Which way the trimmer rotates
The movement of the earth around its axis
Due to the fact that the Earth is constantly rotating, something is constantly changing on each part of the planet. For example, day is replaced by evening, smoothly flowing into night. And this is all thanks to the movement around the axis.
It should be noted right away that no earth’s axis actually exists, only in imagination. It is not difficult to imagine it, it seems to pass through the entire planet, permeating it at two points-poles, North and South. Despite the physical absence of an axis, the planet rotates as if it were really impaled on this giant stick and untwisted by someone’s strong hand.
The direction of movement is stable and occurs from west to east. That is why, over millions of years, all the inhabitants of the planet see that the Sun rises in the east and then hides in the west.
Interestingly, if suddenly someone starts watching it from the North Pole, it will look like a counterclockwise rotation. Well, if from the South, then, on the contrary, clockwise.
For example, the shortest ones were recorded in 2003. They lasted less than it should be for a whole second and another 5 thousandths of it.
There are many reasons for changing the speed. It can be internal processes occurring deep under the earth’s crust, and the magnetic radiation of the moon, and celestial bodies sweeping near the solar system.
The most meticulous scientists poly further. They carefully studied the notes left by their colleagues during the heyday of Babylon, and came to the conclusion that then the length of the day was less than 0.04 seconds. And an analysis of the artifacts of the Mesozoic era that have survived to this day showed that during the domination of dinosaurs on the planet, the length of the day was only 23 hours.
In which direction the Earth rotates about its axis and the Sun
The fact that the Earth is constantly in motion is a well-known fact. But few people know the details of this process. It is unlikely that anyone is immediately ready to answer the survey, at what speed our planet is moving and in which direction.
And if you delve into this topic, then many interesting details will emerge.
The movement of the earth around the sun
As the Earth revolves tirelessly around the Sun, we are experiencing the changing seasons. The planet makes one revolution in 365 days and 6 hours. For convenience, when compiling the calendar, it was decided not to take these six hours into account every time. As a result, one more day “accumulates” over four years, which, as a result, is added to February. That is why every fourth year gets longer, and they call it a leap year.
If we consider a large number of astronomical maps, then we can pay attention to one pattern. The earth is always depicted in such a way that the North Pole is at the top. This is not an accident: it is from this point that it is customary to count. Accordingly, it would be more correct to say that the Earth rotates counterclockwise.
Earth evidence of cosmic processes
Surprisingly, the rotation of the Earth in a given direction leaves imprints that many simply do not notice. The simplest example is a funnel that forms when water is drained from a sink. In the Northern Hemisphere, it spins counterclockwise. In the South, clockwise. And on the mowing line, the equator simply merges, without forming a funnel at all.
The same thing happens with cyclones. In those that rage in the north, the winds move counterclockwise. The southern ones seem to be their mirror image.
You can also conduct your own experiment to prove the direction of rotation of the earth. To do this, it is enough to drop the object from a height, carefully fixing its position before and after falling. Surely he will land a little to the east. The longer its free fall lasts, the stronger this deviation will be.
If you wish, you can find other evidence of the rotation of the Earth. To do this, it is not even necessary to fly into space, because all the most amazing is actually next to us, carefully disguising itself as the everyday and familiar.
Which way the trimmer rotates
How can you test your brain? Of course, the test. It is necessary to determine in which direction the girl in the picture rotates. This check concerns which of the cerebral hemispheres is more developed.
First, let’s look at how our brain works:
For this, a designer from Japan in 2003, a native of Hiroshima, Nobuyuki Kayahara, created a picture in the form of a flash video, although he first created it for exercises on imagination and visual perception.
But over time, it began to be perceived as a test to check the functioning of the cerebral hemispheres.
In the test, everything is very simple, first you need to look in which direction the girl is rotating, while it should be noted that she can rotate in any direction.
So, if it seems to you that the rotating silhouette of a girl goes clockwise, then your left hemisphere is more developed and therefore you are a logician, and this is the ability to speak and express thoughts, counting, logical thinking.
And if the girl rotates counterclockwise. then, therefore, intuition.
This indicates that your right hemisphere dominates and such abilities as intuition, eidetics, imaginative thinking, a sense of orientation in space and time, musicality prevail.
If the rotating silhouette of a girl alternately rotates in one direction and then in the other direction, this is ambidextrous, that is, equal work of both the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
That is, this test can also try to develop ambidexterity.
Most people, after a short workout, can learn to see a girl’s rotation in almost any direction.
If, for some reason, you still cannot catch this arbitrary rotation, then use our help in the following pictures.
The illusion of a spinning girl is that this is not so much a picture as an image of a moving space formed by your brain. Simply put, this girl is actually spinning in your head.!
If the ignition on the VAZ 2107 is too late, which way to turn the distributor?
without a difference in what, by ear and by the tachometer, retire! but it is better to call a specialist and give him 10!
there is a special device for setting the lead angle, it is better to go to the service, make a mistake and spend more money on fuel consumption.
more like glow ignition (wrong spark plugs or crappy gasoline)
all clear! The slider spins clockwise, and so turn the distributor counterclockwise, which would be earlier and for, which would later!
How should I know?
If you go to the service station there, they will put the device on the device, detonation will torture you by eye and you will burn a lot of fuel.
Useful video on how to set the ignition on any cylinder:
A device feature called a slider
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The slider is located in the ignition distributor. You can find it right under the lid. By their design, the runners are fairly simple devices consisting of plates (central and spacer). Despite the fact that the models of the distributor runners are different, the design is the same for everyone, similar.
These devices have an important sparking function. We can say that the proper operation of the internal combustion engine directly depends on the slider.
You should know that the distributor rotor is a part of old cars equipped with an engine carburetor system. The slider is made of plastic, has a high-voltage contact inside. During the functioning of the distributor, its rotation, the contact of the slider is in direct contact with the contacts of the cover. Thus, the spark that is so necessary for the car is exhibited.
