on the experience that I am a sales assistant on this technique. this is both communicating with customers and with service masters. Plus, there will be a theory. where would it be without it.
What oil to pour into gasoline for a chainsaw?
To prepare the fuel mixture, special oil is used for two-stroke engines. There are a great many of them today. However, manufacturers themselves, especially serious ones such as Stihl or Husqvarna, always write which oil to mix with gasoline for their chainsaws. They are produced under the same brand, therefore, for example, Stihl oil is suitable for Stihl saws, and Husqvarna is suitable for Husqvarna.
Representatives of manufacturers at the same time declare that they do not know how the chainsaw will work with other oils, but they can definitely guarantee the correct operation of their equipment when the fuel mixture for it is prepared on the basis of the product that they indicate in the operating instructions. By the way, if a malfunction occurs in the piston group during the warranty period, you may be denied a free repair if it turns out that you added something other than what the manufacturer indicates.
Masters from the services with whom I had to communicate praise all the same Stihl and Husqvarna oils.
Mineral or synthetic oil. which is better to add to gasoline
Push-pull oils can be mineral or synthetic. As with cars, synthetics are always more expensive than mineral water. Its most important advantage is that when using a chainsaw inside the cylinder, soot does not form. Thus, its service life is extended. Thus, if you want the saw to serve as much as possible, fill in the synthetics.
True, it is worth noting that if you have already used mineral water for a long time (at least 100 hours), then you can not use synthetics. This is due to the fact that synthetic oil, having cleansing properties, will wash away the accumulated layer of carbon deposits on the cylinder walls, and its falling off pieces can cause damage. Therefore, if you have been using Mineral-Koy for a long time, then use it.
The ratio of oil and gasoline for chainsaws
To find out how much oil to pour into gasoline for a chainsaw (as for any other push-pull technique: trim tabs, motor drill, etc.), you need to look at the correct proportion in the instructions for the saw or on the package. Usually, when using the "native" option, the proportion is 1:50. If a different type is used, it is recommended to mix it in a proportion of 1:40. That is, for example, with a proportion of 1:50, divide 1 liter by 50 and get 0.02 liters. this is the amount that needs to be added to 1 liter of gasoline. That is, for 1 liter of gasoline pour 20 ml.
The proportions of gasoline and chainsaw oil must be observed with great accuracy, therefore, to determine the right amount, I advise you to use a conventional medical syringe with 20-25 ml. In addition, there are special packaging with a dispenser, as well as containers for mixing. The latter allow you to measure as the right amount of both mixed products.
Using a syringe or a package with a dispenser, you need to have a container by which it will be possible to accurately measure the required amount of gasoline.
So, after adding the necessary amount of oil to gasoline, just shake the container in which they are mixed, and that’s it. the fuel mixture is ready.
Do not stock up on a mixture for future use, as it is limited in shelf life. Typically, the shelf life after mixing should not exceed one month, but some service centers recommend generally storing the finished fuel mixture for no more than 3 days.
What oil to use to lubricate chainsaw chains
Now let’s move on to the chain lubrication. To lubricate the chain, it is necessary to use special adhesive lubricants specifically designed for this. You can, of course, fill in other types of oils, for example, transmission or motor oils, but they will not also effectively lubricate the tire and chain, as does a special adhesive oil for lubricating the chain.
This is due to the fact that a special lubricant contains adhesive substances that cause it to “stick” to the chain. Due to this, it does not fly out so much when the chain rotates, as other types of it do. Therefore, the tire and chain do not wear out so much and last longer.
If you put a good adhesive on the thumb and forefinger, connect them, and then part them, you can see how it stretches between them. Other types will not be able to.
An important characteristic is density. Do not take too liquid grease, as it is quickly consumed. As my experience shows, as well as the buyers with whom I had to talk on this topic, the lubricant for the Stihl chain is consumed the longest.
It is also worth noting that if you care about nature, you can use oil to lubricate the chain, which later decomposes without harming the environment. It is produced on a plant basis. The price, of course, will be higher.
