Which sander is best for wood

Vibrating or flat grinder, its features and advantages

The choice of sander for wood in its final processing always fluctuates between two types. vibration and orbital (eccentric) model. They both rub the surface well to perfect smoothness and cleanliness. But in a surface grinding (aka vibration) sole, as a rule, it is larger. Therefore, for serious volumes of work, it is better to choose it.

The structure of the PSHM is as follows: the engine is located vertically, the rotation mechanism is an eccentric, and at the output we get a clockwise vibration movement. The range of motion depends on the size of the sole and the rotation mechanism itself. The outsole is perpendicular to the engine, and the sandpaper attachment is very comfortable. on the sides of the sole there are “dogs”, which firmly and reliably fix the tape. The big plus is that you don’t have to be tied to the standard size of the skins. You can just buy sandpaper in rolls, cut off the required size and work.

Also, these machines are very popular for sanding plaster, walls and plasterboard joints. But this is not their profile direction, but rather. misuse of the tool. In such operating modes, they can fail faster, since the dust protection system is designed only for working with wood dust.

The advantages of this design:

  • Low cost;
  • Quick change of grinding skins;
  • The shape of the sole allows you to work in corners, sand the edges without leaving so-called “dead” zones;
  • The device is lightweight, compact and convenient.

When choosing a device, pay attention to:

In this type of equipment, it makes no sense to install a super-powerful engine, therefore the motor power of the largest machine does not exceed 400 W and it is enough, since installing a more powerful engine significantly increases the weight of the machine, and this will greatly limit the speed of operation.

  • The amplitude of movement of the sole

It can range from 1 to 5 mm. The higher the amplitude, the less effective the quality of surface grinding, but at the same time productive.

  • Oscillation frequency of the sole

Also an important parameter. The higher the vibration frequency. the cleaner the grinding is. But not equally good for all materials.

  • The size and shape of the working platform

The soles are rectangular, square and deltoid. Rectangular. for flat large surfaces, deltoid and square. convenient for radii and hard-to-reach places.

  • rectangular. 185 and 229 mm;
  • square. 114 mm;
  • deltoid. 100 mm.

The material of the sole also matters. Most machines have a plastic outsole with glued rubber for better cushioning. But, as practice shows, in inexpensive machines, these soles have a slight factory curvature, which is not suitable for prof. work, but for everyday tasks it is enough. The professional is the opposite. instead of plastic, durable, composite materials are used, and in its large mass the sole is made of light alloy, so the accuracy and quality of work is guaranteed. A special porous material is attached to the sole.

  • Fastening emery

Rigid and stable fastening of the skin is provided by spring-loaded clips (“crocodiles”). The replacement is quick and convenient. However, there is an even faster way to attach and replace. with Velcro. But such a sole has very high wear.

  • Forced dust extraction

As with belt sanders, the dust extraction system works effectively only with the connection of a vacuum cleaner.

How to choose a wood sander

expert of the category “Power Tools”

Wood, despite its hardness. the material is surprisingly flexible. It can take any, even the most bizarre forms, depending on what product the master wants to surprise the audience with.

Wood processing is a multifaceted process. What is not done with a wooden blank to achieve the final result. It is sawn, planed, trimmed, hammered, milled.

One of the final stages of processing is grinding. It seems that there is nothing complicated in it. walk a tool with an emery cloth over the surface. However, everything is not so simple.

Grinding is laborious work, requires patience and skill, besides, it is always accompanied by the worst enemy of a working person. the smallest wood dust.

Which sander to choose for wood to make sanding simple and affordable, more comfortable and dust-free, I will tell you in this article.

You will learn what types of wood sanders exist on the modern market, how to choose the right one for your job, how to use it to achieve a flat and smooth surface, without roughness and burrs.

Grinder types

Grinding is used both for large, flat surfaces and for round blanks, grooves, finishing of decorative elements, for sealing seams and joints. The range of grinding works is quite wide, so there is no universal machine that would grind everything in the world with the same efficiency. Modern manufacturers present such a variety of tools for grinding that it is not so easy for a beginner, but even for a professional, to determine on the fly which grinder is best for wood.

