How to use an impact drill. Designs and characteristics of impact drills

The construction of an impact drill

Percussion drilling tools are used to make drilling into walls easier. They combine the advantages of a jackhammer, flatbore and drill.

The working head in the form of a drill bit or drill, in addition to the rotary motion, also performs a reciprocating motion along the axis. It creates chipping and microcracks at the point of contact with the workpiece surface, which makes it easier for the drill to pass through.

The tool that makes it possible to drill in this manner is called an impact drill or a peorator. In some cases, it is not possible to do without it at all.

The difference between a drill and a torch

Even when using the most powerful method of destroying materials with an explosion, holes are initially drilled with the help of a drill to set the explosive. This question is often asked: what is the difference between a drill and a torch?? To answer this question, it is necessary to consider the principles of operation of these devices.

The drill creates low-amplitude vibrations that make drilling easier, but make it impossible to work in “heavy” materials like reinforced concrete. The mechanism is made of two ratchets, one fixed and one located on the rotation axis of the chuck.

With the shock function disabled, the ratchets do not touch each other. When it is turned on, the stopper is removed, the drill resting against the wall closes the ratchet gears, and vibration is created, which facilitates the drilling process.

This design is simple to produce, but unreliable and not designed for heavy loads. ratchet teeth wear out quickly and need constant lubrication.

The peorator, unlike an impact drill, has a more complicated design. It can withstand higher loads and is designed for a longer service life.

Operating principle and general construction of the ratchet

Electric (mains and battery). universal use As a rule, they are used for household repairs. than 70% of all manufactured torches are of this design. Its main disadvantage is its relatively complicated construction.

Pneumatic They are used in aggressive and explosive environments where a spark from the motor brushes can cause an ignition. Design advantage. lightness, reliability and maintainability. The disadvantage. a compressor station is required for operation.

Gasoline-driven They are used in road construction and when it is impossible to use the electricity grid. The working principle is the same as in any power tool. Advantages. high power, autonomy. Disadvantage. cumbersome design.

Let’s take a closer look at the electric torch device

The power plant for all mechanisms is an electric motor. It can be positioned either lengthwise or crosswise to the chuck axis. This does not change anything in principle, but the tool with a transverse located motor has a wider range of power and is better cooled.

Electrical diagram

The electric circuitry of the accelerator is simple enough, except for the speed regulator unit. Different manufacturers offer their own versions, the most common scheme is electronic.

If board components fail. repair is impractical, the entire unit is replaced. The weak point of the entire electrical circuit is the motor brushes and trigger contacts with a variable resistor speed regulator.

This is due to constant contamination by dust and increased vibration. Brushes are replaced as they wear out; switch contacts can be periodically cleaned mechanically.

If your machine no longer operates the first thing to check is the integrity of the power cable and the contacts on the on/off switch. Most electrical problems are due to mechanical damage to wiring and contacts in the control box.


Designed to transmit torque from motor to chuck axis and simultaneously reduce rotation speed. The design eliminates shock loads on this assembly.

Wear is caused by the gear teeth and the splined joint with the chuck shaft which should move freely in longitudinal direction while rotating.

The gearbox works in both directions, so its gears can wear on both sides. The gearcase or gearbox frame is made of strong material that can withstand heavy loads, so this part of the construction is almost unbreakable.

However, when the chuck jams regularly and continuously under load for long periods of time, the gearbox frame is subjected to heavy loads.

For trouble-free operation of the gearbox, it is important that it be cleaned and relubricated in good time.

Chips of stone, dust and sand can penetrate into the friction zone. At some point, it becomes an abrasive, further destroying the rubbing parts. Grease also looses its properties through continuous heating.

So manufacturers recommend changing the lubricant inside the gearbox at least once a year. Change interval halved with heavy use.

Even if the tool is not used for a long time, grease must be replaced in time. After a certain time, the oil components separate from each other and the lubricant fails to protect the rubbing parts.

