Which sander to choose for a tree for the house
Above, we inadvertently called the belt sander heavy artillery, in fact, it would be more appropriate to say “tank”. The working element of this well-recognized tool is an abrasive belt, glued together in the form of an endless ring, which moves along two end rollers and clearly resembles a tracked vehicle track. Such units are relatively powerful, they have a relatively simple, reliable design (bevel gear plus V-belt transmission), a low center of gravity, and a solid speed of movement of the abrasive material. With a belt sander, you can easily remove a layer of material a few millimeters, make an edge or rounding on a workpiece, remove old paintwork or rust. She is subject to: wood, metal, polymers, mineral building materials Clean the floors from paint. yes, correct the planed timber. please, align the plastered wall with the marriage. no problem. However, it should be understood that high performance is not the best friend of quality, there will certainly be scratches and sinks. For finishing sanding it will be necessary to use an orbital or surface sander.
It is no secret that the power consumption of its motor directly affects the performance of an electric tool. the higher it is, the more we can squeeze out of a particular unit. In the case of LSHM, the consumer has the opportunity to choose from models with a motor from 0.5 to 1.2 kW (Skil Masters 7660MA. 1200 W).
Skil Masters 7660MA
Please note that the instrument of Chinese brands is often declared with an overestimated engine power rating, or, if there are indeed sounded watts, then they are not balanced with the rest of the device’s characteristics. Record power is praised by those manufacturers who have nothing more to show, except perhaps the great weight and bulkiness of the “unique” product.
The next characteristic that is important for a belt sander is speed. Obviously, it also needs to be taken into account to determine the capabilities of the instrument. A fast car will do more, but you won’t be able to pin it down unless the outstanding speed is backed up by extra power. It’s all to blame for the notorious torque, which says that the more speed the tool has, the less power remains for it. A responsible manufacturer carefully balances these characteristics, makes them mutually mutable, which is sometimes the responsibility of smart electronics. The speed of the belt in these grinders can be in the range of 150-550 meters per minute (Fiolent MShL1-100. 550 m / min.).
The question may arise, why bother to produce nimble, but relatively weak LShM? It’s just that a super-productive (fast and at the same time strong) car is more difficult to control, it is heavier, larger, more expensive. With excessive pressure, it is easy to spoil the workpiece with it. In turn, maneuverable high-speed light weights are convenient in a short time, often “on site”, to process a large surface area. If you do not yet know what loads await the grinder, choose a slower model that you can apply a little pressure on, so it will be more versatile. Even more versatile are LSMs with the ability to preset the speed mode (Sparky MBS 976, DeWALT DW433). Among them there are options with smooth or step adjustments.
It’s time to say about the electronic systems that help in the work of belt sanders. These machines are not rich in electronic stuffing, compared to other types of electrical tools. This is usually limited to adjusting the belt speed. The switch responsible for this function is performed in the form of a slider or a wheel with divisions. There are models with overheating protection (Metabo BAE 75). With some stretch, this includes the function of fixing the start button in the on position.
Much more interesting is the case with mechanical “bells and whistles”. The kit may include a stand or special clamps designed for stationary fastening of the tool (very convenient for processing small parts). The sanding frame serves as a kind of stop that helps to avoid damage to the workpiece. A rip fence or miter fence is useful for getting a precise bevel or flat, parallel surface. The thin front roller in some LShM (BlackDecker KA88) has a small diameter, which minimizes the dead zone in the inner corners. Automatic centering of the belt (the tricky barrel shape of one of the rollers) does not allow the latter to treacherously slide at the most inopportune moment. An additional handle with a variable inclination or removable will significantly increase the functionality of the machine in “clamped” places. sometimes noticeably.
Special attention should be paid to the dimensions of the working plane. the sole, respectively, the length and width of the tape. Wide soles (100 mm) are characteristic of powerful professional shoes, making them more stable and productive. The hobby class is usually limited to 75 millimeters. The long and wide sole of expensive LSHM has a complex structure, consisting of a substrate and an elastic plate, which allows you to have constant uniform contact of emery with a part, such a tool “holds the plane” well. It is necessary to mention the “ribbons” with narrow accessories. these are the so-called “electric files”, which do not differ in great power and versatility, but experts appreciate them for their unprecedented compactness (for example, Makita 9032 with a tape only 9 mm wide).
The dust removal system is available in all draw frames, but not all of them work equally effectively. The fight against dust is carried out either with the help of a vacuum cleaner connected through the branch pipe, or by collecting it in a bag, built-in filter. Of course, a vacuum cleaner is preferable, especially when sanding mineral substrates. In super-cheap models, the impeller, which is responsible for air intake, cannot cope with its function, the channels quickly become clogged, a lot of harmful “flour” remains in the air.