First, you need to clearly know what task you will set for your instrument, for what, in fact, it is intended. This is important, since grinders differ from each other not only in power, but also in design, in the principle of operation. Each class of machines is designed for specific tasks. Therefore, I will introduce you to the main types that it is advisable to know for making the right choice.

And there are not so many of them, only three:

  • Tape machines. remove a rough layer of paint, varnish, black from wooden surfaces. They do it quickly enough, roughly, but very effectively. Grinding thanks to the rotating belt;
  • Flat sanding. sanding is carried out thanks to a vibrating sole, on which sandpaper is put on. Also well suited for removing paint, varnishes and, depending on the size of the sole, they successfully carry out finishing work;
  • Eccentric ones have the most complex grinding mechanism, but thanks to this they make it possible to perform any grinding work delicately, ideally bring the surface to be painted or hidden with varnish and give the best quality result.

Ideally, for a good craftsman, furniture workshop, carpentry workshop, all three types are needed. Since their purpose is different. As you can see, they are necessary for different stages of sanding wood or other materials. plastic, metal (not profile materials for processing). But if finances do not allow, then choose the one that you need the most. You can try to finish everything else manually. Although difficult and inconvenient, it can also be time consuming.

Now I will tell you in detail about each type of grinder, which will undoubtedly help you in your further choice.

How eccentric (orbital) grinders work and what are their strengths

These machines are somewhat similar in design to the PSHM. the abrasive cloth is attached down to the platform, the engine is located in the housing in a vertical position and there is an eccentric. The movement occurs not only with a certain vibration frequency, but also with additional rotation of the sole around its axis. over, both movements occur simultaneously, which makes sanding amazingly clean and smooth. no scratches, no waves, no roughness.

which, sander, best, wood

There are 2 types of machine rotation:

  • Forced;
  • Inertial.
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This type of technique is used in furniture manufacturing, performing finishing work before opening the surface with varnish, paint, polishing wood and is very popular among craftsmen who are engaged in the restoration of old wooden products.

To choose the right orbital machine, we carefully look at the following indicators:

  • Motor power. electric motors in this technique also do not require high power, as in PSHM. Average power range. from 150 to 350 watts. But there are models where the power reaches 750 W;
  • Amplitude of vibration of the sole. The range of motion and vibration is also similar to the PSHM. from 1 to 5.5 mm;
  • Oscillation frequency / Number of revolutions. In terms of the number of oscillations, the parameters are also similar to the PSHM, but the number of revolutions may be different. from 4000 to 12000;
  • The size and shape of the working platform. It happens only in a round shape, and there are only two standard, most popular sizes. 125 and 150 mm;
  • Fastening emery. The fastening of the soles of these sanders is almost 100%. Velcro. This option is extremely convenient for a quick change of grinding materials;
  • Forced dust removal. This system, like the previous types, independently removes up to 70% of dust, so I recommend using construction vacuum cleaners.

How does a belt sander work and why?

Note, wood belt sander. the most productive and most powerful in the class of equipment presented. It copes well with a large amount of work, especially where you need to grind a lot and quickly. If you compare it with agricultural machinery, then this is a tractor for virgin lands. However, this tool can be adapted for processing smaller parts, because some manufacturers complete the machines with additional equipment that allows them to be turned into small grinding machines. The only thing that you limit yourself to. This is the grain of the tape, because the most popular sizes. 60, 80 and 120, and the smallest. 230 mm. Smaller sizes, unfortunately, are either extremely rare or made homemade, which is not always good for the instrument itself.

The design of the tape machine is simple and reliable. The main drive of this machine. belt. The abrasive belt is connected in a ring, the movement of which is provided by two rollers, like a caterpillar on a tractor. This design allows for impressive rotational speeds. For some models, it may exceed 500 m / min. Depending on the performance and its class, the rollers can be made of different materials. In the household class, both rollers are made of plastic, covered with rubber. In the hobby class of cars, the rear drive roller is made of metal, and in professional equipment, both rollers are metal (although there are machines for complex work equipped with two plastic rollers). But this performance also has its drawbacks. due to the high speed of rotation of the belt, some components are exposed to overheating, especially for household machines. Manufacturers of professional tools install special cork (graphite) gaskets, which reduce the temperature and make it possible to work with a machine for a long time.

