How To Sharpen A Hacksaw
How to sharpen a hacksaw at home?
- Why and when to sharpen?
- Saw set
- How to sharpen a hacksaw?
Wood is a unique natural material that is widely used in various areas of the national economy. It is easy to handle and environmentally friendly. For processing, a hacksaw for wood is very often used. An easy-to-use tool that does not require special skills. Electric saws, jigsaws and other power tools are more widely used today than hacksaws for wood.
Nevertheless, traditional hacksaws are found in all workshops, in every household, as they are used for quick sawing without much preparation. They are used to saw not only wood, but also used in the processing of chipboard, plastic, various types of flooring and so on. If you need to do work that does not require the connection of powerful equipment, or if the access of the power tool to the object is difficult, there is no alternative to a hand saw. Of course, to achieve high results, any saw needs to be sharpened on time.
Why and when to sharpen?
Qualified professionals know the following signs, indicative of the imminent failure of the saw:
- When sawing wood, the hacksaw starts to sound different;
- Visually it becomes noticeable that the tips of the teeth are rounded, have lost their sharpness;
- The color of the teeth changes;
- Sawing force increases;
- The direction of the saw is poorly maintained;
- There are frequent jamming of the teeth in the wood.
Breeding the teeth must necessarily precede the sharpening process. When breeding, a deviation of the teeth from the plane of the hacksaw to the left and right at a certain angle must be achieved. Too small a tooth deflection angle will cause the teeth to “sit” in the tree. Conversely, too large a deflection angle of the teeth makes the cut too wide, increases the amount of waste (sawdust) and requires too much muscle energy to pull the hacksaw. The purpose of tooth sharpening is to restore the following tooth geometry:
- Profile angle;
- Bevel angle of cutting edges.
When setting the saw, one should not forget about the uniform bending of all teeth at the same angle, so that there is no increase in drag resistance and high metal wear. It is necessary to start bending the teeth from the middle. If you try to bend them at the very base, you can damage the blade. The teeth deviate from the blade through one, that is, every even tooth to the left, every odd tooth to the right. Visually and without the use of tools, only an experienced carpenter can determine the layout. Such skills come only after breeding the teeth of dozens of hacksaws.
In the absence of such experience, a special tool comes to the rescue. The most affordable option is a regular flat steel plate. A slot is made in it, into which the hacksaw blade should enter practically without a gap. The routing process is as follows:
- The hacksaw is clamped so that the teeth are slightly visible above the clamp;
- Each tooth is clamped with a wiring groove and bent to the middle;
- The angle of breeding must be under constant control;
- Each even tooth in a row is bent to the left, then each odd tooth is bent to the right or in reverse order.
With different heights of the teeth, cutting wood will not be effective, since the teeth of a higher height will wear out more due to the greater load, and teeth of a lower height will not take part in the work at all. The web broaches will be uneven, twitchy. There will also be complaints about the accuracy of sawing and the quality of the cut surfaces. It is necessary to align the teeth in height before sharpening. The height is checked as follows:
- The prongs are pressed against the paper that lies on a flat surface;
- The canvas is imprinted on it;
- The height of the teeth is determined by the profile of the impression.
The teeth of hacksaws for longitudinal sawing have an angle of less than 60 degrees, therefore they use files with large notches or a fine-cut file with a rhombic section. In this case, it is absolutely not recommended to use triangular files. For sharpening, the hacksaw is vertically fixed in the device. There are two methods for sharpening a hacksaw, which differ in giving different sharpening angles.
- Straight. The file / file is placed at a 90 degree angle. It is given a direction parallel to the hacksaw, and both the back and front cutting surfaces of each tooth are sharpened. This is repeated for the entire distal row of teeth. Then the hacksaw is turned over in the clamping device by 180 degrees and the same operation is repeated for the other teeth that will make up the far row.
- Oblique. This method differs from the straight one only in the angle of the direction of the tool movement to the plane of the blade. The sharpening angle decreases from straight to 80 degrees. The process is exactly the same, but the teeth after sharpening resemble the teeth of a bow saw.