Fill oil to lubricate the chain in a special tank up to the neck. It is recommended that you top up along with refueling the saw with the fuel mixture, since, as a rule, when the fuel tank is full, the chain lubrication still remains in some quantity. But if you do not add it, then it will be consumed before the fuel runs out.
That’s all. I hope you were interested and you learned something new for yourself. Use only special oils for gasoline and chain lubrication, and your chainsaw will last you all its intended life.
Read other articles on my site. Bye and see you soon!
Chainsaw chain oil. Which oil to use to lubricate the chainsaw chains?
Chainsaws are a popular tool for those who have to do numerous household chores on their own. They can be used for different purposes. to harvest firewood, cut dry branches. But in order for the device to last as long as possible, you need to properly care for it, correctly choosing different compositions. A special role is played by oil for chainsaw chains, which is selected depending on the operating principles of the tool and its characteristics.
What to consider?
Grease the saw chain with due care. First of all, you should choose a special oil that will not harm the oil pump. In addition, this will ensure the quality of the self-lubrication system. The chain requires proper storage, that is, immersion in oil, and in case of wear you should not try to reanimate the old chain. it is easier to replace it. How to choose oil for chainsaw chains so that it is safe and meets all the requirements?
Types and composition
Select a specific oil, depending on where and how the chainsaw is operated. Mineral compounds are suitable for the summer and warm season. In other cases, it is better to use synthetic or semi-synthetic oils. If it is necessary to lubricate the chain, do not use used oils, which will lead to clogging of the fuel system, and then serious damage to the tool.
Chainsaw chain oil must be thoroughly cleaned so that it is properly and accurately lubricated. If low-quality compounds are used, there will be no contact between the saw elements and the tire, sparks will appear, and subsequently the movable parts of the saw will wear out.
How to choose?
Each chainsaw has a carbureted two-stroke engine and two tanks: in one, gasoline is poured, in the second. oil. When choosing a composition for lubrication, zoning plays an important role. it should be minimal. Another important indicator is resistance to low temperatures: the oil should not freeze with a strong minus, which will ensure the quality of the entire tool.
For lubrication, it is advisable to use adhesive oil for chainsaw chains containing special substances, due to which the composition adheres well to the chain. High-quality oil will remain on the chain during its rotation, and the chain itself will be more reliable in operation.
Another important indicator of lubrication is density: if the composition is liquid, it will be consumed in larger quantities. In order not to harm the environment when using a chainsaw, it is important to use vegetable-based oil. its waste will decompose in the natural environment.
Which oil for the chainsaw chain to choose, because modern manufacturers offer a wide selection of options? Among the specialized manufacturers, brands such as Divinol, Bio-Kettenol, Ravenol, VegOil, Mobil, Castrol, Shell can be noted. Consider the features of their products in more detail.
This brand offers to evaluate high-quality chain lubricant, which has good adhesive and lubricating properties, so that the lubrication is carried out efficiently, and the chain links and joints are reliably protected from wear. The optimal combination of viscosity and temperature characteristics is the key to the fact that this oil can be used in any season and at any temperature.
Divinol offers a variety of chainsaw oil. Which one to use? Zweitaktoel FF attracts attention with its economical consumption, combination with any fuel, anti-aging fuel mixture and excellent protection against corrosion. In addition, this oil can be used at any temperature. Divinol Kettenol and Divinol Kettenol Bio can be used to lubricate chains and chainsaws. Using these formulations, chain links and joints can be reliably protected against wear while ensuring economical oil consumption. High-quality organic oils of this brand provide excellent lubrication and adhesive properties, so their use is not only simple, but also environmentally friendly.
What oil to lubricate the chainsaw chains to choose? Many note the composition of the brand Ravenol. So, Ravenol Saegekettenoel S 85 is a special mineral oil, created in Germany from high quality base oil with the addition of a number of additives. It is suitable for lubricating the saw chain, it has good grip and lubricating properties. Thanks to special additives, the oil remains on the chain even at high speeds of the saw, and the chain itself becomes more reliable in operation. Provides oil and reliable protection against corrosion, even if the work is carried out in not the most favorable conditions. Thanks to the use of this composition, you can:
- reduce vibration of the saw chain;
- reliably protect it from corrosion;
- cool the circuit due to good thermal conductivity;
- quickly and cleanly cut any wood species.
Probably every user is hearing about Stihl brand products. The eco-friendly Stihl chainsaw oil is efficient and based on herbal ingredients. Chain oil is of high quality, which can be appreciated in any climatic conditions. Due to its environmental friendliness, Stihl products have always been popular with customers. Of particular note is the Stihl BioPlus Chain Lubricant, which is formulated to process high-speed chains. It is different:
- resistance to oiling;
- excellent adhesion due to special additives;
- excellent protection for cutting headsets;
- excellent fluidity, which is maintained even at low temperatures;
- resistance to oxidation.
The most important thing is that the oil is absolutely safe for the environment, as it decomposes naturally.
Semi-synthetic oil Stihl
Stihl chainsaw chain oil is environmentally friendly, as it is made from high quality primary raffinates. The oil contains no impurities that can pollute the environment. You can use this tool in any climatic conditions, and it will behave equally efficiently even at low temperatures. Stihl chain oil provides reliable wear protection for chain chains. You can purchase this composition in different volumes. it depends on the characteristics of the chainsaw and the degree of load on it.
The products of this brand also do not need extra ideas, since it has established itself only on the best side. Vegeil Husqvarna chain lubricating oil, which is created on a vegetable basis, is notable for its good lubricating properties and high environmental friendliness. The oil is economical, biodegradable, has a low viscosity, even when operating at low temperatures. Due to the excellent performance characteristics, oils of this brand are considered one of the best.
What oil should I use to lubricate the chainsaw chains and how to choose one so that it can be used at any time of the year? The Oregon brand offers formulations that are suitable for all types of tools. Stability of viscosity is the guarantee that the oil is suitable for use at any time of the year. The composition includes refined mineral oils, to which additives are added. A feature of Oregon formulations is their manufacture on the basis of high molecular weight compounds. The distinctive features of the oil include:
- protection of the guide bar and chain from overheating;
- vibration reduction;
- prevention of corrosion due to the formation of an oil film.
Thanks to special adhesive additives, this oil gains a great stickiness, viscosity, so even at high speeds it will not be sprayed and will remain on the chain and tire. Thanks to the regular use of oil, it is possible to reduce the load on the cutting headset, and indeed on the whole mechanism of the chainsaw. Special additives reduce the energy consumption of the saw, increasing the efficiency of the sawing process. The main thing is that when using these funds tarry deposits are not formed.
This oil has such a specific composition that it is completely biodegradable, but remains safe from the point of view of exposure to harmful substances. Due to the combination of vegetable oils with high-quality additives, the chain is lubricated more efficiently, it is reliably protected from wear under any operating conditions. Due to the good adhesive and lubricating ability, lubrication is carried out as conveniently and optimally as possible, and the composition can be operated in frosts up to 30 degrees.
The performance of the chainsaw is greatly influenced by such aggregate indicators as:
- cylinder size;
- the distance between the teeth of the chain;
- chain drive wheel.
The chain needs constant lubrication during operation. For this purpose, special oils for chainsaws are used.
The supply of the lubricant must be continuous, as the oil is squeezed out of the groove of the tire and impregnated with the sawdust. Therefore, chain-saws, as well as those operating on the basis of gasoline or electricity, are equipped with a special system on an automatic basis. On some professional models, the oil flow rate is adjustable. Low-cost models are equipped with a hand pump with a drive coming from the handle button.
When grease is needed
Chainsaw oils are necessary in the following cases:
- You are the owner of a new unit. To guarantee its safety, you need to use lubricating oils, which are recommended by companies that produce the saw. In the event of a device malfunction, you will repair it at your own expense. In particular, this rule applies to models of an expensive segment.
- Take care of nature and do not pollute it. For this, it is recommended to use bio-based oils.
- Chainsaw chain lubrication oil is needed to operate the saw at critical temperatures.
Which oil to use
Very often when buying a machine, the question is asked: "Which oil is best for a chainsaw?". You can use any. But there is a nuance here: consultants often advise buying chain lubricants from the company that made the saw. As a rule, this approach is suitable for working in severe frost and when you are careful about the environment.