  • Peel off paint, varnish, darkening;
  • Remove irregularities from a wooden board;
  • Grinding large areas.

As you understand, this device works quite roughly and after such grinding, the question immediately arises as to more delicate processing of the workpiece with which you are working. Then they will need to be smoothed out either with the notorious sandpaper in hand, or with vibration or eccentric machines, which are more delicate in grinding.

When choosing LSHM, we take into account the following characteristics:

  • Electric motor power

The spectrum ranges from 0.5 to 1.2 kW. The more powerful the engine, the heavier the machine, has a high belt speed and does not need excessive pressure, that is, it works well under its own weight, which is convenient for horizontal grinding.

  • Belt speed

Possible in the range from 150 to 550 meters per minute. The higher this indicator, the more area you will be able to process in a short time. For most models, a speed regulator is installed for convenience, since the work may not always be of the same type and the material can be not only wood, but also plastic and metal, then you obviously cannot do without it. With high frictional force, the wood starts to burn.

  • Belt width

Abrasive belts come in two basic sizes. 75×533 mm and 76×457 mm. These sizes are suitable for almost 80% of belt sanders from different manufacturers. There are other sizes, but they are less common and are only suitable for narrow specific jobs.

  • Protective systems

Protection of the motor against overheating and overload only if it has a speed controller installed (only in a professional power tool). Reducing the heating of some elements of the case is also mainly used in professional and hobby-class tools.

Each machine is equipped with a garbage bag or a special filter. But, as practice shows, they collect no more than 70% of dust, so connecting a construction vacuum cleaner will ideally solve this issue.

  • Additional elements

These include:

  • clamps for securely attaching the machine to the table (turns the machine into a machine and makes it possible to work with small parts);
  • an additional frame prevents distortions during grinding;
  • rip fence and crosscut fence. increase work precision.

General recommendations to help the master make the perfect choice

  • For household chores, choose a machine that is lightweight and comfortable. After all, you need to hold it in your hands, sometimes for a very long time. I recommend considering the following brands: Hyundai, Einhell, Stark. The hobby class is represented by TM Sparky, and in the professional segment the leaders are Metabo, Makita, Dewalt;
  • Always carefully inspect the structure and test it for convenience. For example, the handle may be a staple handle, but you may prefer the “mushroom” handle. If possible, take a model with an additional handle;
  • Explore all the parameters we talked about above. speed, frequency, amplitude, tape and sole size, etc. And then measure them according to your tasks. what exactly suits you best. The best sander for wood. individual choice of each user;
  • If money allows, then choose a grinder with a speed regulator. They are comfortable and reliable, designed for safety and comfort.

How much does a wood sander cost

It all depends on the class of the tool and the manufacturer. Bosch, DeWalt, Makita, Metabo, Hitachi are the most famous and reliable brands. for the household segment start from one and a half thousand rubles and reach 5-6 thousand. Professional models have a price tag of 6 thousand rubles and above. The average price is in the range of 10-12 thousand.

A professional tool costs 3-4 thousand and more.

When choosing a grinder, you should not be guided solely by price or brand awareness. The choice should be based on the need to purchase a certain type of power tool based on the intended type of work. But in no case should quality be relegated to the background, because the tool is needed for more than one day.

Wood sanders: which model to choose?

The professional power tool is the ultimate sanding assistant. Immediately, we note that we will leave such options as abrasive nozzles for a drill, screwdriver or angle grinder outside the brackets of our conversation. They are suitable for rough sanding of surfaces, but will never give an acceptable result with fine sanding.

Which of the grinders is better: eccentric, vibration, belt. this question worries many, but it is difficult to answer it, since its formulation is initially incorrect. The choice of grinders must begin with the understanding that each of the models is designed to solve specific problems: where one will show unsurpassed results, the other will be helpless. For example, eccentric sanders will not cope with the processing of internal corners, unlike their less advanced counterparts. vibration models.

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In this article, we will take a closer look at the main types of grinding machines, the principle of their operation, areas of application and other nuances that will help to determine exactly which grinder to choose for specific carpentry needs.