Surface grinding (vibration) machines
If we take into account the cleanliness of the processing of parts, then surface grinders occupy an intermediate position between belt and orbital. With their help, they carry out the final grinding of flat surfaces made of a wide variety of materials. plastic, wood, stone, metal Due to the relatively large working plane, the PSHM is suitable for working with serious quadrature. The secret of the popularity of vibrating grinders lies in their moderate cost, accessibility of tooling elements, as well as in the absence of dead zones of processing (a flat outboard sole easily handles corners).
The main working body of a surface grinder is a plate, which, with a small amplitude, makes frequent reciprocating movements. The motor in such machines is located vertically, which makes it possible, using the “eccentric-counterweight” tandem, to translate the rotational movements of the shaft into the translational movements of the platform.
Most vibration grinders traditionally boast a motor with a power of 150-300 W, they are quite maneuverable, moderately light and compact. This level of power plant is almost always sufficient. However, such a consensus among manufacturers would be at least strange. there are models with a capacity of up to 600 W (Makita 9046). They are, of course, heavier and larger, but they can work for a long time without overheating at low speeds.
The most important indicator of the PSHM is the amplitude of the sole stroke. In different models, it can vary, although it is invariably a relatively small value. On average in the class, the platform moves by 1–3 mm, in more mobile models, figures of 5–6 mm may appear (Festool RS 100). A large amplitude helps to sand the surface faster, but this treatment will also be coarser.
Another nuance is the stroke rate of the sole. At high speeds, the machine quickly removes a relatively thicker layer, while at lower frequencies it is easier to achieve a precise finish sanding. Some manufacturers make the platform movement frequency variable, exceeding 20,000 strokes per minute (Bosch GSS 280 AE L-BOXX), which allows you to adapt to the processing of various types of materials, to the characteristics of specific surfaces.
Bosch GSS 280 AVE
When choosing a vibratory sander, special attention must be paid to the platform. With its dimensions, everything is quite simple, there are two options: a kind of “standard” and “mini” models. the area of the plate is about 100 mm 2 (Makita BO4557, Sparky MP 250). Toddlers are good for tight, tight spaces. Obviously, the sole should be of high quality, perfectly flat, with clear geometric shapes. Budget cars are equipped with a platform made of steel or high-strength plastic, and more expensive analogs are equipped with cast platforms made of alloys with m aluminum or magnesium (Festool RS 100). A good sole is characterized by precise balancing, which is easily determined by low vibration when working without load (idle). It is important what the pad is made of, the most suitable option is a porous polymer, it is better than rubber, it “holds” the plane.
Vibrating grinders with a deltoid platform are distinguished into a separate class; they are popularly called “iron” (Hitachi SV12SH, Makita BO4565). Due to their miniature size and good “cross-country ability” they are used for processing objects with small details and complex surfaces, such as furniture, woodwork, elements of stairs, car body. Their triangular platforms are rotatable. you can continue to work with an uneven “eaten” emery petal (Festool Deltex DX 93E) or removable (with a quick installation of another type of platform. for concave / convex surfaces, for structuring, polishing, rubbing).
Festool Deltex DX 93E
Emery can be attached to the site in different ways. It is more convenient when the paper is fixed with Velcro, but special equipment is relatively expensive. The version with spring-loaded clamps is somewhat more complicated, but you can use inexpensive sanding paper, cut with your own hands (you just have to make holes in the right places for dust extraction).
Fighting fine dust, which inevitably forms when working with a sander, poses many challenges for developers. They have to work hard to protect all mechanisms. In this case, a special sealing of the motor, protected bearings and switches, an impermeable housing, a system of channels with a forced dust extraction are used. So that dust is removed from the working area and does not saturate the air, it is sent to a collection bag or filter, in most cases a vacuum cleaner can be connected to the nozzle. this is the most effective method of protection.
How to choose a grinder: professional advice
We devoted our previous articles to screwdrivers, grinders, chain saws, jigsaws, mixers, spray guns, cross-cutters, jackhammers, perforators. Today, all our attention will be focused on the tool, wielding emery.
To grind or age a wooden part, remove paint and varnish, remove rust, grind off burrs, rub putty, process plastic, polish a stone. all this and much more can be done with modern grinding machines. So, we offer the slogan: “Choose a grinder with us, choose like us, choose better than us!”
Grinding: This process is unpleasant for many, even at the mere mention of it. What can I say, grinding is a monotonous, time-consuming, painstaking, dusty, sometimes noisy, slightly harmful, but, unfortunately, inevitable operation. Modern requirements for finishing work have reached unprecedented heights, no one doubts the fact that the planes should be perfectly flat and smooth. Finishing high-tech coatings are increasingly striving for a thin layer and only emphasize the shortcomings of the base. Even enlarged, with a ready-made decorative coating, sheet building materials have to be connected, followed by filling / filling or sealing the seam, followed by grinding. Domestic builders, finishers and shop workers (manufacturers of furniture, “carpentry”, stone products, bulk polymers, metal) are slowly but surely getting used to new standards, previously unknown.
