What kind of oil is poured into a jackhammer
Dismantling works are of great importance in the construction industry. The main hand tool for their implementation is a sledgehammer. For large-scale work, an automated mechanism, represented by a crane-driven kettle, is used. There is an intermediate version of a mechanized device suitable for dismantling various volumes. This is a jackhammer.
To classify the devices in question, several parameters are used.
By performance, jack hammers are differentiated into three types.
- Lightweight options are designed for domestic use. They are able to crush plaster, tile, etc., which determines their use for home repairs. The mass of such mini jackhammers is 5-6 kg.
- Medium power devices are suitable for asphalt, so they are used for some construction work. Weight from 6 to 10 kg provides the possibility of long horizontal retention.
- In industry and in the construction of buildings, high-powered jack hammers weighing 15-30 kg are used.
However, mass is an indirect measure of performance. There is a classification close to the one given, based on other, more significant parameters. It also includes four types.
- The first includes jack hammers with impact energy up to 30 J and frequency up to 45 Hz. They are suitable for medium strength materials such as asphalt, brick, clay, and work in confined spaces.
- The second type is represented by variants with a shock energy of 40 J and a frequency of 34 Hz, used in general construction works.
- The third type includes models with impact energy up to 45 J and frequency up to 20 Hz. They serve for work in the vertical direction of impacts with durable materials.
- The fourth type is represented by hammers with impact energies of more than 50 J and a frequency of up to 24 Hz. Such devices are used for high strength materials.
Based on the power source, four types of jackhammers are distinguished.
- Pneumatic devices are the most common type. The power source for them is a compressor. The principle of operation is based on the pressure of compressed air molecules on the chisel. This equipment is suitable for the destruction of any structures made of brick and concrete. For household options, power is required from 5 J, and for industrial models this parameter is from 10 to 100 J. This is enough to destroy asphalt, stone, concrete, etc.
- Electric hammers are powered by mains. The principle of their functioning is to bring the striker through the rotational element of the electric motor. Performance parameters are up to 1700 watts of power, 45 joule of impact energy and 2000 beats per minute of frequency. Thus, these versions of jackhammers have high impact power, but are not suitable for cutting and drilling materials.
- Gasoline devices are driven by an internal combustion engine, which has no valves and shaft. With low power, the main advantage of these options is autonomy, that is, the possibility of application anywhere. This is due to the lack of the need to connect to a power source. Duration of work is determined only by the amount of fuel. In addition, jack hammers of this type are considered safer in comparison with analogues. At the same time, they are distinguished by a high noise level. These models are used in the mining industry, in the destruction of concrete, asphalt, frozen soil.
- Hydraulic hammers use various power sources. Usually they are used in rescue operations.
In addition, pneumatic hammers are divided into two types according to the principle of operation.
- Volumetric devices are driven by rapidly expanding air in the chamber.
- The operation of the turbine options is provided by the energy generated by the rotation of the turbine.
The simplest classification of jackhammers on the basis of a combination of basic parameters differentiates them into professional and domestic ones.
It should be noted that there are tools close in design and purpose to jack hammers.
Concrete breakers are distinguished by their large size, weight and productivity. These devices are designed for vertical and inclined work with concrete slabs, rocks, asphalt, frozen soils. Punchers are usually more compact than jackhammers or close in size, more accurate and able to perform the functions of a drill and a screwdriver with speed and reverse adjustment. Thanks to this versatility, they are much better suited for domestic work. So, the instruction manual PE-2520M indicates the possibility of its use as both a jackhammer and a drill.
The main structural elements for any type of jackhammers are presented by a striker, a nozzle, a cartridge, etc.
Pneumatic piston models are arranged according to the scheme of piston systems based on the shock principle. The main structural elements are represented by a starting spool, a striker, represented by a piston, a fitting for a compressor hose, a glass with an annular valve and a valve box, a silencer. In addition, jackhammers include two springs, a shock absorber, a retaining ring, a handle, and a housing.
The named parts are combined into several nodes.
- Impact, also called a starter and air distribution mechanism, includes a firing pin and a barrel.
- The vibration protection of the handle is represented by a glass and sealing sleeves.
- Anti-vibration protection against a chisel includes a manipulator and a spring-loaded sleeve.
- The body-handle includes a body, a muffler of aerodynamic noise and a trigger mechanism.
The shock system has two main functions: supply, distribution and removal of air, the conversion of its energy into work.