Technically speaking, the distributor rotor is needed to transmit high voltage current. The transmission goes from the ignition coil to the spark plugs through the armored wires.
On the distributor drive, the slider is fixed rigidly so that it does not jump off when the shaft rotates. The lateral contact of the rotor, when rotating, contacts with the KG (contact group), pressed into the distributor cover.
Interesting. The distributor cover is in the same position regularly. It does not move, but the slide contact, “running” near the cover electrodes, forms an alternating and short-term electric arc. This also explains the transfer of the discharge.
On some cars, the ignition systems imply two working contacts of the slider. This is, in principle, a working classic Twin Spark ignition scheme of the Italian company Fiat. One of the contacts is implemented closer to the center, the other. as far as possible. In this way, the contacts correspond to the electrodes of the lid, packaged according to the same principle. And most importantly: such a scheme ensures complete isolation of the KG from each other.
Twin Spark is considered one of the first systems used for efficient afterburning of fuel in the combustion chamber of a car. The system is distinguished by its simplest design, but very effective and economical.
How to set the ignition on a VAZ 2106. step by step instructions
- Before you start, you need to warm up the engine to operating temperature, this is about 80-90 °.
- Then, without turning off the engine, open the hood and with a key on “13” loosen the nut securing the retainer clip of the distributor. Turn the distributor and watch the increase in engine speed, when they become the most stable and high, tighten the nut.
- Then sit behind the wheel and accelerate the car to 60 km / h, having driven several kilometers along the road, after reaching the required speed, turn on the 4th speed, then sharply press the gas pedal. If at the same time the engine starts to gain momentum, we can conclude that the ignition is set correctly. If you hear a knock of fingers or claps (engine detonation), you have an incorrectly set ignition, it is also called early. If you feel that the engine is developing very slowly, you have a late ignition.
- After determining the type of ignition just exposed, stop and reopen the hood.
- Loosen the distributor nut and turn it depending on what kind of ignition you have. If you have an early ignition. rotate the distributor counterclockwise a few degrees, if later. clockwise.
- Get behind the wheel again and check the car in motion. The adjustment should be made until you get the desired result, correctly set, the ignition can be counted if at a speed of 60 km / h fingers knock no more than two times.
Now that you know how to set the ignition of the VAZ 2106, I hope you can easily adjust it on your car. Thank you for your attention, check back often.
REGULATION OF IGNITION BY TRAMBLER. (MANUAL!) Where to turn it.
In fact, everything is very simple. first you need to find out where the distributor shaft rotates when the engine is running. It is not difficult to do this on any car brand; you need to remove the cover from the ignition distributor. and turn the engine with a starter or roll the car by first engaging the forward gear. Once the direction of rotation is figured out, adjusting the ignition timing is just a matter of technology. Turning the distributor housing in the direction opposite to the rotation of the slider is a decrease in the ignition timing, and vice versa, turning in the direction of rotation of the slider is an increase in the ignition timing. Now you can twist. boldly
You need to go to the service, everyone there knows
On the run of the slider. later, against the run. earlier
Clockwise angle increases, counter-decreases.
Well, you give it! They are both clockwise and counterclockwise. Put the first piston in the top dead, the mark on the crankshaft will coincide. (-) from the engine compartment lamp to the tramler capacitor. (when the first piston was exposed, I saw where the tramler was turning, and now in the other direction) turn the tramler with the ignition on until the light comes on, at the time of ignition there is a spark. The ignition order can be determined by removing the valve cover, according to the valves. (turning the crankshaft.)
Types of faults
As a rule, if the distributor slider is in order, then the motor starts the first time, without any problems. But when difficulties are observed with the plant, this indicates a damaged or punctured rotor (provided that the problems are not in something else).
The most common malfunction of the distributor runner is its breakdown. It can be external or internal. Obviously, the outer one is determined by noticeable signs. a black mark, the inner one must be checked by the presence of a spark (in detail below).
Breakdown is due to channel metallization. For preventive purposes, the metallization should be checked regularly. This is done using a multimeter or other similar device. The channel is checked at the moment of resistance. The probes of the device are connected to in the place of the slider where there is doubt about the breakdown.
You should be aware that the spark can leave through the formed channel either completely or partially.
How to set the ignition of a VAZ 2106 at home
Poor dynamics, as well as overheating of the VAZ 2106 engine, can be signs of not only coking of the engine or problems with spark plugs, but also indicate an incorrectly set ignition. Sometimes this problem is accompanied by a ringing in the engine, which is heard at low as well as at medium speeds. Novice drivers, as a rule, have no idea how to set the ignition of a VAZ 2106, so most of them immediately turn to specialists for help. There is no need for this, and today you will be convinced that you can easily set the ignition with your own hands. You do not need special devices for work.
The equatorial speed of our planet is 1,040.4 mph. Some sources state that the equatorial speed is slightly less or 1,669.8 km / h. The speed is calculated by dividing the equatorial circle by 24 hours.
The tangential speed of rotation at any point on the Earth can be approximated by multiplying the speed of the equator by the cosine of latitude.
Over millions of years, rotation has been significantly slowed down by tidal acceleration due to gravitational interactions with the Moon.
This gradual rotational inhibition is empirically documented with estimates of daytime lengths obtained from observations of tidal rhythms and stromatolites. A compilation of these measurements showed that the length of the day is steadily increasing from about 21 hours 600 million years ago to the current 24-hour value.
The period of rotation relative to the Sun (solar noon to noon) is a true solar day or an apparent solar day. It depends on the orbital motion of our planet and thus depends on the change in eccentricity and inclination of its orbit. Both factors vary over thousands of years, so the annual changes in true solar day also differ.
The period of rotation of relatively fixed stars, called a sidereal day, is 86 164, 098 903 691 seconds of mean solar time.