Crosscut saw teeth sharpening
When sharpening such teeth, a finely cut triangular file is used. The direction of movement of the tool is an angle of 60 degrees. The hacksaw is fixed in the device at an angle of 45-50 degrees to the workbench. The file / file must be driven strictly horizontally (keeping an angle of 60-75 degrees to the hacksaw), starting from the first left tooth. You need to start with “setting the movement of the hand with the tool”, for which they are held along each left edge of the odd row of distant teeth, which will give the hand movements the necessary automatism. After that, the same is repeated, sharpening the right edges of the odd teeth to complete the sharpening of the cutting edge and sharpening the tips. Having finished sharpening the teeth of the odd row, the hacksaw is turned over in the fixing device and the same actions are repeated for the even row, which is the farthest row in this position.
How to sharpen a hacksaw?
For sharpening with minimal loss of time and quality, you need to use such special devices and tools as:
- Locksmith vice;
- Sharpening bar;
- Protractor and caliper;
- A hammer;
- It is possible to use equipment that allows you to fix the hacksaw blade with an angle of 90 or 45 degrees.
Be sure to use the following files:
- With a triangular section;
- With rhombic section;
- Set of files.
When sharpening a hacksaw on wood, a simple vice is also used, which is rather uncomfortable and long, as well as a multi-axis type vice, since their bed is rotated and fixed at the necessary angles to ensure the movement of the tool strictly in the horizontal plane. It is recommended to organize additional lighting of the workspace using electric lamps. Throughout the entire sharpening time, the file / file must move without jerks, it is necessary to ensure constant pressure, the movements must be made without deviations from a constant angle. The sharpening process goes only with the movements of the file “away from you”. Return the file / file by air, and there should be no contact with the hacksaw.
How to determine when it is time to sharpen a hacksaw
An experienced carpenter can tell if the saw is ready to sharpen by:
- The sound of sawing wood changes;
- Teeth change shade.
A number of signs are also available to the less experienced:
- Increased material resistance;
- It is difficult to maintain the perpendicularity of the cut;
- The blade does not adhere well to the mowing line of the cut, the line deviates or bends;
- The blade gets stuck in the wood.
Before sharpening the saw, it is imperative to separate the teeth, that is, to ensure that they are deflected from the plane of the blade at a certain angle. Correctly set teeth guarantee a kerf wide enough to prevent the blade from getting stuck in the material. If the teeth are too set, the kerf will be too wide, this will increase the loss of material, the pulling force, and also reduce the accuracy.
If you sharpen the saw correctly on wood, it regains its working qualities.
During sharpening, the following geometrical characteristics of the teeth are restored:
- Profile angle;
- Bevel angle of cutting edges.
General requirements for sharpening
Two rectangular isosceles triangles and a steel plate 20 × 3 mm are attached on a wood base with a size of 2 × 5 cm from a bar with a thickness of 2 cm or more. A support plate-support made of plywood or OSB with a thickness of one and a half centimeters with dimensions of 15 × 40 cm is attached to the triangles and the same clamp plate is fixed to it from below on hinges. The plates are tightened with screws or studs with wing nuts. If installation at an angle of 45 ° is required, the plates are fixed to the hypotenuses of the support triangles, and if 90 °, then to the legs.
Hacksaw sharpening rules
To sharpen the saw, you will also need several files that differ in section and pitch of the notch. All of them must be serviceable, without knocked down or clogged with dust notch lines. To sharpen a saw on wood, the file must be moved smoothly, with constant pressure and at a constant angle. The working movement of the file is carried out “from itself”. It should be easily pulled onto itself, practically without touching the metal surface.
With different cutting tooth heights, the efficiency of woodworking is greatly reduced. The higher ones take on a greater load and are subject to accelerated wear, while the lower ones do not participate in cutting. The broach becomes uneven, jerky. Both the accuracy of the cut and the quality of the cut surface are reduced.
Alignment of the height of the teeth should be carried out before sharpening the blade. The height is checked as follows: the canvas is pressed against a sheet of paper lying on the table. The profile is printed on the sheet, and the height of one or another tooth can be determined from the print. To align teeth of different heights, the blade must be clamped in a locksmith vice. Prongs protruding above others must be filed down.
