Device And Work Hammer
Any serious construction is not complete without the use of appropriate equipment, which includes jack hammers. They are considered an indispensable tool when it is necessary to remove various coatings, as well as the destruction of building structures. By the type of drive, jack hammers can be gasoline, hydraulic, pneumatic or electric.
The pneumatic jackhammer is one of the most optimal types of dismantling tools. Its main advantage is the complete absence of sparks. Due to this advantage, hammers can be used even in conditions of increased risk of explosions or fires.
The purpose of pneumatic jackhammers
- Construction works of various types, which include the destruction of brick or concrete structures, walls and structures, other dismantling works of varying degrees of complexity;
- Formation of the road surface. Crushing of hard soil, destruction of asphalt;
- Mining industry.
The advantages of pneumatics can also include: high reliability, durability, ease of use and significant low cost design.
These criteria make the pneumatic tool attractive to this day, especially compared to its electrical counterparts.
The only drawback of the pneumatic tool is its strict attachment to the compressor, which pumps air under pressure.
The device and principle of operation of a pneumatic hammer
By its design features, such a tool is included in the category of piston pneumatic systems equipped with an air distributor with a shock principle of action. The pneumatic hammer is brought into operation due to the impact on it of the flow of compressed air supplied by the compressor.
The main structural elements of the tool are:
- Shock absorber.
- Retaining ring
- Body part
- Impact part or striker. Air distribution percussion mechanism
- Buffer spring
In general, pneumatic hammers consist of several main components:
- Handle body. Includes a trigger, silencer and housing. The silencer is used to suppress aerodynamic noise arising from the discharge of exhaust air from the hammer;
- Handle vibration protection. Involves equipping the tool with a glass with two sealing bushings;
- Anti-vibration protection against chisels. Includes a spring-loaded sleeve and a manipulator;
- Shock assembly (trigger device). Consists of a barrel, an air distribution system and an impactor.
The shock system performs a number of basic functions:
- Provides air supply to the instrument with its further distribution between blocks of strokes of the striker and removal after use from the general system of equipment;
- Translates the energy of the air used into the mechanical work of the main working element. The shock assembly.
Device And Work Hammer
Nozzle. Is selected depending on the type of task:
- Chisel. Destruction of reinforced concrete and metal structures;
- Sharp peak (pencil). Processing of frozen soil, brick or asphalt;
- Scrap (cylinder). Brick walls, ice, concrete;
- Spatula. Suitable for removing ice or for work with asphalt.
The pneumatic jackhammer can also be equipped with:
- A side handle that allows you to correctly distribute the applied physical effort, thereby ensuring comfortable operation of the equipment;
- Soft start. Makes it possible to smoothly accelerate the engine, increasing its service life, and eliminates unnecessary overload of the device;
- Impact frequency regulator. Helps to adjust the hammer to work with materials with different levels of hardness, controlling the intensity of the tool.
The principle of operation of the hammer is as follows: the pressure (compressed air) supplied through the hose acts on the handle, puts the tool into operation and overcomes the resistance that the valve spring exerts. In this case, the valve moves and the openings of the air distribution system open. The air begins to flow in turn into blocks of a drummer of various types (either to the upper or to the lower part of the cylinder), as a result of which the shock system begins to make rapid movements of a reciprocating nature.
The main characteristics on which the performance of any type of chipper depends, are the strength and number of strokes.
Classification of pneumatic hammers
Now in the market of construction tools there are many pneumatic jackhammers from different manufacturers. Therefore, it will be quite difficult for an amateur to figure out which hammers are better in their parameters, and what should be considered when choosing such a tool.
A jackhammer is divided into 2 main types:
- Voluminous. The operation of the device is driven by the rapid expansion of air in a special chamber;
- Turbine. Work due to the energy that is generated by the rotation of the blades of an air turbine.
According to their technical characteristics, all jack hammers are classified into four standard sizes according to such an indicator as energy and frequency of impacts per second:
- The first type. The impact energy reaches up to 30 J, and the impact frequency up to 45 Hz. The tool is used to remove, destroy materials (clay, brick, asphalt) with medium strength, as well as during work in cramped conditions.
- The second type. Impact energy. Up to 40 J, impact frequency up to 34 Hz. Devices are used for general construction work.
- The third type is impact energy up to 45 J, frequency up to 20 Hz. It is used when working with durable materials with the direction of impact vertically down.
- The fourth type is energy over 50 J, frequency up to 24 Hz. Implementation of materials with a high degree of strength.
In addition to impact energy, a pneumatic hammer is conventionally divided by the average weight of the tool:
- From 5 to 6 kg. Light. Carrying out high-altitude, finishing and other works, which in their specificity do not provide for large-scale destruction. Often used in everyday life. Such a tool has a relatively low power level;
- From 6 to 10 kg. Medium. It is preferable to use when carrying out horizontal work. Such a weight allows holding the tool for a sufficiently long time while observing a certain direction of work. Therefore, the device is widely used in construction and repair work;
- Within 15 kg. Heavy. Such pneumatic hammers are intended only for carrying out heavy types of work, most often in industry.
Impact strength is an indicator related to the amount of material beaten for 1 impact. It can vary from 2 to 63 J. It is believed that the higher the impact force, the higher the speed and degree of efficiency of the device.
Impact frequency. This criterion displays the number of impacts per unit of time, that is, the speed of the equipment. The greater the force of the blows, the lower their frequency. Often, heavy hammers have 1,100 beats per minute, and a lighter tool has 3,500.
To ensure the effective functioning of the pneumatic jackhammer and maintain a high level of its productivity, you should also pay attention to the characteristics of the compressor used: working pressure and volume of compressed air.