The period of rotation relative to the moving mean vernal equinox, called the sidereal day, is 86 164, 090 530 832 88 seconds. Thus, a sidereal day is shorter than a sidereal day by about 8.4 milliseconds.
Both the sidereal day and the sidereal day are shorter than the average sunny day by about 3 minutes 56 seconds.
Which side of the world does the Earth rotate in?
The earth revolves around an imaginary mowing line that runs through the planet’s North and South Poles. This line is called the axis of rotation, and our planet rotates around it once every 24 hours. The rotation takes place towards the east and counterclockwise. In our planetary system, almost all planets (except Venus) rotate around the axis in the same direction as the Sun.
The Earth makes one revolution in about 24 hours in relation to the Sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds in relation to the stars.
The axial tilt of the Earth is about 23.4 °. It fluctuates between 22.1 ° and 24.5 ° over a 41,000-year cycle and is currently decreasing.
The axis of rotation moves relative to fixed stars (inertial space); the components of this movement are:
Precession is the rotation of the axis of rotation, caused mainly by external moments due to the gravitational force of the Sun, Moon and other bodies.
Nutation is a weak irregular motion of a rotating rigid body in a precession.
The axis also moves relative to the earth’s crust. This is called polar movement.
Observations of solar and lunar eclipses from Babylonian and Chinese astronomy to the present day have been preserved. These observations, as well as historical records from astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and elsewhere, can be used to determine actual changes in the Earth’s rotation over the last 27th century: the calculation to describe the location and time of an eclipse depends on the rotation of the planet.
The initial motion was a consequence of the initial angular momentum of the cloud of dust, rocks and gas that formed the solar system. This primordial cloud consisted of hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang, as well as heavier elements ejected from supernovae. Since this interstellar dust was inhomogeneous, the asymmetry during gravitational accretion led to the planet’s angular rotation. Tidal effects then slowed this speed down to its present value.
Rotation of the Earth
In ancient Greece, the supporters of the Pythagorean school believed in the rotation of the Earth, and not in the daily rotation of the heavens, but Aristotle in the fourth century BC. e. established the idea of a sphere of fixed stars, which wraps around the Earth. This was accepted by most scholars, in particular Ptolemy, who thought that the Earth would be destroyed by storms if it turned.
But in 499 AD. e. the Indian astronomer Aryabhata wrote that the spherical Earth rotates on its axis every day, and the apparent motion of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the Earth. In the 10th century, some Muslim astronomers supported this theory.
In medieval Europe, Thomas Aquinas adopted the views of Aristotle, and it was only when Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543 voiced his theory of the heliocentric world system that the modern understanding of the Earth’s rotation appeared.
Tycho Brahe, who made accurate observations on which Kepler based his laws, used Copernicus’s work as the basis for a system that assumes a stationary earth. A century after Copernicus, Riccioli challenged the model of a rotating planet, but supported the theory of rotation:
The most famous evidence of the Earth’s rotation is the Foucault pendulum, first built by the physicist Léon Foucault in 1851, which consisted of a lead sphere suspended from the Pantheon in Paris. Due to the rotation of the Earth, the oscillation pendulum rotates at a speed that depends on latitude. At the latitude of Paris, the predicted and observed shift was about 11 degrees clockwise per hour.
Why the lawn mower won’t start?
If the petrol trimmer fails to start or it stalls immediately, you need to check the ignition by removing the spark plug. A dry candle means that the problem lies in the fuel supply system. A wet plug indicates a malfunction of the ignition system. If carbon is visible on the candle, you need to clean it or replace it.
Clogged air filter can be another cause. If it is contaminated with oil, it must be cleaned, washed and dried.
When you hit the gas
- If the petrol trimmer stalls when you press the gas, you need to check the air damper. If installed in the closed position, it must be installed in the open position.
- Another option is a clogged filter.
- Also, the gasket between the cylinder and the carburetor may be damaged.
- A cracked fuel hose will cause air leaks.
Preparing the petrol trimmer for work
Before you start working with your lawn mower, there are a few steps you need to take to get the tool ready for use.
Why the lawn mower stalls?
Depending on at what point the trimmer stalls, the reasons may be different.
How to cut grass with fishing line
Mowing with a trimmer that has a line or line is safer than using knives. However, the work efficiency will be lower. It is better to always select consumables for specific tasks and combine their use.
When working with a gasoline trimmer that has a line installed, follow these tips:
- mow at a height of about 10 cm above the ground;
- first mow the upper part of the grass, and then cut off the stem at the base. this will help to avoid winding on the working part;
- it is better to drive the unit in the same direction in which the coil rotates;
- when mowing the lawn, it is better to work with the ends of the line to reduce the load on the engine;
- every 15 minutes of operation, you need to give the gas trimmer a rest.
Instructions and rules for working with a lawn mower
A garden trimmer is a very useful piece of equipment for anyone who has their own plot. Garden trimmers are also called lawn mowers. They are gasoline and electric. Caring for electric grass trimmers is very simple, but gasoline owners need to know a lot of nuances. In this article we will tell you in detail how to start the trimmer, run it in, as well as how to properly mow the grass with it.
How to properly cut grass with a garden trimmer
Working with a lawn mower is easy enough if you know the basic principles and get a little hand filled. Here are some tips to help you get the best results and keep your lawn tidy:
- If you need to cut tall grass or weeds with sturdy stems, mow in double strokes. Cut off the top of the stems first, moving the slant from right to left, and then mow the rest, moving in the opposite direction.
- If it is necessary to process a large area, you need to divide the area into squares, starting the movement on the outer sides and gradually moving towards the center.
- Work on slopes is carried out according to the following algorithm: start at the bottom, mowing the grass with parallel lines and gradually going up. The grass will fall down onto the already mown area, without interfering with work.