Fortunately, the materiel has not lagged behind for long: a highly specialized, relatively inexpensive tool. grinding machines, which we cannot do without, helps the workers to cope with the task at hand. The painfully familiar emery, fixed on a wooden block, or squeezed in the hands, remained in the past. The foremost workers of capitalist production have produced a lot, a lot of wonderful professional grinding machines designed for any occasion, not depriving the attention of home craftsmen. those who like to create something with their own hands. It’s really easy to understand the variety of grinders and make the right choice, the main thing is to know what a particular tool is intended for, and also clearly understand what tasks you will set for a grinder.
It is customary to distinguish between three main types of grinding machines: belt, eccentric (orbital), surface grinding (vibration). All of them have their own specialization and form a kind of Cascade of possibilities, directed from fast rough processing to delicate finishing grinding. Many of those who are “on duty” closely associated with grinding have in their arsenal a complete set of tools of this class. Belt sanders are heavy artillery for removing large layers from large surfaces. FSHM are focused on finishing. And ESHM are able to give an even better result, bordering on polishing, but, in comparison with vibration machines, they have a different principle of operation and a different filling.
Some general tips for choosing
If the financial issue is not the least important, then for a home workshop, you can purchase a model from the category of “hobby”. Quite good copies are offered by Makita, BlackDecker, Skil, Sparky, Bosch. Look in the direction of the domestic manufacturer. “Interskol”, “Fiolent” have noticeably improved in terms of the quality and functionality of their instrument.
Pay attention to the weight and dimensions of the product of interest, especially if a lot of work is planned “on site”, by weight, with outstretched arms. Give preference to a not too powerful car, but a faster one, it will be lighter, more compact and cheaper. But for the regular performance of operations on the workbench, the large weight of the device will be more a plus than a minus.
Be sure to thoroughly “feel” the grinder, find the most suitable for you in terms of ergonomics. Decide on the type of main and additional handle, most likely you will have to choose between “mushroom” and “bracket”. See if the switches are conveniently located and how they work, how easy it is to change accessories, if the power cord is getting in the way.
Weigh all the pros and cons, do not rush to make a choice, then all repairs will go smoothly.
Eccentric (orbital) sanders
This type of grinder is designed for high quality processing. Delicate grinding and even polishing is their element, although the performance of such devices can be no less impressive than that of vibrating machines. They will cope with any material, most often you will find ESHM at wood craftsmen, car painters. In working with profile, volumetric, curved objects, eccentric grinders have no equal, they also have no problems with planes. The only place where such a machine will fail is in the corners and shallow recesses. the “plate” simply cannot reach there.
As well as surface grinding units, “orbitals” have an eccentric and a counterweight, with the help of which a circular grinding plate performs not only movement around its axis, but also in an “orbit” with a small amplitude. Interestingly, the axial movement usually occurs by inertia, and in some models, it is forced (by means of a gear transmission. Kress 900 MPS). Such a complex movement of the working blade, coupled with the highest rotation speed, just allows you to get a surface of excellent quality, without grooves, waves and scratches.
From 200 to 900 watts. this is how much the motors of modern ESM consume. Those that are more powerful, of course, will be more productive, they can easily pull a larger sole, up to 150 mm in diameter (for example, 400-watt Bosch GEX 125-150 AVE or Interskol EShM-150 / 600E).
Which Electric Sander to Use?
Bosch GEX 125–150 AVE
Orbital vehicles also have differences in the speed of their translational motion. If we talk about rotation, then this figure can be from 4 to 14 thousand eccentric revolutions per minute for models with adjustment (Metabo SXE 425), and about 12,000 for models without it. If we talk about the concept of “fluctuation”. then these figures will be half as much. In fact, everything is simple here, the higher the speed, the rougher the processing will be, but the faster you can get the job done.
Metabo SXE 425
The eccentric of orbital machines may not have the same “span”. from 2 to 7 mm (Festool WTS 150/7 E-Plus). This is called the wobble amplitude. The smaller it is, the less vibration the device generates, the more compact the plate goes, the smaller the area we process, but the cleaner the grinding will be. In some ESM, the operator can set a certain amplitude, affecting the productivity and fineness of grinding.
Compared to their counterparts (LSHM and PSHM), “orbiters” are usually well stuffed with electronics. We have already talked about setting the speed and amplitude, in addition to this, the professional instrument is equipped with an automatic frequency control system (Bosch GEX 150 Turbo) so that it does not fall under load. this is a constant electronics. Some models are equipped with an electrodynamic brake (AEG EX150ED K), which, after deactivating the “start” button, instantly locks the work plate, preventing damage to the workpiece and reducing the possibility of injury. For powerful professional machines, an inrush current limiter (Makita BO6040) can be provided, which smoothly accelerates the tool, avoiding a starting jerk and protecting the network from a short-term, but several times increased load.
Very nice options include a detachable mains cable, an adjustable or detachable front handle, locking the start button, functional dust extraction.
Be sure to pay attention to the type of sanding pad. Firstly, if you need a particularly delicate treatment, do not chase a large cymbal, by the way, it has a larger dead zone and an amplitude of about 5–7 mm. The slab made of metal is stable, highly durable and has excellent heat dissipation. The resilient saucer works well with curved surfaces. All of them have Velcro for fixing the emery and dust suction holes. These holes from individual manufacturers may be different in size, number and location, on this basis, you need to select a suitable tooling.
Strictly speaking, this is not a grinder, but it can be grinded. over, those places that are inaccessible for other types of machines are corners (even sharp ones), places directly at the vertical walls. For grinding, a special-shaped triangular platform is installed on the tool, on which sandpaper is fixed on a self-adhesive base.
This is what a multifunctional renovator looks like, which has a grinding function.
How to choose the right sander for your DIY project
During operation, the platform moves in a horizontal plane with a very small amplitude. the vertices of the triangle deviate by about 1.7 ° (this is an average of 2.5 mm). Due to this small movement, grinding occurs. This machine can be used to grind in corners and close to vertical surfaces. over, you can remove not only wood, but also smeared and dried glue. In general, an oscillating machine is used for finishing grinding in hard-to-reach places. due to its low productivity and a grinding spot, it is unrealistic to process more or less large surfaces with it.
How to choose the right wood sanders
Grinding machines are a multifunctional tool. With their help, wood surfaces are polished and aged, putty is rubbed, stones are processed and much more. The assortment on the market is huge, but in order to choose a good tool for working with wood, you need to highlight the main and secondary characteristics. To do everything right, you should understand how a particular characteristic affects the other parameters, then the choice will be easy.
Sturm AG1014P. power
Brush sander with a full range of options: soft start, speed control, maintaining constant characteristics of a powerful electric motor during processing, locking the start button.
Effective motor cooling is provided to protect against overheating. It is used for roughing, cleaning the surface from efflorescence, rust. Creates a decorative smooth or embossed structure.
- Cheap and cheerful: power, reliability, functionality.
- Easy tool change.
- Flimsy casing, rework required.
- Lock button sticks.
Surface grinding (vibration)
The fundamental difference between this kind of grinding machines is that the abrasive material is driven by a motor with a small eccentric attached to the shaft. As a result, the working platform performs a large number of oscillatory movements (vibrates) with a small amplitude (up to 2 mm.). Frequency reaches 20,000 vibrations per minute.
Vibration grinder “Energomash PShM-80300”
Expensive professional machines of this type are equipped with an engine speed controller, which makes it possible to adjust the grinding mode taking into account the properties of the material being processed. Power consumption can be from 180 to 700 W. The difference from a belt sander is that the quality of grinding is more “fine”, it is impossible to damage the workpiece by careless movement. Sandpaper is attached to the plane of the platform in two ways. with Velcro or clips. On the working surface of most models, there are holes associated with a dust extraction channel, at the end of which a dust bag or a vacuum cleaner hose is attached.
Attaching sandpaper with Velcro
A vibration machine is used for grinding not only wood products, but also metal and stone (for example, plaster products). If the tool is equipped with a vibration speed regulator, plastic products can be processed at low speeds. Most often, mesh skins are used for this kind of grinding machines, which have different grain sizes and mesh sizes. The optimal size is selected depending on the task at hand. Metal and glass are polished using felt materials using GOI paste, wooden surfaces are polished with fine-grained sandpaper.
Application of vibration sander for furniture processing
How to choose a sander for wood
At least once in my life, but there was a need to use a grinding machine for repair or finishing work. There are several main types of grinding equipment, whose purpose is determined by the principle of operation and design feature. For repair, construction, joinery and carpentry work, the following types of grinders are chosen:
- a belt sander should be chosen for rough and aggressive processing of metal, wood and plastic surfaces;
- the orbital sander has a rectangular sole and is used for a more gentle finish;
- a delta sander is a type of orbital sander and is distinguished by a triangular shape of the sole;
- The eccentric sander allows the material to be processed to a polished state due to the oscillatory and rotational movements of the sanding pad. However, this sander is not suitable for working with internal corners and small areas.
The electronic part of professional models often includes functions such as a soft start system, speed control. The high quality angle grinder incorporates an automatic disc balancing system that significantly reduces wear. Often additional handles are included in the kit, there are several holes on the body for installing the handles.