Electric models are equipped with such specific units as an electric motor, a gearbox, which serves to convert the rotation of the shaft of the latter into reciprocating movement, a crank mechanism with a piston, which provides pressure in the cylinder that affects the hammer.
Carburetor, fuel tank, starter, ignition system, fuel pump are specific to jackhammers with ICE components. In addition, given the increased vibration of these devices, the handle and control bodies are separated from the housing by a spring suspension.
There are several options for nozzles for various purposes. So, a chisel serves to destroy concrete and metal; scrap or cylinder. Brick, concrete, ice; pencil or peak. Asphalt, brick, frozen soils; shovel. Asphalt, ice; tamper. For compaction of soils.
In addition, there is additional equipment for the hammer. The four following devices belong to it. An automatic speed controller, called soft start and idle speed limiter, serves to extend the life of the engine by eliminating overloads and gradual acceleration. The principle of its operation is based on adjusting the speed in accordance with the load. The side handle enhances ease of use, contributing to proper retention and distribution of effort. The impact frequency controller increases the degree of control of the tool, providing the ability to adjust the jackhammer for materials of different hardness. The button latch ensures that it is not necessary to constantly hold it during operation.
The principle of operation of jackhammers consists in creating reciprocating movements of the striker located in the barrel, not kinematically connected with other details. This is done by various mechanisms depending on the type of hammer.
So, in piston pneumatic models, the air supplied by the hose from the compressor overcomes the resistance of the valve spring when acting on the handle. As a result, the valve moves, opening the hole of the percussion mechanism. Alternately, in the lower and upper parts of the cylinder, a vacuum and excess pressure are created due to the bypass of compressed air between them by the valve system, causing reciprocating movements of the striker.
The operation of a pneumatic turbine hammer is based on the drive of the energy generated by the rotary air by a turbine wheel.
Gasoline hammers are also usually equipped with a pneumatic hammer mechanism. The piston, changing the pressure in the cylinder, leads to the movement of the piston of the hammer with an attached tip.
First of all, it should be noted that jack hammers are mainly professional equipment. This is due to their lack of demand for domestic and household purposes, as well as high cost.
Therefore, the main factor in choosing a jackhammer is the purpose, that is, the volume and nature of the planned work. This determines the required parameters and functions of the device. In addition, it is impractical to purchase such a device for one-time work.
There are several basic parameters for jackhammers.
- Weight determines the ability to hold the device on weight. So, models weighing up to 6 kg are relevant for high-altitude work or cramped conditions. Hammers up to 10 kg can be held horizontally when performing horizontal work on dismantling walls and making holes. Heavier hammers can be operated vertically with a foundation, soil, etc.
- The force of impact is equivalent to the amount of material chipped for it. Thus, the effectiveness of the tool and the speed of work directly depend on this indicator. It can range from 2.8 to 63 J.
- The frequency of the impact, reflecting their number per unit time, also determines the speed of work, however, it is inversely related to the previous parameter. That is, with an increase in the impact force, their frequency decreases. So, for light models, this characteristic can be up to 3500, while for heavy models. From 1100.
- Power determines the piercing ability of a jackhammer and the duration of the working cycle. It is 0.5 –2 kW. For finishing work, 1.2 kW is enough. To destroy a concrete or brick wall, 1.6 kW is needed. The greatest power requires the dismantling of the pavement.
The technical specifications given for jack hammers are largely determined by the type of drive. That is, one of the classifications is of great importance. To understand how to choose a model, you need to know the features of the types allocated to it.
Pneumatic devices, in comparison with electric and hammers with internal combustion engines, due to their simpler design, are considered more reliable and durable at a significantly lower cost. In addition, they have the smallest mass of 1.5 to 16 kg. Over, such hammers are very productive. Finally, these models are suitable for work in high humidity and close to flammable substances. The main drawback is the binding to a power source in the form of a compressor, which will have to be purchased separately for a considerable price. Over, it is necessary to choose this device based on the parameters of the hammer. The main characteristics are volume and working pressure. The compressor parameters determine the duration of operation.