Unit life is dramatically reduced. In addition, with untimely maintenance you can lose the warranty on the tool, and then you will definitely have to repair it yourself.

Lubrication procedure is simple and can be done at home.

Any kerosene-based cleanser is fine. After it has dried out, new grease has to be applied in the same quantity as before. Excess oil will be squeezed out of the gearbox working area and can clog the gearbox vents.

If the manufacturer offers to use oil from any manufacturer, find out their performance properties. This will help you choose a cheaper alternative without compromising on quality.

Make sure not to mix lubricants in different assemblies and not to get in contact with electrical components inside the pen.

Impact mechanism

  • Swing Bearing. Used in lightweight models with horizontally mounted motors. The working piston is driven by an external bearing sleeve (see “Operating piston” on page 25). Figure 1). The range of motion of such a mechanism is small, the tool with this drive is used for simple jobs, in cases where drilling with a conventional drill takes a long time or is not possible at all. The mechanism will fail quickly if you use such a peorator with increased loads;
  • Crank mechanism. Used in medium- and heavy-duty tools with upright motor.

How to use a drill safely

Our experienced team of editors and researchers contributed to this article and checked it for accuracy and completeness.

wikiHow’s team of content managers carefully monitors the work of the editors to ensure that each article meets our high quality standards.

Number of sources used in this article: 12. You will find a list of them at the bottom of the page.

Number of views on this article: 2583.

A drill is one of the most useful tools for do-it-yourself projects and repair and construction work, but like any other power tool, you should always be safe with a drill. Understanding how to handle it properly will help you avoid injuries from flying chips when making holes in different materials, as well as avoid electrocution. If you have any additional questions about the safe handling of your drill that are not covered in this article, it is wise to look up the answers in the instruction manual for your tool.

Protect your eyes and wear safe work clothing. Avoid wearing baggy clothes and loose-fitting jewelry when working with a drill, as these can wind up on the drill when you bend over it. Use safety glasses that provide eye protection, including lateral protection from flying debris.

  • Peorotor drills (impact type) are the noisiest and make more than 100 decibels of noise. Hearing protection is always recommended with them.
  • All respirators provide protection from specific types of hazardous substances. When you buy a respirator, make sure it is appropriate for the project you are working on.
  • When making a pilot hole for a screw, it will be easy to find a drill with the right diameter. Hold the drill bit and screw in your hand at the same time, so that the screw is behind the drill bit. The drill bit must conceal the core of the screw, and the thread ridges on the screw must remain visible on both sides of the drill bit. [4] X Source of information
  • All chucks have their own dimensions that determine the allowable minimum and maximum diameters of drill bits with which they can work. For example, in a chuck the maximum diameter of a shank of the drill bit can be 6 mm, 6,35 mm, 6,5 mm, 10 mm, 13 mm, 16 mm, and the minimum diameter of a shank can be 0,5 mm, 0,8 mm, 1 mm, 1,5 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm. [6] X Source of information [7] X Source of information
  • Start the drill and look at the drill bit spinning in the air. If it wobbles from side to side or if its tip becomes fuzzy when you rotate it, the drill bit is bent or not properly secured. Discard bent drill bits without regret, as they break easily during drilling. [8] X Source of information

When drilling holes in small objects, secure them in a vise. If you need to drill a hole in a small object, use a drill clamp to hold the object in place so that it doesn’t move around. Do not hold the drill in one hand and hold an object with the other, otherwise the tool can slip easily and injure yourself. [9] X Source of information

How to use the core drill correctly

Good afternoon! Please tell me how to use a drill correctly? I had no experience with tools like this before, I don’t want the gift to lie idle. Is there a safety rule of thumb with this kind of work?? I would also like to know how to hold the drill correctly so that the drill does not slip off the wall.

Hello! There is nothing particularly complicated about using a drill. You can learn how to do this in a relatively short period of time. It is a necessary thing in the household, and it comes in handy, as a rule, quite often.

Not all walls can be nailed with a hammer, in which case you can use a drill, as it is designed to drill holes in the hardest surfaces.

First of all, in the manual of the drill, you need to check whether it supports a suitable voltage and whether you can work with it directly from the mains or whether you need an adapter. Then it is recommended to carefully inspect the drill for visible damage and begin work only if there is no damage. Only plug the tool in if the motor is off and the start button is not pressed. Starting work immediately after switching on the mains is fraught with danger of short circuits and danger.

It is also important to switch on the power in good time, namely before contact with the work surface, otherwise there is a great danger of damaging the drill bit and the work surface. When you are drilling, you must protect yourself against electric shock by removing all contacts to grounded objects. Such surfaces include refrigerators and other plugged-in appliances, heating radiators, metal pipes and stoves.

Protect the drill from moisture, do not work under water or in the rain, in excessively wet rooms. When working in winter wait until the tool is at room temperature before turning it on. If the temperature rises too fast when you start work, condensation inside the tool can occur and can sometimes lead to short circuits.

The drill can be used to hang a picture or attach shelves and cabinets, curtain rods. To hammer the dowel in a brick wall or in some kinds of concrete without a drill is impossible. Holes in concrete walls are most often drilled with a drill, and they must be drilled at maximum speed to achieve the result. The depth of the hole chosen more than required by about 5 mm, this reserve is necessary in case you can not fully remove from the resulting hole construction dust.

To eliminate this dust there is a special tool. a dust extractor. But if you do not have one handy, you can use a rubber bulb. To tips on safety include the recommendation not to blow into the hole to remove dust and concrete chips. Even with goggles and a respirator it can be harmful to health.

Basic safety precautions at work: it is necessary to make sure that there are no electrical wires or pipes inside the wall before starting drilling.

Even with a detailed plan of communications should be checked with special equipment, because any plan may not match reality, and a mistake sometimes costs lives.

The slip of the drill often occurs on smooth materials like ceramics or walls coated in several layers of oil paint. In this case, it is recommended to stick a thin cloth plaster or adhesive tape on the place to be drilled. When working with ceramics, plastic or plexiglass the tool must be turned on low speed, otherwise cracks or melting and deformation of the material cannot be avoided. The drill bit can also slip when working with metal, this is especially dangerous because it can break. In this case it is recommended to use rack guides, homemade or company-made, which also greatly facilitate the accuracy of work.

How to use it properly

Before performing the tasks you should learn the rules of the drill and the step-by-step procedures.

impact, drill, characteristics, drills

To start working, proceed as follows:

  • Check the integrity of the power cord before pushing the mechanism’s trigger. If it is damaged, do not use the tool, it may be dangerous to your health. The drill’s plug sits securely in the socket at the same time;
  • If the tool is equipped with a side handle, it is attached to the spindle. Any position that is comfortable for the worker is chosen. The handle helps you gain extra control when working with the tool;
  • The handpiece is fastened in the chuck;
  • The drill switch is set to the drilling or drilling position;
  • The limiter is set in the right position (it helps to regulate the depth of penetration of the drill) in each specific situation;
  • The desired twisting speed of the handpiece is set with the regulator;
  • Many drills can recognize the diameter of the drill bit and adjust the speed based on that information. This automatic setting system may not be used if the drill diameter differs from the size of the shank. In this case, the setting will have to be done manually;
  • The start button must be pressed. If the speed is controlled electronically, gradually increase the speed by pressing.

Safety goggles, gloves, and respirator are recommended for use with the drill. The tool should be held firmly with both hands so that it is easier to control.

Vertical or horizontal hole

The workpiece must be clamped firmly in place while drilling.

This can be done with a workbench, vise, or work table with clamps. Hands must not be used to hold the workpiece and must be free to operate the tool.


The vertical hole is drilled as follows:

  • The drill should be set in drilling mode.
  • Manual or automatic speed selection. The smaller the tool diameter, the higher the tool must be. Choose the diameter of the screw so that it matches the drill bit. Otherwise it will not be possible to insert the screw, the surface may crack.
  • If the hole has to be drilled through, a block of wood must be put under the material. That way the ends of the hole will not spread out during the drill exit.
  • If a blind hole is to be made, the depth and diameter of the hole must be identical to those of the screw to be screwed. Even when installing self-tapping screws, the work becomes easier if you first slightly drill the hole
  • The drill should only be positioned at a right angle. When the end of the nozzle is locked in the bar, the drill should be set to its maximum rotational speed. The larger it is, the more precisely the path of the nozzle will be.

If a horizontal hole must be drilled, only the workpiece should be moved.

Also use a drill stand to increase accuracy for both vertical and horizontal holes. Examples, you can see at

impact, drill, characteristics, drills

If it needs to be done at an angle, a vise is the best way to secure it. Professionals often use a drill clamp stand for that. The workpiece is clamped firmly so that the drill can be screwed in perpendicularly.

If the holes are made in irregularly shaped workpieces. for example a cylinder, then rubber spacers should be prepared for fixation. It helps to clamp the piece firmly and guide the tool into the drill position. An ordinary drill bit can only enter correctly into a flat surface. So if you want to drill at an angle, professionals use a drill jig.

How to drill a deep hole with a drill in wood:

How to drill metal

When drilling in metal with a drill, the special characteristics of the metal must be taken into account.

First select a special nozzle that is suitable for working with metal.

It differs from conventional bits for wood or stone by the brand of steel, as well as the angle of sharpening of the cutting part.

During the work, do not set the drill to a high rotational speed, otherwise it will slip and snag the metal. It is best to choose a low RPM so that you can see how thin chips appear when drilling. It is necessary to press the tool hard enough, but be careful not to damage the nozzle and not to break it. When working with steel or cast iron, it is advisable to lubricate the bit with machine oil to avoid overheating.

impact, drill, characteristics, drills

Panasonic EY7540LN2S 14.4 V Impact Drill Driver 2 x Batteries (EY7540-LN2S)

To engage the drill bit in the metal surface at the point of drilling make a recess with the help of a locksmith’s core. This helps keep the nozzle from slipping to the side.

How to make a hole in metal with a large diameter:

Another video on how to work with steel:

How to drill in concrete

Working with concrete, brick or stone generates a lot of construction dust as well as small splinters.

To reduce the amount of bobbles, you can periodically moisten the material with water.

It is recommended to use core bits with pobedite tips for making holes in concrete. They are the fastest to work with, and can be sharpened in the process.

It is best to set the drill speed to a medium level. It is also necessary to adjust the force on the tool carefully, it should vary depending on the density of the material. You should move smoothly and measuredly.

Rules of operation

The drill is a very powerful tool and is considered source of danger, so follow these simple rules when operating it.

  • Clamp the workpiece in which you wish to drill the hole, in a vice. Never try to hold it with your hands, as you can be injured.
  • Clamp cutting tool or accessory firmly in chuck, check hold before turning on tool.
  • When working with particularly hard materials, the drill must be held with both hands and constant pressure must be applied to increase the effect of drilling.
  • Pressure should be applied without fanaticism, so that the working tool does not get stuck in the hole, especially when you drill holes of large diameter. The pressure must be reduced when the cutting tool comes out from the back of the workpiece.
  • Always wear gloves and goggles.
  • Always change cutting methods and accessories after the saw has stopped turning.
  • Use only a brush to remove metal chips and other drilling debris.

The enlarged freeze frame perfectly shows the tiny splinters that can injure the unprotected hands of the miscreant.