A guide to choosing grinders

Grinding machine classification

At the moment, there are four types of grinders, which differ in terms of application, design, operating principle and other criteria. The following types of grinding machines can be used for carpentry and joinery, as well as repair and construction works:

What kind of sander is best for finishing

  • LShM. belt grinders;
  • VShM. vibration grinders;
  • OShM. orbital sander;
  • Delta sander.

The choice of the machine is directly influenced by the scale of the work to be done (for home or professional use).

Professional wood sander

Any professional tool differs from a domestic one in that it is able to withstand heavy loads and is designed for long-term operation in large volumes. Endurance and reliability depend on quality and specifications.

Models of hand grinders for professional use, depending on the type and purpose, can have a power of over 1000 watts. For example, the average power of orbital-type devices is about 350-450 watts. Belt-type machines consume from 500 to 1200 watts. There are also more powerful models.

An important indicator for the professional segment is functionality. Some models provide the possibility of using special equipment: interchangeable soles, guides, attachment devices, etc. This expands the capabilities of the instrument and improves its accuracy.

Typically equipped with options: smooth speed control, various operating modes, automatic centering of the belt, the presence of a dust collector or the ability to connect to external devices for collecting dust.

All special grinders are professional. A special place is occupied by multifunctional devices. Usually these are small portable machines for grinding and polishing wooden parts.

Belt sander for wood

It is the most powerful and productive species. Machining takes place with an abrasive belt attached to a pair of rotating shafts on both sides of the flat sole. The web width can be up to 110 mm. Such a tool easily handles flat surfaces of a large area.

Some models provide for attachment to the workbench and the ability to install additional equipment. This turns the tool into a mini-machine, which is convenient for processing individual small parts.

Oscillating spindle grinders

Application area. Grinding curved and radius edges. Sanding small pieces of wood such as small crafts or intarsia segments.

Design features. The working unit of the machine is a spindle with an abrasive sleeve that performs oscillatory-rotational movements, i.e. it revolves around its axis and walks up and down. This principle of operation increases productivity and quality of grinding and, importantly, streamlines the use of abrasives.

Benefits. The ability to install spindles of different diameters for fine and rough work. Minimal risk of edge burn when working with hard wood. Grinding corner edges (with tilting table).

Brush sander for wood

This type of tool is used mainly for cleaning surfaces from old varnish or paint and structuring wood. Often the brushing machine is used when working with wooden furniture. With its help, the surface is “aged”, creating pieces of furniture “antique”.

Cleaning takes place using a rotating cylindrical drum (brush) with metal or nylon bristles. Instead of a brush, it is possible to install an abrasive nozzle for grinding or a nozzle with a soft polishing material.

There are two design options for brushing machines. The first is a tool in a wide body that hides a shaft with a nozzle. The device is equipped with two handles with a trigger trigger in one of them. Such models have the ability to adjust the depth of processing.

The second option is almost identical to the “angle grinder”. The difference lies in the equipment on which the cylindrical brush is installed. The handle is positioned differently. It is installed parallel to the working shaft. The possibility of adjusting the working depth in such models is not provided.

Professional wood sander

Any professional tool differs from a domestic one in that it is able to withstand heavy loads and is designed for long-term operation in large volumes. Endurance and reliability depend on quality and specifications.

Models of hand grinders for professional use, depending on the type and purpose, can have a power of over 1000 watts. For example, the average power of orbital-type devices is about 350-450 watts. Belt-type machines consume from 500 to 1200 watts. There are also more powerful models.

An important indicator for the professional segment is functionality. Some models provide the possibility of using special equipment: interchangeable soles, guides, attachment devices, etc. This expands the capabilities of the instrument and increases its accuracy.

Typically equipped with options: smooth speed control, various operating modes, automatic centering of the belt, the presence of a dust collector or the ability to connect to external devices for collecting dust.

All special grinders are professional. A special place is occupied by multifunctional devices. Usually these are small portable machines for grinding and polishing wooden parts.

Belt sander for wood

It is the most powerful and productive species. Machining takes place with an abrasive belt attached to a pair of rotating shafts on both sides of the flat sole. The web width can be up to 110 mm. Such a tool easily handles flat surfaces of a large area.

Some models provide for attachment to the workbench and the ability to install additional equipment. This turns the tool into a mini-machine, which is convenient for processing individual small parts.

Wood floor sanders

This is a separate niche for highly specialized power tools, designed exclusively for working with wooden floors and natural wood flooring. The devices have a specific design that simplifies the processing of large areas. High power ensures sufficient performance.

The principle of operation of such machines is similar to manual options for grinding tools. The most commonly used types of equipment are:

  • Drum type: the principle of operation is the same as that of the brushing machines. Instead of a cylinder with bristles, a drum with an abrasive belt is used. The device is used mainly for stripping old coatings (scraping) or for preliminary rough grinding and eliminating differences at the joints.
  • Belt: differ from the manual version in power and use of a wider blade. Handle both scraping and finishing.
  • Disc: grind the surface with an abrasive material attached to one or more rotating discs.
  • Eccentric (orbital): the round sole rotates and simultaneously performs back-and-forth movements in the horizontal plane. Emery cloth is used as a consumable.
  • Vibrating: devices with a flat working sole of a rectangular shape. The mechanics are driven by a vibration drive or a motor with an eccentric attached to the shaft. At the same time, the sole does not rotate, but makes short horizontal movements with a high frequency.

Most of these machines are rather bulky, so all parts and assemblies are located on a movable frame. Power and performance don’t come out of thin air either. These “units” are powered mainly from the 380 V network.

Wood grinders: which one to choose

Sanding is a process that most people associate with painstaking, monotonous and often dusty work. But is everything being simplified? thanks to the use of a special power tool. The grinding machine not only simplifies work. it increases productivity and processing quality.

Which sander is best for wood

There are several types of wood sanders. The design and principle of operation determine their purpose and the ability to perform certain types of work.

  • Belt sanders are designed for rough cleaning and fitting of parts. Surface treatment is carried out using an abrasive belt stretched on rotating shafts.
  • Vibrating (surface grinding) machines. They have a flat sole, often of a rectangular shape, to which a sheet of abrasive material is attached. Suitable for large flat surfaces.
  • Vibrating with a deltoid sole. Vibration angle grinders. They are used for working in hard-to-reach places and processing parts with complex configuration.
  • Eccentric (orbital) grinders. They have a round sole with replaceable abrasive pads. Designed for finishing and fine sanding.
  • Brush grinders. They differ from the rest in that a brush with metal or synthetic bristles acts as a working consumable. Such a tool is not intended for fine grinding. Its main function is to remove paint and varnish coatings and rough surface preparation.
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Depending on the type of proposed work, one or another type of tool is used. Professional craftsmen usually have at least two grinding devices in their arsenal. for coarse and fine processing.

Small sander for wood

For work at home, small and medium power hand tools are quite enough. Small devices will be especially convenient to use.

Sanding small parts and machining in awkward places will be easier with a vibrating machine. There are two types of such devices with compact dimensions: in a case with a “mushroom” handle and in an oblong case resembling an angle grinder. Both variants have a deltoid (triangular) sole. People call such an “iron”.

Some models of eccentric and surface grinders are relatively compact. However, they do an excellent job of sanding and polishing wood.

You can pick up a tape type device. It will have a body with a longitudinal motor, like an “angle grinder”. The tensioning mechanism with abrasive cloth is located on the gearbox. This tool is suitable for machining ends and edges.

It should be borne in mind that small-sized grinders have a power of 50 to 300 watts. This figure excludes heavy loads. The performance will be within the limits of the capacity.

Which grinder is better

DEWALT DW433

  • Power consumption, W: 800.
  • Belt dimensions, mm: 75×533.
  • Belt speed, m / min: 259-427.
  • Electronic systems: speed control.
  • Weight, kg: 5.6.

Test 5. Balancing the tape. “Automatic” against “Mechanics

In this section. about the features and mechanisms of balancing the tape in the tested LSHM.

DeWALT DW433. The belt tension mechanism is non-standard here. everything is tied up on the upper roller that deviates into the depth of the platform. Be careful, the spring-loaded tension lever can hurt your fingers.

The balancing itself is automatic: barrel-shaped rollers do not allow the belt to move to the side. But there is also an additional manual adjustment: by rotating the centering screw, you can change the angle of installation of the front rollers, which will shift the belt sideways.

which, sander, best, wood

Makita 9404. The tension of the tape is normal here (the front roller is pulled back for loosening and forward for tension), but the rig is automatically balanced. Severe imbalance is eliminated by rotating the screw, which moves the front roller to the side. I liked very much that it is not necessary to catch the neutral position of the tape by twisting the screw back and forth: even a tiny displacement is achieved easily and quickly.
Hitachi SB10V2. The tensioning method is similar to the Makita LSHM, but manual balancing. Another difference: on the side, not the centering screw is spring-loaded, but the roller itself. Balancing the tape is not so convenient: after turning the screw, you have to wait until the tape stops moving, and then adjust its position. AEG HBS 1000 E, Metabo BAE 75, Bosch GBS 75 AE use a traditional manual setting: the position of the tape must be “caught” by manipulating the screw. In the first two machines, adjustment is achieved by varying the angle of the front roller (by the way, the tensioner lever and the centering screw handle are rubberized here), in Boschevskaya. lateral roller displacement.

HITACHI SB10V2

  • Power consumption, W: 1020.
  • Belt dimensions, mm: 100×610.
  • Belt speed, m / min.: 240-420.
  • Electronic systems: speed control.
  • Weight, kg: 5.2.

MAKITA 9404

  • Power consumption, W: 1010.
  • Belt dimensions, mm: 100×610.
  • Belt speed, m / min: 210-440.
  • Electronic systems: speed control.
  • Weight, kg: 4.7.

METABO BAE 75

  • Power consumption, W: 1010.
  • Belt dimensions, mm: 75×533.
  • Belt speed, m / min: 240-450.
  • Electronic systems: speed control.
  • Weight, kg: 5.1.

Test 2. Surface leveling, stability

It was also decided to make this test as close as possible to practice, and in practice, to level the surface. another common operation for LSM. Different surfaces were involved: both the “plane” of the board and the end. This is done in order to assess the stability of the machine (how comfortable it is to hold it in the correct position, without longitudinal or lateral distortions).

The essence of the problem is this: the area of ​​support of the LSM is only about 60% of the area of ​​the entire lower side of the tool, and in work you often do not feel whether the sole fits snugly to the board or not.

The word “leveling” in this section of the test has a meaning not traditional for LSM (smoothing of the “hills” is not planned). It is necessary to remove many shallow chips from the surface of the shield with a hammer, and then clean the edge of the board with a thickness of 40 millimeters. The presence of grinding defects (pits, marks from the edge of the belt, beveled edges, all this is summarized in one assessment with subsequent comments), as well as the stability of the machine is assessed. (Table 2).

Table 2. Quality alignment (surface shield and edge) and sustainability LShM, score

Bosch GBS 75 AE

BOSCH GBS 75 AE

Test 1. The rate of layer removal, or power. not important

And immediately one of the key tasks. At first glance, the favorites and the outsider in this competition are obvious, since the difference in characteristics is noticeable. However, let’s not rush to conclusions. One of the participants will definitely surprise you! We will find out who he is a little later. And the task for the models sounds like this: completely clean the surface of an old pine board 12 by 70 cm.Used the maximum speed and a tape with a grain of 60.

For the sake of interest, an additional condition was introduced. At the first stage, the machine was grinding only under its own weight. On the second. the operation was repeated, but the LShM pressed a load weighing 2.5 kg (imitation of muscle effort). (Table 1).

Table one. Time “Stripping” the board 120×700

(min., sec.)

Under own weight

With a push of 2.5 kg

Bosch GBS 75 AE

A small note on these models: if, when turned on, it seemed to you that the car did not work, do not rush to get upset because of a breakdown, just the engine turns on with a delay of one second.

The main sensation. DeWALT DW433. A real tornado, a bunch of energy! The model “pulls” so well that sometimes it was necessary to hold a not very heavy workbench.

It seems that the data (power and size of the sole) are average, so what’s the secret? Here everything was decided by a solid mass. I will say more: there is no need to put pressure on the tool in work, since there will be no power reserve. The extra load will give an increase in productivity, but the machine will grind harder.