In other cases, it is quite acceptable to replace the chainsaw chain oil with any other. Often, users do not understand why the consumption of a lubricant is greater than a fuel mixture. Here, one important fact is taken into account: manufacturing companies calculate the consumption of lubricant for the chain based on the fact that their own branded oil will be filled. Oil consumption from another manufacturer may be smaller or larger.
In many models, chainsaw chain oil is consumed through tuning. This is done by adjusting the performance of the oil pump.
In the absence of such a regulator, the manufacturer provides for internal installation.
How to check the correct consumption of lubricating oil? It is necessary to turn on the saw and bring it to the wooden surface to be cut in a horizontal position. Splashes of oil should fly away from the chain, and a thin greasy mark should remain on the tree.
Types of oils
Consider oils for chainsaws from various companies of different price categories.
The most budgetary options are:
- Nanotech Standard lubricant. It is used at temperatures up to. 20 ° C;
- adhesive oil "Nanotech Premium", operating at 30 ° C.
- grease from the well-known manufacturer Enkor;
- Champion oil.
Environmentally friendly mineral-based oils:
- Makita Biotop;
- Husqvarna Bio;
- Stihl Bio Plus.
Chainsaw oils, which are filled in three- and five-liter containers during packaging, are an economical option.
The most common are lubricants of the M-8 and M-10 brands. Their characteristics are quite satisfactory.
The unit characterized by the greatest compactness and power is the Stihl chainsaw. She performs various operations with a tree. The device has become very popular, as it cuts well. The tool is equipped with many accessories that make working with it very convenient.
Stihl’s chain lubrication system includes:
- guide rail;
- saw chain;
- oil pump.
Chainsaw lubrication oil is supplied through a special regulator. Lubrication occurs continuously during the operation of the saw. Therefore, the chains have a long service life.
When working, the chain needs constant lubrication. This is provided by the design of the chainsaw. During the operation of the apparatus, oil leaves the groove of the tire and penetrates the sawdust. Automatic chain lubrication
Semi-synthetic oil “Stihl”
Stihl chainsaw owners often wonder which oil is best for this model.
Its functionality may be affected by:
- climatic conditions;
- wood texture.
To solve this problem, Stihl has developed a universal oil for the lubrication of chainsaws on a synthetic basis. It is suitable for all units with high speed. This grease can be used under any conditions. The tool works without fail.
Stihl Chainsaw Oil is based on high quality components. It does not contain toxic substances that provoke the occurrence of cancer. The composition meets all environmental requirements.
Russian nature is quite severe. In the Russian Federation there are areas where in winter a temperature of 20 ° C is observed. An innovative invention is Stihl chainsaw oil. It is designed for use at low temperatures. Even in cold weather, the substance is fluid.
Specially developed additives included in the lubricant do not allow the cutting set to become oily. They extend service life and other details.
The use of this substance reduces chain wear. Due to the high level of grease resistance at high temperature, the cutting headset is in perfect condition. Stihl chainsaw oil is not afraid of high temperatures. You will never feel smoky when working.
Which grease is not suitable for the Stihl chainsaw
Transmission grease is not suitable for the operation of the chainsaw. In winter, it freezes. As a result, the system becomes clogged and must be cleaned.
Foreign oil for the M-20 chainsaw chain thickens at a low temperature and becomes like petroleum jelly. For processing the unit in the winter, only a special oil of liquid consistency is suitable.
Buying such a lubricant is not always possible. To solve the problem, diesel fuel is divorced from oil, resulting in lower viscosity. If before that branded oil was already poured into the crankcase, then the addition of the mixture will not work, since the channels of the system will be clogged. There is only one solution: the chainsaw will have to be heated in a warm room.
With strong solidification of the chain oil, you can try to warm it up, starting the unit at low idle speed.
Key performance indicators chainsaw chains
Chainsaw chain oil is not always used the same. The volume depends on the texture of the tree and its thickness. With a long cut and hardness of the tree, a lot of substance will be required.
When the cutting headset is smoked or the chain stops, a high degree of heat can be judged. The main reason is insufficient lubrication. Others include: