How to Properly Sharpen a Hand Saw on a Tree
In the arsenal of the home master there will always be a functional and easy-to-use circular saw. But there are situations when it is required to saw off a part and perform a small amount of woodwork, and there is no time or desire to deploy and connect the unit. In these cases, the hand saw is excellent at saving. But how to choose a hand hacksaw for wood, so that it is convenient to use and easily “cuts through” any wood species, we will consider in more detail.
Saw is considered to be the ancestor of a large family of hand tools. Since the creation of the first type of tool out of iron, the saw has undergone many changes, having managed to acquire numerous “sisters” capable of performing dozens of jobs.
In the household, it is impossible to do without “toothy helpers”: they are indispensable for trimming the garden, small carpentry and carpentry
Hand saws on wood differ in many ways: blade size, steel grade, tooth shape, handle design. Let us dwell on each parameter in more detail.
What should be a hacksaw blade?
The main part of the tool is a hacksaw blade. The first thing you should pay attention to when choosing a product is the length of the canvas. The possibilities of its application largely depend on this parameter. At the same time, the longer the canvas, the more it springs, which also complicates the process, especially when working with hardwoods, such as ash, maple or oak.
A long stroke makes it possible to apply less effort when sawing, because a single number of cuts are carried out with a large number of teeth
To cut small elements such as skirting boards, bars or narrow rails, you can do with a hacksaw with a blade length of 25-30 cm. When planning to use the tool for more serious construction work, choose a product with a blade of 45-50 cm.
When determining the length of the hacksaw blade, follow the rule so that the length of the saw exceeds the diameter of the processed elements by 2 times. If you do not follow this recommendation, you only complicate your work. The teeth of a short hacksaw will jam inside the wood, and in order to advance the tool to free them from sawdust, everyone will have to make a lot of effort. Uncomfortable work will cause premature fatigue.
Traditionally, the width of the web of the product varies in the range of 10-20 cm. Models with a narrower web are not allowed for technical reasons, because they fail at the slightest bend. But it is worth considering that too wide canvases are inconvenient for manual work.
Of no less importance is the fabrication material of the web, in the role of which alloy steel most often acts, as well as its degree of hardening
For hacksaws, tool alloy steel with a high content of silicon and carbon grades is used:
- 65g, 60 C2A;
- 8 HF, 9 HF, 9 HS;
- U7, U7A, U8, U8A, U8G, U8GA, U9A, U10
The metal is quenched by exposure to an alternating magnetic field, at which a high-frequency electric current appears. Spreading over the surface, it heats the surface layer of the metal, which hardens after cooling.
A metal hardness of 45 HRC is considered a standard parameter, but it is still preferable to choose products with a hardness of 55-60 HRC. A hacksaw with a high hardness blade will have sufficient flexibility, but at the same time high tooth stability. An external examination of such a tool can be determined by the darkish shade of the sharpened teeth.
Parameters of teeth on the blade
The decisive indicator of the productivity of the tool and the accuracy of cutting wood is the size of the teeth.
The teeth of a hacksaw for woodwork have a dual function: they cut wood and at the same time remove sawdust
Sawing accuracy is determined by TPI. The number of teeth per inch.
There is an inverse relationship between these technical parameters:
- Canvases with large teeth set a high speed of work, but the saw cut turns out to be rough and sloppy;
- Fine-tooth hacksaws guarantee a clean and precise cut, but at a relatively low speed.
When determining the required tooth size, you should focus on the type of material being processed. For example, for working with chipboard, where high precision cutting is required, select a tool with a high TPI of 7-9, and for sawing logs and gardening where the cleanliness of the cut is not so significant. Tpi 3-6.
When choosing the best option for the hacksaw, follow the rule that the minimum thickness of the log should in any case be greater than the step of three teeth
If we compare red-hot and ordinary tooth, then the difference lies in the fact that in the first embodiment, subject to domestic use, the product does not stupid for a long time. But a hacksaw with a hardened tooth cannot be sharpened again. When she starts to cut badly, she will just have to throw it away.
An ordinary tooth can be sharpened. Periodically, it can be performed using a special file marked with an accident (for grinding saws). To sharpen the canvas, it is enough to perform several movements on each tooth.
Depending on the type of teeth used, three types of hacksaws are distinguished:
- For longitudinal sawing. The products are equipped with teeth in the form of an oblique triangle and look like hooks. The tool allows you to cut wood along the fibers. Such saws have a sharpening on both sides of the tooth, due to which they are capable of cutting both when moving forward and in the opposite direction.
- For cross cutting. The teeth of the tools are made in the form of isosceles triangles. Such a design makes it easy to saw the material both when holding the cutting edge forward and in the opposite direction. But this type of tooth is only suitable for working with dry workpieces, but not with fresh wood.
- For mixed sawing. Products have a combined composition in which triangular edges are combined with slightly elongated semicircular notches. This solution allows you to forward the semicircular teeth when moving the arm forward, and expanding the channel when triangular returns, removing chips and sawdust from it.
Some types of modern tools are equipped with teeth that are made in the shape of a trapezoid. This solution allows you to make the canvas more durable and wear-resistant.
But it is worth considering that it is very problematic to sharpen such a blade, since it is difficult to give the desired shape to the trapezoidal teeth. This significantly reduces the service life of the product, after which it is necessary to change the canvas or purchase a new tool.
For cutting fresh branches, it is more convenient to use blades equipped with triangular teeth processed with parallel sharpening, in which each element is sharpened only on one side and staggered
Often on the market you can find a modernized look of hacksaws.
Upgraded hacksaws can be easily distinguished by groups of teeth located on the canvas, between which the gaps are clearly visible
Upgraded type hand saws are effective for cutting raw wood. Wet chips through the intervals between the teeth in the process of cutting easily comes out of the cut, without hampering the movement of the tool.
Types of hand saws on wood
Option # 1. Narrow
A small narrow saw is a structure that consists of a straight, flat blade and handle. She performs delicate work: through cuts, curved parts are cut.
This type of tool is designed for cutting wooden workpieces, the thickness of which does not exceed 8-10 cm, sawing small branches and small works in the garden
In the manufacture of narrow models, manufacturers install blades with triangular double-sided teeth, or with parallel sharpening. The disadvantage of the tool is that when pressed during operation, the canvas is able to deviate from a given direction.
Option # 2. Normal
A standard hand saw can be equipped with any type of teeth and is often equipped with interchangeable blades of various types and designs.
To be able to saw off workpieces at a certain angle using a standard hand saw, you have to purchase special miter boxes
But despite the declared universality of their use, it is not advisable to use saws of this type in the manufacture of furniture.
Option # 3. With a pickaxe
Both narrow and conventional saws are prone to bending with increasing rigidity of the processed material. In these cases, it is effective to use canvases equipped with a lug that acts as a kind of stiffener.
Hand hacks equipped with a snap are designed to create shallow cuts in a wooden surface of any thickness
The presence of a pickaxe does not allow the saw to make a depth incision larger than the width of the blade, since it prevents the cutting blade from passing further into the tree.
Option # 4. Onion
Saws of the beam type are more bulky devices, acting as an analog of a jigsaw.
The main purpose of this type of saws is to create an accurate cut when working with surfaces located at any angle
Due to the solid construction and threaded joints of the handles, beam-type saws are able to easily overcome knots by cutting along radii and curved patterns.
Depending on the purpose and design of the saw can be:
- Swing. For slitting;
- Transverse. For sawing workpieces across wood fiber;
- Circumferential. For cutting holes, making rounding and figured sawing;
- Tenon. For cutting connecting spikes, as well as cutting simple geometric shapes on the workpiece.
Only with a hacksaw of the beam type can the material be cut up and down, sawing blanks with complex fishing lines and at the same time doing work alone without involving an assistant.
The procedure for choosing a hacksaw for wood is quite simple:
- Determine the purpose for which the tool will be used. For carpentry work, choose products with small teeth that provide high precision cutting, for carpentry. Blades with large teeth.
- Frequency of use. If the hand saw will be used only for one-time work, choose a tool with red-hot teeth. The service life of this type of product is quite large. In addition, you don’t have to worry about sharpening and cutting teeth during operation.
- The uniformity of the canvas. Inspecting the tool, try to bend the blade carefully, setting the angle to 30-45 °, and then release it. Re-inspect the sheet: the slightest deviation at the bend point even within 2 mm indicates a poor quality metal.
- The cost of the product. As with the choice of other tools, keep in mind that high-quality models of leading brands are always much more expensive than consumer goods. This overpayment is a kind of guarantee of the wear resistance and durability of the saw. But for one-time work, there is no point in wasting money on an expensive tool.
Conventional handles are made of plastic. Prefabricated plastic handles made of two halves do not have sufficient rigidity. It is much more convenient to work with a tool having a one-piece handle, which is equipped with a rubberized substrate for the fingers. The presence of a rubber insert allows you to make a tight grip, preventing the formation of corns in the palm of your hand.
Pay attention to the design of the tool handle: it is desirable that it has an ergonomic shape that allows you to correctly transfer force to the blade
On sale there are products with standard and flip handles. The second option is convenient in that it allows you to replace the worn canvas with a new one if necessary.
Keep in mind that not all hand saws go on sale already sharpened. And from this seemingly trifle, much depends on how soon you can get to work.
Finally, we suggest you watch a with tips for choosing: