Which Sander to Choose for Wood
Wood sander: application, varieties
A wood sanding machine is an indispensable tool for finishing work in a country house. Using a grinding machine allows you to speed up the process of grinding and polishing wooden surfaces. Cladding walls, floors, furniture, decorative elements. Sanding machines for wood are convenient and compact, allow you to perform high-quality leveling of any wooden surfaces.
There are several main types of grinders for domestic use, their various design and operating principle determine their purpose. For construction and repair, carpentry and carpentry, the following types of grinders are used:
- Belt grinding machines (LSHM). A tool for aggressive and rough processing of wooden, plastic, metal surfaces.
- Vibratory grinders (VSM) allow for a softer machining due to circular motions with small amplitude. The grinding surface of the vibratory grinder has a rectangular shape, which facilitates the processing of corners.
- A variety of a flat grinder is a delta grinder, it differs in a triangular shape of the sole. The delta grinder is convenient for processing small and hard-to-reach areas, corners, grooves and indentations.
- An eccentric grinder refers to a tool that allows you to grind the surface to a polishing state due to the combination of rotational and oscillatory movements of the grinding plate. But an eccentric sander is not suitable for processing small surfaces and internal corners.
Varieties of grinding machines
The use of belt grinders
Belt sanders are used where it is necessary to quickly remove a fairly thick layer of material, for example, to sand a planed board or remove old paint from surfaces. Lshm is also used for precise fitting of parts and processing of the cut line.
Material processing is carried out using an abrasive tape, closed in a ring and stretched on rotating rollers. When moving, the tape removes a rather thick layer of material comparable to the work of an electric planer. The thickness of the layer to be removed depends on the grain of the abrasive tape.
When choosing an LSM, it is necessary to pay attention to two parameters: the width and length of the abrasive belt used and its rotation speed. The width of the surface area depends on the width, the aggressiveness and degree of processing depend on the speed. The standard tape sizes for LSHM are as follows: 76×457 mm, 76×533 mm, 76×610 mm. The width of the belt for semi-professional grinders may be larger. 100 mm, but for domestic needs they are rarely used. The speed of the tape is usually in the range from 150 to 500 meters per minute, power. From 400 to 1200 watts. Useful functions are the smooth adjustment of the speed of rotation of the tape and the device for automatic centering of the tape, preventing it from sliding off the rollers even during rotational movements.
Wood Belt Sander
The abrasive tape for LSM is of two types, with an abrasive layer of aluminum oxide or zirconium. Zirconium tape provides a deeper, but more aggressive finish, contributes to the appearance of scratches, which must be processed using a less granular tape. For processing metal surfaces, it is better to choose a zirconium tape, with it you can sharpen cutting surfaces.
Surface treatment using a belt grinder is as follows: set the machine on the surface to be machined without distortions, and, without exerting pressure on the machine, perform smooth longitudinal or circular movements on the surface of the material. If necessary, accurate fitting of parts is carried out by grinding with short-term translational movements or using a bounding box.
The use of vibratory grinders
The operating principle of these tools is similar: grinding is carried out due to light circular and oscillatory movements of the grinding surface with an amplitude of up to 5 mm. As abrasive material, sandpaper sheets with different grain sizes are used, fixed to the sole with clips or Velcro.
Vibratory grinders provide high quality processing and are used for grinding almost any material: wood, plastic, metal, plaster and putty, as well as for removing corrosion products and old paint coatings.
The degree of processing depends on the amplitude of the oscillations: for rough processing, choose an amplitude of 4-5 mm, for fine grinding. 1.5-3 mm. In household models, the rotation speed is usually adjustable in the range of 2000-5000 rpm, and the oscillation speed can be in the range of 25000 per minute. The ability to control the amplitude of the eccentric, rotational speed and vibrations are very useful options for the GSM.
An important parameter is the power of the GSM, usually it is in the range of 150-600 W. The higher the power, the greater the productivity and uptime of the tool. Another important factor that determines the use of GSM is the shape and area of the grinding sole. It can be square, rectangular or deltoid.
The use of eccentric (orbital) grinders
Orbital sanders are similar in principle to rectangular vibratory sanders, but they are more productive and have a finer degree of grinding and polishing due to the complex oscillation path. Surface treatment is carried out with a grinding disc with a diameter of up to 150 mm; special emery wheels with different grain sizes or grinding felt nozzles are used as an abrasive nozzle.
The power of orbital sanders is usually 200-650 W, the speed is up to 13000 per minute, the speed of the eccentric is up to 24000 per minute. The regulation of the number of revolutions and vibrations, as well as the amplitude adjustment of the eccentric, as with the GSM, are very useful functions.
Using Orbital Sanders
All grinders are characterized by the formation of a large amount of dust during operation. Some models are equipped with holes in the sole for dust collection and a dust collector. This option is very useful when working indoors, so if possible you should pay attention to models with dust collection. Also important is the length of the cord. With a short cord you will have to constantly use an extension cord. You can choose a cordless sander. When buying, pay attention to the shape of the handle and the weight of the instrument, holding it in your hands for some time, testing the inclusion and regulation of the modes.
Video. Overview of Wood Sanders
How to choose a reliable wood sander. All parameters and types
Processing of most wood species, due to its not too dense structure, is not particularly difficult. But if you need to achieve high quality, prepare the material for subsequent coating (for example, with varnish), then you will have to spend a lot of time and effort using only traditional techniques (planer, file, skin). Unfortunately, not every house has a wood sander.
And first of all, for the reason that not everyone is familiar with its capabilities. This article will help not only to understand that a good owner needs a wood polishing machine, but it will also tell you how to choose it correctly.
Varieties of grinders
They differ in design, principle of operation and accuracy of wood processing. Consequently, and the specifics of the application. What exactly to choose will have to be decided independently, based on the purpose for which the power tool is purchased.
Belt-type grinders in the home are the most common. They can carry out rough processing not only of any wooden workpiece, but also samples of plastics, metals. Such machines will not be able to polish the surface to a mirror shine, but eliminating obvious defects, leveling the base with their help is not a problem. And quite quickly. All that is required is to install a tape with the optimal grain size.
Shmm tape device
Like any electric tool, it incorporates a low-power electric motor and an actuator in the form of rollers. An abrasive tape is stretched over them, forming a closed loop. When you turn on the grinding machine, the rotation of the rollers and the movement of the “skin” begin. The quality of processing is determined mainly by the pressing force and grain size of the installed web.
What to evaluate when choosing
- Power grinding machine. For the category “household tool” 1 kW is enough. Unlikely to be needed.
- Range of regulation of speed. The larger it is, the wider the scope of the grinder. Such CMMs work with any type of “skins”, therefore, they are suitable for processing various materials. Metals (rust removal, pre-polishing), wood (stripping, cutting of knot residues and so on).
- Linear parameters of the tape (mm). For household models, the standard width is 76, but there is a certain size range (standard) in length. 457, 533 and 610. The last samples are larger, but it is more convenient to process such blanks as a board, log, beam or flooring with a large area with their help.
If CMM is needed only for “spot” work. Alignment of minor segments, smoothing the surface in individual areas, then you can get by with a machine for 400 tape. Such models are cheaper.
- Centering mechanism. In the process, the tape is constantly shifting (“leaving” the rollers), and it has to be periodically corrected. The presence of a special device greatly simplifies this task, since the adjustment is performed automatically, and there is no need to spend time on it.
The starting price for belt grinding machines is 3,468 rubles.
“Makita” (9910K series). A power of 0.65 kW is sufficient to process not only wood, but also metals. The belt speed is not adjustable (270 rpm), so the scope is somewhat limited, although this is enough for domestic use. Parameters of abrasive cloth (mm): width. 75, length. 450. Price. 9,180 rubles.
Bosch (PBS 75 A series). Power 0.7 kW, abrasive belt speed (76 x 530) 350 rpm, weight 3.2 kg. Price. 7 590 rubles.
They are allocated in a separate group, although this is just a kind of tape CMM. The working tool is a brush mounted on the shaft, which performs the toughest work.
What can be done using similar models?
- Removal of foreign deposits (scale, rust, oxides).
- Peeling off old paint.
- Cleaning of wooden surfaces (wooden and parquet floors, external walls and the like).
With certain skills, brush sanders are used to artificially age wood products.
What to evaluate when choosing
- What kind of “tool” can be equipped with. Types and sizes of brushes and abrasive cloths.
- Weight. It should provide sufficient clamping force to the machined base. Optimum. Not less than 4 kg.
- Shaft diameter. This parameter determines the maximum rotation speed, therefore, the quality of the wood processing.
Price. From 6 490 rubles.
Makita (9741 series). Power 0.86 kW; brush diameter 13 mm; number of revolutions. Up to 3,500; weight 4.2 kg. Price. 29 320 rubles.
“Makita” (AG1014P). Low-power equipment (1.4 kW) with a speed of up to 3,000. Weight. 3.3 kg. Accordingly, the price is lower. Only 7,280 rubles.
Vibratory type CMM
Grinders of this type are used for finishing surfaces. It is advisable to acquire them when the quality of grinding is a determining factor. For example, when restoring furniture before coating wood with wood stain and varnish. Such work requires special care, as the smallest defects are clearly visible through the applied transparent layer.
Modification of vibrational CMM. A machine with a deltoid working part. Its specific use is the processing of wood in corners, grooves, grooves and the like, so they are rarely used in everyday life. But if the owner is constantly dealing with wood processing, then it is worth paying attention.
What to evaluate when choosing
The main are 2 parameters:
- Speed. Similar to tape models. The limits of adjustment.
- Depth of processing. Such machines are great for working with samples on the surface of which significant differences in elevation are observed. For example, after drying the material, if it was organized with a violation of technology.
Starting price of models. From 1 650 rubles.
“DeWALT” (D 26441 series). Sole 115 x 140 (mm); power 0.23 kW; stroke size 1.4 mm; the clip is Velcro. Price. 5 458 rubles.
“Metabo” (series SR 2185). Abrasive 93 x 185; power 0.2 kW; platform travel. 2 mm; fastening of the working element with Velcro. Price. 7 390 rubles.
If necessary, bring the tree to a mirror shine, you should use just such a model. But the scope is limited. Only for surfaces with the correct geometry. If the base is curved, especially curly. Not an option. You have to look for another way of grinding.
What to evaluate when choosing
- Power. For domestic use, up to 750 watts is enough.
- The amplitude of the vibrations. Optimum. From 5 to 7 mm.
Increasing these characteristics leads to an increase in the cost of the grinding machine. In fact, these are already professional models. And to choose them for the house or not is up to the buyer.
- Mounting the working “tool”.
- Option 1. On the clamps.
- Option 2. Velcro.
It will take more time to replace the element, but consumables are cheaper. For domestic use, it is these CMMs that are mainly purchased.
Price. From 2 190 rubles.
“Elitech” (MSHE 0412E series). Power 0.4 kW; 125 mm disc; speed adjustment in the range from 6,000 to 13,000; amplitude. 2 mm; frequency from 12,000 to 26,000. There is a connection to a vacuum cleaner; power cord. 3 m. Price. 2 870 rubles.
“Makita” (BO5030K series). 0.3 kW; disk 125; the number of revolutions. 12,000; frequency. 24,000; amplitude. 5.5 mm. The CMM kit includes dust containers. Price. 6,290 rubles.
The question is far from idle, since the market is literally saturated with various models of wood grinding machines, and each is positioned as one of the best. What to advise?
With the systematic use of the grinder, for a variety of operations, it is worth focusing on the time-tested brands. Makita, Bosch and DeWalt. Somewhat more expensive, but they certainly will not fail even with intensive use.
Practice shows that if the rules for choosing a grinding machine are generally clear to everyone, then you can’t say the same about the criteria by which an abrasive sheet is evaluated. This is the issue that many perplexed.
What to look for
- Abrasive material. For most types of work, strips with zirconium grains are best suited. All rough surface cleaning is carried out with just such a cloth. But after processing on the tree there are scratches that need to be leveled. This is done with aluminum oxide tape. Therefore, you need to purchase a kit. For the main processing and “refinement”.
- Grain density (pieces / inch). This parameter is related to the size of the granules of the abrasive. Grinding is carried out by sequential installation of tapes. First. At 65, then. At 120.
Finishing (finishing) polishing of the tree is always carried out in the direction of the fibers, and rough. At an angle to them.
Dust removal from the working area is carried out in different ways. But from a practical point of view, grinding machines equipped with bags are not recommended. As soon as the supply of containers runs out, problems will arise with their purchase. Checked. It is better to choose a CMM that can be attached to a vacuum cleaner. Much more convenient.
Which wood sander is best to choose?
Construction or restoration work requires the purchase of a tool for the final processing of wood (a grinder for wood), and which model to choose? It depends on its purpose, as the tool is multifunctional. The selection criteria are largely influenced by the features of the machined surfaces: their size or design complexity with many inaccessible places. Equally important is the size of the budget allocated for restoration or construction, as well as the experience of the master, his skills in working with a tool for polishing wood.
If the grinder is required for home use (small repairs, hobbies), choose simple and quite budget models.
They are light and small in size. To handle large volumes of construction or production work (for example, in a furniture workshop), the purchase of powerful units will be more successful.
The following types of woodworking grinders are distinguished:
Diagram of a belt sander.
It is advantageous to choose such a tool if it is necessary to effectively remove large layers of material (for example, old paint), grind boards, process cut lines and qualitatively adjust the surfaces of parts.
These units are very powerful, and if the master does not have enough experience, then there is a danger of spoiling the surface being treated. Working with a belt sander requires some skill. But with a little practice, you can quite easily, quickly and efficiently process a significant area.
When choosing a grinding machine of this type, you need to make sure that you have the necessary equipment: models produced by different manufacturers are equipped with abrasive belts of various sizes.
Inexpensive models have a basic set of features:
- Speed control switch.
- Thermal motor protection.
- Nozzle for connecting a vacuum cleaner (or dust collector).
A vibrating machine is a tool for a more “delicate” effect on the surface of a tree. The working surface is often rectangular in shape, which makes it convenient for grinding corners.
The main criteria for choosing this particular type of machine are:
Scheme of vibration grinder.
- Sizes of a working surface (sole). This parameter directly affects the speed of work performed.
- Sole shape. The rectangular surface can be supplemented with a triangular wedge for working in hard to reach places.
- The amplitude of the machine: with its increase, the processing speed increases. But this can affect the quality of grinding.
- The method of fixing the abrasive surface. There are several possible options: clamps, Velcro, combined method.
- The ability to adjust the speed of movement: for different woods, it can be different.
- A way to get rid of chips and dust.
The parameters of the grinders, which in this case should be paid attention to, are:
- Platform size (diagonal or triangle area).
- Tool productivity, which is directly related to the oscillation frequency (up to 2600 count / min).
- Weight (about 1 kg)
- Power (most often from 300 to 200 watts).
Random orbit sander
An eccentric or orbital machine processes the wood to a fully polished state.
The eccentric machine processes wood to the completely polished state.
Complex sections are processed in a different way, often manually. This design is characterized by a complex trajectory of the working surface: the sole of the machine performs rotational and vibrational-orbital movements. The most convenient to use pneumatic models.
This type of tool is the most expensive. Over, pneumatic models of the grinder must be equipped with a high-performance compressor. This is not always possible with domestic use. Most often, such a tool is used in production.
If the surface shape is triangular (delta grinder), then such a tool is used if it is necessary to work in hard-to-reach places. This makes it possible to abandon manual grinding. The abrasive skin is attached to the base with Velcro, which helps to quickly and easily replace it.
The speed of her work is very high. Such a model brings any detail to perfect smoothness, but you can work with it only on large and even surfaces.
Angle grinders have high performance, which is explained by the presence of a powerful drive and high tool speeds. However, a significant drawback of the model is the inability to process internal angles. For their grinding, delta nozzles or renovators are more suitable.
The renovator resembles the delta modification of a vibrating machine, but differs in much greater functionality.
The list of its features includes:
- Polishing and polishing wood and other materials;
- Creating slots;
- Cleaning walls and other surfaces of linoleum, tile, etc.;
- Local repair of power structures, facings.
A professional tool of this type is equipped with a signaling device that notifies with the help of sound signals about excessive load on the surface being processed. Depending on the volume of the processed surface and the tasks set, the master may prefer a model with a two-handed grip. It is convenient in case of need for long work. The advantage of one-handed models is their compactness.
Over, manufacturers are constantly increasing the number of possible operations performed by the tool. Additional advantages of the renovator are its ability to work both from the network and from the battery, low power consumption, and quite affordable price. In brush machines, it is not abrasive tape that is used, but metal brushes. This type of tool is suitable for processing large surfaces. It is used to remove old coatings.
The features of each unit make it effective in performing certain tasks:
- The belt grinder handles large, smooth surfaces, for example, voluminous parts of a simple configuration. But this type of tool is not very convenient for processing small items.
- Vibratory grinders have an average productivity of work, are effective for processing parts of various shapes, leave no traces, and consume energy efficiently.
- Eccentric models are good for achieving high quality processing: grinding or polishing.
- Renovator or delta modification is a tool for constructing furniture. It is also used for interior work with wooden elements.
Such units cannot work continuously, you will have to stop work every 15 minutes. The most universal model is considered to be a belt sander. It is suitable for processing not only wood, but also other types of surfaces (plastic, metal), and can be useful for both professionals and amateur craftsmen. Dear professional grinders can function without stopping full time. They also have the function of centering the abrasive tape, which saves material.
To facilitate the work, the master can equip the grinding machine with a stand on which the tool is mounted. When grinding, you can move, rotate, direct the material itself, and not a heavy unit. If the work lasts a long time, then even if a relatively small machine is available, it is much easier to manipulate the workpiece.