How to drill in concrete: tips and tricks

Drilling with an impact drill through stone or hard concrete is quite a laborious process. In particularly difficult cases, when it is necessary to make a hole in a load-bearing wall or slab, it is still better to use an impact drill (switch it to the percussion drill mode). Do not even try to work with a drill when you need to drill holes to fix profiles on the concrete floor (when installing a suspended ceiling). You’ll only waste time and exhaust yourself.

What drills for concrete

For work concrete drills and auger-drills (drills) are used. Concrete drill bits have a standard shank (like standard drill bits in metal or wood) and are designed for impact drill. Drill bits with SDS shank of 10 mm or 18 mm diameter are designed for impact drills.

Drills for concrete are made of a special hard alloy, in addition, has a brazed tip (made of a super-hard alloy based on titanium and tungsten). Concrete, brick, marble, stone, ceramic and other similar materials can be drilled with these drills.

Tips and tricks

  • It should be borne in mind that concrete drills should be used only for work with concrete, ceramics, stone. It is extremely undesirable to use them to drill metal or wood. If when drilling a load-bearing wall, the drill will hit steel reinforcement, it is better to drill it with a metal drill, and then continue drilling with a concrete drill.
  • When working with an impact drill, sometimes you can find hard stones in the concrete, which the drill does not always “pick up”. In this case, use a special hammer or an old concrete drill bit and a sledgehammer to manually break up the stone. After that you can continue drilling.
  • When working with hard concrete, be sure not to overheat the drill bit by letting it cool down every 10-15 minutes.
  • Sometimes when drilling into a wall, pieces of plaster can come off the back of the wall. To avoid this problem, it is enough to lower the speed. Although the work will go a little slower, but for the safety of the wall do not have to worry.
  • To drill ceramic tiles, use a concrete drill bit, but set the mode of an ordinary drill. At the same time, you should not press too hard, so that the tile does not break.

This entry was posted in Equipment & Tools, Walls and tagged concrete, tile. Add permanent link to bookmarks.

Advantages of Use

The work of any impact drill has certain advantages over the simple counterparts of the electric tool.

  • Drilling in very hard materials. For example, for this purpose, concrete drills equipped with special pobeditovye nozzles are used. such a cutting tool is used for an impact drill, when rotary and progressive movements are used.
  • If the drill has reverse and a speed regulator, it is used for removing screws, self-tapping screws and bolts in various equipment.
  • Special attachments turn the drill into a grinder, and with a little modification into a mini angle grinder.

Maximum efficiency

In the instruction manual, each manufacturer specifies the range of speeds at which the drill will make the most of its capabilities. For example, when working with wood the highest speed is used, and for concrete and stone a slower mode is chosen. To use the drill as an electric screwdriver, choose the lowest rpm.

Some small manipulations can be made with each part of the device, which will greatly increase the efficiency of the drill.

  • Chuck. When the drill is clamped in the chuck with the wrench, you must manually bring the jaws together until they stop, and then, moving in a circle, clamp them definitively with the wrench. On keyless models, which are increasingly difficult to find, the entire process is done by hand.
  • The drill. This cutting tool should always be well sharpened, wear and various damages greatly reduce its performance. Use of low-quality drill bits can cause the motor and gearbox to be overloaded, affecting their service life.
  • Secure hold. This tool belongs to very dangerous products, so during the work it is necessary to fix it well in the hands. During drilling, vibration is transmitted to the body, so the manufacturers add a second handle for easy holding of the drill, it greatly helps to control the whole process.

Special ventilation holes must be constantly open during operation, so that there was a normal ventilation of internal parts.

The criteria for selecting an impact drill

First of all, let’s draw the reader’s attention to an interesting circumstance. Namely, the vast majority of drills, currently on sale, are percussion. Finding a “clean” tool in a store is not easy.

But it is not bad. As we have seen, the “percussion mechanism” does not make the tool heavier, and in the off position it does not affect the quality of work in any way. And extra functionality is good.