Electric jackhammers are tied to an energy source, just like pneumatic ones. In contrast, such devices are unacceptable to use near flammable substances due to sparking of the motor during operation. They are also not suitable for high humidity conditions. Despite this, they represent a very common type of jackhammers. This is due, first of all, to much greater efficiency in comparison with pneumatic jackhammers and models with internal combustion engines. In addition, they are distinguished by the best environmental performance, the lowest level of vibration and noise. Despite the external energy source, it is not represented by additional equipment, it provides unlimited operating time and ease of connection. Finally, with a more complex design, they are easy to maintain. In addition to the main parameters, engine power is of great importance for these hammer models. For domestic purposes, jack hammers of this type are most often used.
In addition, there are battery options that combine the above positive qualities of electric hammers with the autonomy of gasoline. Nevertheless, they are not so mobile, since the duration of operation is determined by the capacity of the battery, which requires further charging.
Ice models are the most mobile. Over, they are characterized by a high level of noise, the presence of toxic emissions. Over, instead of being tied to an energy source, they require a fuel supply, the amount of which determines the duration of work. Finally, ICE jackhammers are the most difficult to maintain: they require draining fuel residues, cleaning filters, etc.
In addition, the prevailing working position of the jackhammer is of great importance.
Horizontal modifications are distinguished by a small weight and the presence of appropriate handles: holding the rear and controlling the front.
Vertical jackhammers are heavier and equipped with side handles.
Finally, the manufacturer is of considerable importance when choosing. There are a number of brands known for high quality products. Manufacturers that produce the best jackhammers include Bosch, Sparky, AEG, Makita, DeWALT, Hitachi, Metabo, Milwaukee.
The main areas of use of jackhammers include construction and mining.
In the first case, they serve to carry out the dismantling of structures during redevelopment and demolition, metal felling, removal of concrete and asphalt pavement, tamping soils in hard-to-reach places, arranging wells, loosening frozen soils, making holes and niches, removing ice.
In the mining industry, jack hammers are used when more powerful equipment is unavailable. So, the conditions of use in mines, consisting primarily of in a limited space, determine the need for tools of compact sizes. In addition, the processing of workings is carried out along the entire radius. Therefore, a light hammer is required, which can be used upside down.
The scope of application is largely determined by the type of device: in what conditions and under what atmosphere to work, etc.
Some features of the operation of jackhammers were noted above. Regardless of the type of device, there are general rules. Firstly, before starting work, the tip of the nozzle should be lubricated with any plastic grease such as lithol and solid oil. Secondly, it is recommended to add grease to the tool barrel when working from two times per shift in order to extend its service life. In this case, various oils for a jackhammer are used in accordance with the instructions. Some recommend I20A, others. 15w-40 gear oil, etc. Thirdly, do not allow dirt and water to enter the device, rinse the cartridge from lubrication with gasoline at the end of work, after removing the nozzle. Fourthly, it is necessary to follow the provisions of the instructions, using the hammer chipper as intended and without overloads. Fifthly, with a frequency of once a month, it is recommended to carry out maintenance, providing for the complete disassembly and washing of all parts with gasoline or kerosene.
In addition, there are specific features of the operation of each type of jackhammers.
So, a pneumatic hammer after a long break before starting work, it is recommended to disassemble and rinse in detail gasoline. Then, for two weeks, the barrel should be lubricated with pneumatic oil 3-4 times per shift.
For electric models, timely brush replacement is necessary. In addition, technological breaks should be made in 10-15 minutes with a frequency of 25 minutes to avoid overload.
On gasoline jackhammers, it is necessary to pre-prepare the fuel mixture, including gasoline and oil, of a certain concentration. The instructions indicate which oil to fill in with a jackhammer, in what quantity, etc. Over, it is required to completely develop the fuel mixture or drain the residues. This avoids contamination of the battery with oil film.
Each type of device in question is characterized by specific malfunctions.
On pneumatic options, the channels are most often clogged. This is solved by detailed washing with kerosene. Their clogging with ice is possible, which occurs when the temperature at the outlet of compressed air drops sharply. This is eliminated by thawing it.
The main reason for breakdowns of electric jackhammers is a violation of the electrical circuit, which consists in breaking the button and erasing the brushes that transmit electricity to the motor. Replacing the brushes is very simple. Button repair is more complicated due to the fact that in many cases it is necessary to disassemble the entire case, however, on modern models, taking into account this feature, it is equipped with a separate cover for easy replacement.
Models with internal combustion engines are characterized by clogging of the carburetor. Finally, on any jackhammers there is a jamming of the nozzle in the cartridge. In this case, the cartridge is dismantled and the nozzle is squeezed out, after which the cartridge is washed from lubrication with kerosene.