Tool for equalizing the height of the teeth
The teeth deviate from the plane of the blade in a checkerboard pattern, for example, all even ones to the left, all odd ones to the right.
Only very experienced carpenters are able to cut wood saws by eye. This skill comes after several hundred diluted saws. Less experienced craftsmen are better off using a special tool. Wiring.
The simplest version of the tool is a flat plate made of strong metal with a slot, into which the blade is pulled in, with a minimum clearance.
The saw blade should be clamped in a locksmith’s vice. The teeth should protrude slightly from the jaws. The teeth one by one are clamped in the groove of the tool of the plate and bent in the middle. The routing angle must be constantly monitored. First, all even teeth are bent in one direction, then all odd ones in the other. At the end of the wiring, you can spread the sponges to the width of the wiring and stretch the canvas between them. If any of the teeth are bent more than necessary, they will touch the vice. They need to be fixed.
Canvases with hardened teeth are not subject to spreading.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood with a file
For sharpening, the hand saw blade must be clamped between the plates of the equipment in such a way that the teeth rise above them by one and a half to two centimeters. For different types of blades, sharpening a hacksaw on wood is carried out in its own way.
Fixing the saw sharpening file
To properly sharpen the cross hacksaw, the blade should be set at 45 °, the file should be selected with a triangular cross-sectional profile.
To ensure the proper quality of sharpening, the following sequence of actions must be observed:
- Sharpen the left edges of the even (farthest from the master) teeth;
- Turn the canvas over;
- Sharpen the left edges of the even teeth;
- Form sharp cutting edges and sharpened tops of teeth
Sharpening your hacksaw correctly
To sharpen a longitudinal or universal hacksaw, it must be fastened at a 90 ° angle. This requires a file with a diamond-shaped cross-section. The file moves in the plane of the desktop. The sequence of sharpening the teeth is the same as for cross-cut saws.
During work, burrs usually appear on non-sharpened edges, which are larger or smaller, depending on the thickness of the hacksaw blade. They should be smoothed with a “velvet” file or with an abrasive bar of minimum grain size. Sharpening quality can be checked in two ways:
- To the touch. Should feel sharp, should not feel burrs.
- By color. No x glare occurs on properly sharpened edges under illumination.
The quality is also checked by a trial cut. The hacksaw should not be pulled to the side, the cut surface should be smooth, without soaked wood fibers.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood
Despite the widespread use of circular saws, reciprocating saws, and jigsaws, the traditional wood saw is preserved in every household’s workshop. With a small amount of work or in hard-to-reach places, where it is impossible to crawl with a power tool, a hand-held hacksaw still helps out. In order for the tool to work with sufficient performance, accuracy and quality, it must be sharpened on time.
How to sharpen a hacksaw yourself
A hacksaw for wood belongs to the “eternal” values.
But, in order for the hand saw to always perform its functions, it must be sharpened correctly.
Basic knowledge of the type of cutting edge and its features will come in handy here.
Of the existing methods, we will consider the safest and most popular, using improvised tools and available for home conditions.
Why sharpen and when
With constant use, the teeth lose their sharpness, the cutting edges wear out, deteriorating the quality of the cut and increasing the time to complete the task.
Buying a new one will not correct the situation for a long time, and it will take no more than half an hour to restore the old canvas.
Timely sharpening of the hacksaw will restore the cutting ability of the cutters, and will allow you to always have a working tool at hand.
It is worth correcting the sharpness of the cutting edges at the first signs of wear, which may touch local areas and the entire working surface.
The dimensions of the cutter set also change, and this leads to jamming during operation.
Set of teeth of a hacksaw
The movement of the blade must be free, for which the saw teeth are set by the same amount.
To reduce the coefficient of friction and the clamping of the hacksaw in the cut, its width should be greater than the thickness of the working blade, otherwise the metal heats up and expands, which leads to the saw to jam.
The setting of the hacksaw teeth is performed by bending the cutters to the sides.