- To mow plants around an obstacle, the protection of the gas trimmer must be considered. Move around the obstacle by gently guiding the tool around it.
- Always use good quality trimmers on your petrol trimmer. When working with fishing line or low-quality knives, the grass may not be cut off, but uprooted. the lawn will quickly become unusable.
Running in a new petrol trimmer
If you just bought a tool, you need to run it in. To do this, allow the engine to warm up slightly at idle. During this, set the position of the air damper so that the working part does not rotate. When the trimmer warms up, you need to open the air supply to full, press the throttle lever about 1/2 and hold it for about 1-2 minutes. After that, the trimmer should run in idle mode for 2-5 minutes. Switch between medium and idle speed 3-5 times. After that, you need to let the trimmer run for 5 minutes in idle mode, then turn off the engine and let the tool rest for 15-20 minutes.
After the lawn mower has cooled down, you need to do it all over again. The only difference is that you need to start the trimmer on hot with the air damper open. Try not to hold the gas for very long, as the parts of the tool have not yet ground completely. Also, do not idle for a long time, as the engine may overheat.
In general, the gasoline streamer should be rolled in until the fuel tank runs out of fuel. After that, it is considered that the initial run-in is completed and the tool is ready for use. Remember to monitor the temperature of the motor and gearbox to prevent overheating. Full running-in is considered to be the development of 5 tanks of the fuel mixture During this period, it is better not to use the trimmer in difficult conditions. It is worth taking breaks during running in to prevent the engine from overheating. This will extend the life of the tool.
Coil with two working tendrils
In this type of spool, you should determine the number of grooves for winding the line, lying on the inside of the spool:
- one groove. both antennae are wound together in one groove;
- two grooves. each antenna is wound on an individual groove.
For both cases, a line with a length of 2-3 m is taken.In single-groove reels, the line is pulled into a through hole, its ends (antennae) are folded together and aligned, after which they are wound in the opposite direction of rotation of the bobbin on the rod side. inside the arrow usually indicates the correct direction of winding. If there are fixing grooves, the ends of the fishing line are threaded through them or held with the fingers of the free hand, they are threaded into the through hole of the outer half of the bobbin, the spool is closed and attached to the trimmer bar.
The difference between the line winding in two-groove spools is that initially a 2-5 m long line segment is folded in half (to determine the middle bend), and the bend loop is inserted into a special groove between the grooves. Both antennae of the fishing line are wound each along its own groove, fixing the antennae and assembling the coil is similar to the above option with one groove.
The first execution of this procedure, perhaps, will seem long and rather laborious, but with time and experience this task will be solved much faster and easier.
The video below will clearly show how to thread the line into the trimmer spool and wind it correctly. this operation is not difficult and with some patience it will certainly be crowned with success:
First of all, to wind the fishing line, you need to remove the spool (bobbin, spool) from the trimmer. specific actions will depend on the complexity of the configuration and the type of the product itself:
- small electric trimmers with a working position of the engine and spools at the bottom, as a rule, have side buttons on both sides of the bobbin. When pressed at the same time, the upper part of the spool together with the inner content for winding the line is detached, while the lower part remains on the trimmer. It is advisable to disassemble the bobbin on a flat, smooth place so that the spring included in the structure does not jump out and is not lost;
- electric and gasoline trimmers with a curved bar without the possibility of installing a knife, as a rule, have spools with a special wing: in such designs, hold the spool in a stationary position with one hand, and rotate the locking reel on the bar with the wing nut counterclockwise with the other. After disconnecting the nut, the entire bobbin is removed.
- electric and gasoline trimmers with the ability to install a knife on a straight bar (for example, Stihl trimmers) have a hole under the reel. To keep the rod stationary, a screwdriver or other suitable object is inserted into this hole and, with slow rotation, such a mutual position is achieved when the screwdriver enters the hole and the bobbin is fixed. After that, the coil body is scrolled clockwise (with a left-hand thread) and removed from the trimmer.
For the second and third cases, the coils, depending on the design, are disassembled in different ways. In bobbins with a lamb, a lamb is unscrewed, in coils with latches, the latches are pressed and one part of the coil is released from the other. If the halves of the bobbin are connected by thread, then it is enough to turn them by hand in opposite directions until they are completely unscrewed.
How do I load the line into the trimmer spool? Video instruction
The warranty production of the factory trimmer refueling will inevitably require line replacement. Having a very rough idea of how to thread the line into the trimmer reel on their own, beginners are reluctant to take up this business. However, with some skills, mastering this simple science does not present any difficulties, and the similar instruction presented below will make this process as easy as possible.
We carry out the winding of the fishing line
Slowly completed disassembly of the spool-spool without losing its spare parts allows you to proceed to the main task. winding the fishing line into the reel. Technological features of the spool design and the number of working antennae determine the sequence of actions.
Coil with one working tendril
The simplest option and uncomplicated sequence of actions:
- The dimensions of the reel and the length of the original factory winding determine the recommended length of the line for winding. 2. 5 m.
- One end of the line is inserted into the fixing technological hole located inside the spool.
- The fishing line is wound on the drum in the opposite direction of the spool rotation on the trimmer product. as a rule, on the inner side of the reel, an arrow indicates in which direction the winding is carried out.
- A small section of the line is left free to lead it out. it is fixed in a specialized groove on the inside of the bobbin, designed to hold the winding when assembling the bobbin into working condition.
- The left end of the line is passed through the hole in the outer part of the reel.
- The bobbin halves are assembled and put on the trimmer bar.
Automatic line winding on a spool
There is a type of reel in which the automatic mechanism winds on its own. from the user it is enough only to correctly fill the line. The fishing line is passed through a hole on the inner part of the body, its antennae without winding are passed through the hole on the outer body, the reel is assembled, and when the winding button is rotated, the fishing line inside is wound independently. In such a spool, it is impossible to make the winding wrong: the mechanism itself will determine the correct direction, since it can only turn in one direction.
How to use the trimmer correctly
The household trimmer is the easiest to use and at the same time very effective tool. It seems that there is nowhere easier. to plug the tool into an outlet and work. But still, there are some nuances that you need to know in order for the trimmer to work for a long time and efficiently.
Site preparation. It is necessary to carefully inspect the mowing area and remove all foreign objects. stones, glass, wire, etc. Having flown out suddenly from under the fishing line during operation, such an object is capable of causing injury.
Installation of the cutting system. There are low-power trimmers that can only work with a line, cutting soft and succulent grass. they do not need to install a cutting system. But some trimmer models with a motor of 1 kW or more can work with a knife. If there are tough weeds or even a small overgrowth of bushes on the site, you need to unscrew the working attachment nut and install the cutting knife. Then tighten the nut tightly with a wrench.
Before starting work. It is very important to wear protective goggles when working with the trimmer, because even if you have removed the area from debris, plant stems and grass can fly into your eyes. The same stems, grass and branches can injure hands, so it is advisable to wear gloves. We simply plug in the electric trimmer, but the battery trimmer needs to be charged for several hours before use. Then, if there is a shoulder attachment, we hang it on the shoulder, the knapsack attachment on both shoulders. We conveniently grasp the trimmer by the handles: grasp the D-shaped handle tightly with your palm, and grip the garden trimmer with a bicycle handle (U-shaped) firmly with both hands. The trimmer should be held over the grass so that the line spool or knife is parallel to the ground. Turn on start.
How to mow correctly. The rotation of the cutting mechanism is counterclockwise. Thus, in order for the cut grass to fall onto the already mown area, easily, with simple movements, we carry the trimmer in front of us, from right to left. To remove the remnants of grass, you should make a movement in the other direction. from left to right. If the area is flat and large, break it into imaginary squares and mow, moving along the outside of such a square. If the plot is on a slope, then you need to start mowing from the bottom of the lawn, passing across the plot. in one direction. Having reached the edge, you need to go back and mow in the same direction, parallel. If there are many trees in the area, only cut with fishing line, otherwise you can cut the tree trunk with a knife. In such a garden, it is best to mow around the perimeter, bypassing the tree in a circle.
Completion of work. Turn off the engine and remove the shoulder straps. it is not yet complete completion. It is necessary to carefully clean the spool and knife from the remnants of grass. Then fold the trimmer, if it is telescopic or collapsible, and hide it until the next mow.
Electric trimmer efficiency
Electrokosa, which operates from a household electrical network, is relevant on a plot with an area of four to six acres, planted with trees, flowers, shrubs. It is convenient for her to carefully mow the grass near the house or along the curb, mow paths, and an environmentally friendly motor that does not produce exhaust, gas and fumes will even make it possible to remove weeds in any covered room. greenhouse or greenhouse.
The trimmer cable limits the cutting radius, but can be extended with a standard extension. If this length is not enough for you, or the parameters of the electrical network do not contribute to the normal operation of the electric motor, then you can purchase a type of electric tool. a cordless trimmer. It works autonomously, the built-in battery lasts for half an hour or an hour of intensive work. quite enough to mow the trees in the garden. The trimmer motor can be positioned at the top of the tool or at the bottom. Upper motor trimmers work well on bumpy and uneven terrain. They are also perfectly balanced and can handle tall and wet grass. no short circuits. The convenience of working with it is also increased by a single-shoulder loop, which is hung on the shoulder. The lower motor trimmer should only be used on dry grass and on level areas. Often it is the lower motor trimmers that run on a rechargeable battery.
How to properly operate an electric grass trimmer
When choosing equipment for a summer cottage, it is not always worth chasing powerful and dimensional devices. The power of the tool is undoubtedly an important parameter, but it obviously carries with it the increased weight of the device, its large size, as well as the high price and increased fuel costs. But that’s not the point.
If you have a small garden with densely planted fruit trees or a small lawn with flower beds and shrubs. then clearing it of weeds and carefully mowing the grass is clearly an overwhelming task for any lawn mower. In such cases, even a hand tool. an ordinary scythe will not help: you simply cannot swing it, bumping into tree trunks.
The ideal solution in this case is a good and inexpensive electric trimmer. It is so lightweight, comfortable and easy to operate that it always becomes a favorite of women and the elderly. A lightweight, quietly whirring electric motor, a handle with comfortable grips and a nylon line tucked into a spool. these are the main components of an electric trimmer.
The line also has its secrets
The line is wound on a spool inside the spool, with the ends exposed outward. When mowing, the spool rotates, and the line, with this rotation, cuts the grass. To release the ends, you need to lightly hit the coil on the ground (semi-automatic system), there are automatic reels, in which the fishing line is released itself. There are also a few rules when working with fishing line:
In order not to damage the line and reel. Try not to touch the spool and line with various hard materials. tracks, curbs, fences. This will shorten the line prematurely, damage the reel or even jam the engine. The line spool should also not touch the ground.
What is a PITCH TRIM? Rotating Wheels next to the Thrust Levers. EXPLAINED by FlyJV
Cut with the ends is more effective. Cutting the full length of the line can overload the engine. It also reduces the mowing efficiency. The tool should be held so that it only mows with the ends of the line. To do this, tilt it forward. towards the mowing side.
Tall grass requires several mows. If the grass is taller than 20 centimeters, then one mowing will not do here. You need to mow two or three times, from top to bottom. This is to prevent the grass from wrapping around the reel. The wrapped grass is the ensured overheating of the engine. If the grass is still wound, you need to stop the tool and clean it.
The line ran away and hid in the reel. This option happens when you work if you did not release the line from the reel in time. After all, the line is erased and shortened during mowing. If you do not have time to release it, then stop the engine, turn off the tool from the mains, and then disassemble the spool and pass the ends of the line into the desired holes.
What does the line consumption depend on? It must be remembered that the line wears out faster if the grass is tough. Therefore, it is necessary to release it more often when mowing weeds and dry tough grass. Around the foundation of the house, near the wall and curb, the line consumption will also be higher than directly on the lawn or near the trees. It is worth considering: if you work carefully and accurately, then the consumption of the trimmer line will be optimal and economical.
Changing the direction of rotation of the shaft in three-phase electric motors
Operation of some mechanisms requires left-hand rotation of the shaft. Knowing how to change the direction of rotation of an electric motor can be done without any modification or alteration of the drive motor itself. To change the direction of movement you need:
- de-energize the electric motor;
- remove the terminal box cover;
- rearrange the conductors of the power cable in accordance with the diagram shown in fig. 3: Reconnect the black core (L3) to V1 in the terminal box, and the brown core (L2) to W1.
Left hand rotation
If the operation of the engine requires constant switching of the engine from right-hand rotation to left-hand rotation, its connection is carried out according to a special scheme,
Direction of rotation of the motor shaft
Determination of the direction of rotation of the electric motor is performed from the side of the single end of the shaft. In the event that the engine has two shaft ends, then the rotation is determined from the side of the shaft, which has a larger diameter. According to GOST 26772-85, the clockwise movement of the shaft corresponds to the right direction. In the most common three-phase squirrel-cage motors, rotation of the shaft to the right will be carried out if the sequence of phases through which voltage is applied to the ends of the stator windings corresponds to the alphabetical sequence of their marking. U1, V1, W1.
Right hand rotation
For single-phase motors with a squirrel-cage rotor, clockwise rotation of the shaft will be performed provided that the phase is applied to the end of the working winding.
Direction of rotation of the electric motor
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In order for mechanisms in production or in everyday life, be it wood or metalworking machines, a cantilever pump, a conveyor belt, a crane beam, a sharpening machine, an electric lawn mower, a feed chopper or other device to work without breakdowns, it is necessary, first of all, that the shaft of the electric motor rotate in the right direction.
In order to avoid errors and prevent the rotation of the shaft of the mechanism in the opposite direction in accordance with paragraph 2.5.3 of the “Rules for the technical operation of electrical installations of consumers”, arrows of the direction of rotation of the electric motor should be marked on the body of the mechanism itself and the drive motor.
Reverse single phase electric motor
You can start the rotation of a single-phase asynchronous electric motor by reconnecting the phase at the beginning of the working winding.
Knowing how to change the direction of rotation of the electric motor, you can connect a single-phase electric motor with the ability to switch from right-hand rotation to left-hand rotation using a three-pin switch.
Testimonial: Yard trimmer line. Whistles like a robber nightingale, but at the same time it mows the grass perfectly.
On the reverse side of the label it is written that the line was made under the control of an English company and produced in Russia. Who and in what place in Russia is not specified. Vague doubts immediately arise, but is it really in Russia? Although, we have a lot of Chinese.
The fishing line is rather rough, when you remove the two nylon ties that fasten it in the bay, she did not even think to straighten. and remained twisted. Is this good or bad. I don’t know, maybe that’s good. when mowing, the ends of the line pulled out of the trimmer head will straighten out from the centrifugal force and will remain so and will not get tangled and hit the protective cover of the head. The surface of the line is matte, even slightly rough. The ribs on the line are pronounced. cutting the grass using these edges should be good:
Although the old line still remained in the trimmer head, I could not resist and removing the old one (I will finish it sometime later), I decided to conduct a test drive for this.
For those who do not really understand how to fill the trimmer head with fishing line, I will describe in detail how I do it:
First, I wind the fishing line from the cove on the removed trimmer head spool so that it fits as flat and tight as possible to the upper edge of the spool plus twenty centimeters (these twenty centimeters will still be outside the head when you collect it) and bite off with nippers. The direction of winding does not play a role in this case, we will still remove the line after we cut the required length:
, remove the line from the spool, connect the ends together so that one end is longer than the other by about half the circumference of the spool along its outer diameter (in this case, ten centimeters). The point is that when assembled, the ends of the line stick out from the trimmer head in opposite directions, since you wind the line twice, the long end of the line will come out of the head body just half the circumference of the spool after the short end of the line has come out. So, put the ends of the line together, as I wrote above:
We hold the ends of the line in this position in one hand, with the other we stretch the line twice so that the length of both parts is the same, we intercept, stretch again and so determine the middle. Having determined, we fold the line in the middle with a loop:
We take in hand the spool from the trimmer head and remember in which direction it rotates on the trimmer, this is important! On the head body, usually in some place there is an arrow, well, or looking at the thread of the nut, we look in which direction it is twisted onto the trimmer shaft, the rotation of the head, respectively, in the opposite direction (the thread goes to tighten). So, we decided on the rotation, we catch the loop of the fishing line at the slot in the middle partition of the spool and rotate it by the spool in the direction it rotates on the trimmer, that is, the line goes to tighten. Each part of the fishing line is wound along its own path, in no case should the ends of the fishing line be twisted, otherwise it will not unwind when mowing:
Having filled the spool completely, we leave the ends of the line about 10-15 centimeters long and, holding it so that the line does not unwind, insert the spool into the lower part of the trimmer head body, first inserting the short end into the outlet hole (mine has metal “P”.shaped staples). and after half the circumference of the spool and the long end. The rotation of the head on the trimmer is counterclockwise, as you can see, in this case the line is tightened and the bend angle at the exit from the head is minimal (breaking even the hard line at the point of exit from the head is excluded):
We assemble the head, installing the upper part of the head with a fastening nut inside, do not forget to adjust the latches holding the lower and upper parts with a screwdriver blade, otherwise the head may fly apart when rotating:
As you can see, the ends of the fishing line turned out to be about the same length, it remains to put the head on the lawn mower, and pull out the ends of the fishing line by pressing the spool from the end, so that the length of the short end reaches the trimming knife on the protective cover, and the long one will be trimmed after winding and pulling the gas trigger. I have a difference in the length of the ends of about three centimeters.