One more caveat. drills are often conditionally subdivided into household, semi-professional and professional. with evaluation by drive power. Maybe it does not always seem correct. a lot depends on the tasks of the master. But that’s how it is It is with power that we will begin to consider the criteria for evaluating the model we choose.

Drill capacity

This information can be used to estimate roughly the power capacity of a model. It is clear that the higher the power, the more force is created on the spindle, the longer the drill can work without critical heating.

But there is a flip side to this: the higher power, the heavier the tool, which also can impose its limitations.

The power is usually specified not only in the data sheet, but also on the nameplate on the body of the drill.

How do you estimate this value approximately??

  • If you buy a drill just for a set of home tools, and will be involved only from time to time, for one-time operations (preferably. without chiselling concrete), it may be enough power up to 600 W. These are what are called household tools. Such a drill will also be suitable if it will mainly be used for work in the mode of an electric screwdriver and for drilling only wood or plastic.
  • If the owner is passionate about constant work in the home workshop, but the tool is not set too heavy tasks, if the repair is planned in a wooden house, then the power drill from 650 to 1000 watts is suitable. Such a tool is usually referred to semi-professional, and it is able to work with short pauses for 5 รท 6 hours during the day.

By the way. this category is the most popular and in demand. The golden mean, indeed.

  • Powerful drills (more than 1 kW) in most cases in the conditions of the house or apartment are a surplus, as their capabilities very often simply remain unclaimed. Yes, such models will be easier to cope with hard wall material in percussion mode. But, as has been said more than once. this should not be the decisive criterion, because a much less powerful peorator will cope with such a task much better.

But for the usual repair and construction operations of everyday need such a drill will not be comfortable. because of the increased massiveness and large size. Even boring a hole with high accuracy is no easy task.

Speed of rotation, reverse

The higher it is, the more accurately the holes are obtained, the better the results of work with the drill with grinding nozzles and other accessories. The drilling capabilities of different materials also depend on this parameter.

The standard set of controls for speed and direction of rotation

Probably all models now have an adjustable rotation speed, as mentioned above. Usually, it is a wheel located directly on the start button. This, by the way, is not capable of increasing the speed of rotation. In just the maximum position, this control does not limit the full stroke of the trigger, i.e. to the maximum speed. Turning the knob downward produces a slower travel. That is, even when the key is pressed all the way down, the spindle speed is already slower. By the way, the stopper fixes the key exactly at full pushing with current speed settings.

A drill with “reverse gear” is a good buy. This enables you to use the resources of your drill in the most efficient way possible, depending on the task in hand. For example, there is no sense in high speed when working with fasteners, but it is better to use increased torque.

By the way, there are such novelties in which the built-in chip evaluates both drill diameter and resistance of the material in which the hole is drilled. Based on the evaluation results the electronics selects the optimal spindle speed.

There is no sense to say much about reverse: a modern drill must have it. It means that the model without this option (such a cheap one also comes across) is better not even to be considered as a variant to purchase. Otherwise, first of all, you immediately lose the function of an electric screwdriver. Secondly, everyone who has ever had a jammed drill bit in material knows how effective the reverse method becomes in such situations.

Possible drilling diameters

To judge a model by this criterion, you must imagine what tasks will be set for it. Well, for an already acquired drill, on the contrary, compare your desires with the allowable values, so that too high load does not burn down the drive.

The maximum permissible diameters are usually indicated separately for wood, for metal and for stone.

Drill chuck

  • The usual three-jaw toothed metal chuck, which is tightened with the special wrench included in the kit. System tested and reliable. But changing tooling requires a lot of time, and keys in the heat of work, according to the ancient tradition, tend to “hide” or get lost.
  • Quick-action chuck. Also essentially a three-cam, well centered tooling that can be set. But the tightening is done by hand force. the two cylindrical parts of the chuck are pulled together one to the other, or released if the drill needs to be pulled out. All this takes literally seconds, and does not require any additional tools.