Using pliers does not allow you to get the same angle of inclination. With such a tool you can only cut firewood.
To spread the cutters evenly and get a smooth, neat cut, use a homemade setter.
To make it, you need a metal plate of arbitrary shape with a thickness of 2-3 mm.
In a simple version, several slots are made to indicate the thickness of the blade.
The prong is gripped into the hole and bent back until it reaches the selected stop.
In the second version, a cut is cut in the bar with a metal file, and two holes are drilled to install the limiter.
Turning the sector to the sides allows you to adjust the bend angle.
The figure shows a simple model and wiring with emphasis.
The device circuit is intuitively easy to manufacture and use.
It should be noted that the bend width has its own parameters.
How to sharpen a hacksaw
The question “How to sharpen a hacksaw with your own hands?” does not lose its relevance, despite the presence of a modern power tool in every home.
The saw is needed on the farm, irreplaceable on vacation, used for cutting boards, logs, chipboard.
It is also necessary for construction, carpentry and installation work; in the garden and workshop.
In the city, in the country or in the garage. Everyone has this time-tested tool.
General requirements for sharpening
Not every garage or workshop has a special machine for sharpening hacksaws, but it does not hurt to tweak the tool with your own hands.
There are, of course, exceptions. Hardened teeth cannot be sharpened.
Diamond drills and other tricks won’t help.
Such a saw has an increased resource and cannot be repaired, but replaced with a new one.
It is easy to identify hardened steel. It is black with a blue tint.
A hacksaw sharpener is usually a grinder or a file and file.
A prerequisite is to first perform the correct setting of the teeth, because the thickness of the hacksaw blade affects the cutting width, so the edges must be bent to the required width.
Sharpening a hacksaw with a sander or an angle grinder requires skill.
Sharpening a hacksaw mechanically is much safer and easier.
Before starting work, prepare a vise or clamp, a vernier caliper, a hammer and other necessary tools:
Cross-cut saws sharpen at an angle of 60 degrees with a triangular fine file.
Longitudinal with an angle of less than 60 degrees. A large file or a diamond file with a fine abrasive is used.
For the mixed type, you will need a coarse cut file or a fine cut diamond file.
For this operation, a special device for sharpening is useful. A wooden block with a cut out socket to protect hands from cuts.
To sharpen a hacksaw using a grinder, you need a cutting wheel with a thickness of 1.2 to 1.4 mm, a diameter of 115 or 125 mm. The angle grinder should have a speed adjustment in the range of 5000. 8000 per minute. Installing protection is a prerequisite for using this method. Typically, a homemade transparent plastic visor is used.
Hacksaw sharpening technology for wood
Correct sharpening of the hacksaw should maintain the working tooth profile.
It is determined by the following parameters:
Step and height;
The sharpening angle can be set in the range of 30 to 60 degrees, and depends on the material.
So, for soft wood species, the optimal indicator will be 50 degrees.
It is important to properly fix the blade in a vice. Do not clamp it tightly, as the steel will vibrate under the file.
Using a workbench and a clamp, you can conveniently fix the hacksaw.
Sharpening is done by alternating double-sided sharpening. First, one row is passed along the left edges of all teeth.
Then the tool is turned over, and the pass along the right half of the cutters is repeated.
The one-sided method for dressing hand saws is not used. It is applicable only in relation to some types of knives.
Why and when to sharpen
The tool under consideration is subjected to various loads during operation, which leads to dulling of the teeth. If you cut with a saw that has dull teeth, the result will be much less effective than a sharp one. In addition, using a saw with blunted teeth is not recommended for the following reasons:
- Decreased tool performance. Not only the powers of the master will be spent, but also his time.
- Decreased accuracy of work. It is impossible to cut wood materials evenly with a blunt-toothed hacksaw, much less to do it neatly.
- Danger of using the tool. During work, the saw will get stuck, jammed, come off the mowing line of the cut, so such work can be dangerous for the master.
A sharp hacksaw is not only easier to work with, but also much safer. To determine that it is time to sharpen the saw blade for wood, you should pay attention to the following factors:
- The canvas emits a characteristic dull sound. If the master often uses a hacksaw, then it will not be difficult for him to determine such a sound.