At the very first start-up and pressing the gas, I was dumbfounded by the whistling of the fishing line, the volume of which almost drowns out the engine of the lawn mowers, the robber nightingale is resting! The old twisted line never whistled like that. Started mowing, hmm. Yes, she almost mows my twisted one. cuts with a bang even thick grass like burdock and wild radish!
After mowing a little, he turned off the engine of the lawn mowers, and the line, as expected, straightened:
Well, and a test drive: went out of his garden, grass up to mid-thigh. 70-80 centimeters tall, Eh! Wake up your shoulder, swing your hand! mowing time approx. 15 minutes, mown area 5 meters wide and 35 meters long. 1.75 ares, the fishing line went (approximately) 10 cm at one end (20 cm). I pull the line by hand, and without banging the head on the ground, I jammed and pulled a couple of times:
, noticed: the line is getting shorter. whistle decreases markedly.
The test line was successful, the grass cuts well, the line consumption is not great, for the price of 95 rubles per 15 meters, it is quite normal line. I can recommend for purchase. Happy haymaking! 🙂
The blades are measured in width from the incoming and outgoing edges at the same radius (most often at the point where the parameter is 0.7 of the total value). The final characteristic and operation of the propeller shaft is determined by the disk ratio (the area of all propeller blades to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation).
The section of the blades can have a circular configuration, the shape of an aircraft wing, or a wedge-shaped profile. The latest designs are used on especially fast and racing vessels with revving motors. In order to ensure the necessary strength of the blades, the greatest thickness is made at the root, decreasing towards the end until it is completely sharpened (from 0.2 to 0.05 mm). The size of the hub in diameter is in the range of 1.8-2.0 screw diameter.
Outboard motors made in USSR / Russia
Main article: Boat motors of the USSR / Russia
Motor “Veterok-8” (UMP, USSR, 1980s), left. Without cover, starter removed.
It should be borne in mind the difference between domestic and foreign marking of motor models and the determination of their power. Until the last moment, domestic outboard motors were produced with an indication of the maximum power in the passport (and model brand) on the motor shaft
, and all foreign ones. directly
on the screw
. Therefore, taking into account losses (in the gearbox, etc.), the power on the propeller shaft of domestic motors (which actually “pushes” the boat) may turn out to be lower than that of “similar” foreign models. Therefore, when comparing motors, you should always clarify what kind of power we are talking about. 
History of creation
The creation of the element in question is attributed to Archimedes. Bernoulli proposed to use a water-lifting screw as a propulsion device in 1752. Despite this, recognition did not come to the unit immediately. Only in 1836, the British inventor F. Smith shortened the “Archimedes” spiral to one turn.
The structure was installed on a steamer with a displacement of 6 tons. Pilot tests were successful, after which Smith opened a company that built a ship with a displacement of 240 tons. The steamer was equipped with a pair of running machines (with a total capacity of 90 horsepower). The only propeller was two meters in diameter.
Features of the device
“Veterok-8”, on the right. The ignition coil, fuel pump, carburetor are visible. Outboard motors emit exhaust fumes into the water, on many models through the propeller hub
Currently, outboard motors are mainly built according to the scheme proposed by Ol Evinrud in 1906. This scheme has a vertical arrangement of nodes.
Internal combustion engine 1
fixed in the upper part of the intermediate case (deadwood)
. The engine crankshaft is vertical. Magnetos are attached to the upper end of the crankshaft
Inside the intermediate casing 4
passes a vertical shaft connecting the engine crankshaft and the gearbox. Also, inside the intermediate housing there are pipes for supplying water for cooling the engine, control rods for the gearbox. Exhaust gases are exhausted into the water through the intermediate casing.
An angular bevel single-stage reduction gear 5 is attached to the intermediate casing from below.
, providing the transmission of rotation to the propeller
. On motors up to 5 liters. from. the gearbox may not have a clutch and reverse mechanism. On motors from 5 to 12 liters. from. the presence of a clutch in the gearbox is mandatory, but the reverse mechanism may be absent. On motors over 12 hp the presence of a clutch and a reverse mechanism is required. Typically, the clutch and reversing mechanism are combined into one unit called a reversing clutch.
The propeller is usually connected to the output (propeller) shaft of the gearbox through a member of limited strength. a fuse. The fuse provides emergency disconnection of the propeller and other parts of the motor in the event of a collision with an underwater obstacle, which protects the motor from damage. A shear pin, a shear key (after operation, these elements must be replaced with new ones), a reusable cam safety clutch or a bushing covered with dense rubber can act as a safety device. (rubber hub)
The motor is attached to the boat transom by means of a suspension. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom, the following suspensions are distinguished:
- Rigid. the motor is fixed on the boat transom motionlessly;
- Swivel. the motor can rotate around a vertical axis;
- Tilting. the motor can “tilt”. rotate around the horizontal axis;
- Swing-out. combining the properties of swivel and swing-out suspension.
Swing-out suspension is the most widespread. It allows you to control the direction of movement of the boat by turning the motor around a vertical axis and tilt the motor when it hits an underwater obstacle, as well as at a stop and in case of overcoming shallow water with oars.
The suspension of modern motors contains elastic elements to reduce the level of vibrations transmitted to the boat’s hull.
The swing-out motor suspension consists of a vertical hinge 8
, providing rotation around the vertical axis when steering the boat, horizontal hinge
– providing a tilting motor, clamps
, providing quick-detachable fastening of the motor to the boat transom, elastic elements
. High power motors are bolted to the transom.