- The tips of the teeth are rounded.
- Saw when trying to cut wood refuses to do its job.
These factors indicate that it is time to sharpen the hacksaw on wood with your own hands. But before you take up the file, you should determine whether these links are subject to sharpening.
Purpose and device of the saw
The hand saw is used for sawing various wood materials. It is a blade with teeth at the bottom. On one side, the tool is equipped with a handle with which the master holds it during sawing work. The convenience and comfort of working with the saw depends on the quality of the handle.
The number of manufacturers of hacksaws for wood is quite large, but they all differ not only in names, but also in quality. All of them are intended for sawing wood, chipboard, logs, laminate, as well as tree trunks. Hacksaws are subdivided into such types as: classic, circular, bow, as well as with butt and reward. The thickness of the blade plays an important role when choosing a tool. After all, a thin blade can break during sawing wood, and it is quite difficult for thick ones to work.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood yourself
For sawing building materials from wood, as well as trees, a tool such as a hand saw is used. Despite the fact that electric and even gasoline saws, jigsaws and circular saws have been developed for a long time, the hand saw for wood remains an indispensable assistant in the arsenal of every master. With the active use of this tool, it becomes necessary to sharpen the teeth. How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood yourself at home, we will consider in the material.
Sharpening a hacksaw for wood begins with a procedure such as setting teeth. The setting of the hacksaw teeth is performed for such purposes as ensuring the free movement of the blade without jamming. The setting is the bending of the teeth in different directions, alternately, by one amount. This leads to the fact that the kerf width increases, which means that during the sawing process the chip removal process is accelerated.
The amount of tooth spread depends on the thickness of the blade, and is usually 1.5-2 mm. To bend the teeth by the same amount, you will need to use a special device. This device is a metal plate with a special slot. The blade is clamped in a vice so that the links protrude slightly. After that, the process of bending the teeth is carried out. Sharpened teeth must also be bent to the same distance.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood
To sharpen a hacksaw on wood, the blade should be fixed in a vice in the same way. Needle files or triangular files with a fine notch are used to sharpen the saw links. Not many people know how to properly sharpen a file on wood, so you should pay as much attention as possible to this process.
- Initially, you need to pick up a file. A file with a fine cut should be used, which should be held with one hand by the handle and the other by the tip of the instrument.
- The sharpening angle is determined, which usually ranges from 15 to 30 degrees. The angle is usually determined by eye, but if it is difficult to do this, then you can use special home-made devices, for example, a wooden block. To do this, the bar is turned until it has the shape of a right-angled triangle with angles of 30 and 60 degrees.
- The most important thing when working with a file is pressure on it. To ensure uniform sharpening, the same number of file passes must be made over each tooth. With experience, you will learn how to remove the top layer of metal evenly.
- Using the prepared device, the sharpening angles are controlled. The process is carried out in the same way on the reverse side of the web.
Now you know how to properly sharpen the teeth of a hacksaw blade for wood. But the process does not end there, as it will be necessary to align the teeth in height. If they have different heights, the uniformity of the cut will be disturbed. If there are links that are higher than the rest, then their shortening is performed using the same file. The check is carried out using a sheet of paper, to which the blade should be applied with the teeth down. After that, the sizes are compared, and the shortening procedure is repeated.
How to sharpen a saw: practical recommendations
When carrying out work on sharpening a hacksaw, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- The device is firmly fixed on the working surface in a vice.
- Providing good lighting for the workplace.
- To sharpen the links, files and needle files with various cuts are used. The smaller the notch, the better. It all depends on the degree of dullness of the teeth.
- Metal removal is carried out only when the file moves away from itself in one direction.
- After the work is done, you need to check the quality. To do this, look at each link in the light. If the tooth shines, then it is sharpened correctly, as in the photo below.
In conclusion, it should be noted that many craftsmen do not consider it necessary to sharpen a hacksaw. This is wrong, since the efficiency of the work depends on the quality of sharpening.