The outboard motor of low and medium power is controlled by the tiller 7
At the end of the tiller there is usually a rotary handle for controlling the throttle of the motor, and at the end of the tiller there is a stop button. Thus, the outboard motor can be controlled with one hand. For safety reasons, on many motors the Stop button acts as a “circuit breaker”. To make the engine work, a “check” is inserted under it, connected by a cable to the steering body. If the helmsman suddenly falls into the water, the engine will stop.
Outboard motors have a mechanism that allows you to change the trim angle.
Adjusting the trim angle of the outboard motor:
– a large angle, the boat raises the bow;
– small angle, the boat lowers the bow;
– optimal angle.
Outboard motor reducer:
constantly rotates from the engine crankshaft, in the pump housing
there is an impeller with rubber blades; seawater is supplied to the cylinder block through a metal tube (the path of seawater is shown with blue arrows); From the engine, heated water and exhaust gases enter the deadwood and exit through the propeller hub
– reverse thrust;
– anti-cavitation plate;
– anode of cathodic protection. Outboard motors with a water-jet attachment do not have a pump; water for engine cooling is supplied by an impeller. Outboard electric motor powered by car battery Four-stroke boat motor
with water jet
Medium and high power motors are remotely controlled from the boat’s helm station. Remote control can be carried out both with the help of cables (steering rope), and with the help of hydraulic or electric servomechanisms.
The fuel tank is usually housed in the boat and connected to the engine with a hose. Low power motors (2.5. 5 HP) have a built-in fuel tank.
To prevent corrosion, especially when working in seawater, cathodic protection anodes are installed on the underwater part of the motor. To compensate for the reactive moment that occurs during the operation of the propeller, an adjustable trimmer is installed, as a rule, combined with the anode of the cathodic protection.
Modern outboard boat motors can have a number of components that provide comfortable conditions for the crew and passengers of the boat:
- an electric generator that supplies the boat with electricity;
- electric starter to start the motor;
- hydraulic pump for servomechanism operation;
- a compressor that provides quick filling of the cylinders of an inflatable boat with compressed air;
- bilge pump, which provides pumping out of the water that has got there;
- a boiler that provides heating of water for heating the boat’s cockpit;
- pressure receiver, ensuring the operation of the speed indicator (speedometer);
- instrumentation informing the steering about the engine operating mode and emergency situations.
A number of manufacturers produce outboard motors with a water jet, or it is allowed to replace the gearbox with a propeller with a water jet attachment.
Along the length of the sternwood (respectively, the height of the transom), outboard motors are produced:
- “Short leg”. 381 mm, usually designated S
), motors for ordinary motor boats;
- “Long leg”. 508 mm, usually L
), the so-called “sea”, for boats and yachts.
Outboard motors of very high power (200-300 hp and more) are produced with an even longer deadwood (designed for boats):
– the length of the sternwood is 635 mm;
– sternwood length 762 mm.
The distance between the bottom of the vessel and the anti-cavitation plate of the outboard motor is (according to the instructions) about 20-25 mm, as a rule, it is finally selected experimentally by changing the height of the transom. Anti-cavitation plate. a metal plate located on the sternwood horizontally above the propeller, designed to prevent the propeller from entraining air from the surface, and therefore, cavitation does not occur.
The value of the efficiency of the boat propeller is mainly influenced by the correct calculation when choosing the optimal relationships between the motor power, the speed of the propeller, the geometric parameters of the element and the speed characteristics of the vessel.
Calculating such ratios is rather problematic. This is due to the fact that the indicators are influenced by subjective reasons. Among them:
- water resistance to the movement of the swimming device;
- features of the ship’s hull;
- flow rate on the blades.
Arrangement or construction of boats with motors for sports and racing purposes by athletes or individual teams is carried out according to simplified calculations. This is due to the fact that it is almost impossible to calculate the optimal ratios indicated above on your own.
Mercury gas reverse cables for a boat, boat, outboard motor
Three outboard boat motors Yamaha-300
at the stern of the boat with a total capacity of 900 liters. from. The extreme motors have a different direction of rotation of the propeller (to align the right and left circulation).
The main advantages compared to a stationary one: the outboard motor does not take up the useful volume of the vessel, it can be easily dismantled, which allows you to store an expensive unit in a safe place.
Initially, two-stroke engines were widespread. Their advantages are low weight, high power density, simplicity of design and general simplicity in operation. Gradually, their shortcomings, as the four-stroke engines improve, lead to a reduction in the number of two-stroke engines. Efficiency, a higher resource, ease of use and a power density that grows with the improvement of technologies are the main reasons that cause a widespread transition to a four-stroke design. It should be noted that four-stroke engines, in comparison with two-stroke engines of similar power, have somewhat larger dimensions, about 1.5 times more weight, are more expensive, and require more expensive fuels and lubricants.
Growing requirements for environmental friendliness, a direct ban on the use of internal combustion engines in some water bodies have led to the development of almost silent outboard electric motors powered by batteries or fuel cells. An outboard sail has also been developed, which is attached, like a motor, to the transom of the boat.
For 2020, the power of serial outboard outboard motors has reached 400 horsepower (Mercury 400 Verado
Other outboard boat motor designs
In the countries of Southeast Asia, outboard motors with air-cooled engines (both with two-stroke and four-stroke) are widely used, which are widely used in small agricultural equipment, in small-sized gasoline power plants, etc. the engine is installed. The gearbox and clutch are usually missing, the propeller is mounted on the crankshaft extension. Tiller control. These motors in Asian countries are called “Shrimp Tail Motor”. Since the motors are air-cooled, such motors can be operated in polluted water (sand, silt), in water bodies overgrown with aquatic vegetation. Large pleasure boats are equipped with liquid-cooled motors taken from old cars. Motors of similar designs are used in the armed forces, they are called “motor-paddle
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