DIY glass cutting methods
Having marked the line of the future cut on the glass, we take a file and make a small groove with it from the very edge. Having stepped back from it 1-2 mm, we heat the place with a soldering iron until a microcrack forms between it and the risk. Next, we retreat already from the crack itself at the same distance and gradually move towards the finish point. Thus, glass is cut for a long time, but any shape can be obtained. To slightly speed up the process, the glass can be periodically cooled by applying a damp cloth to it.
How to cut glass without a glass cutter
Before proceeding with a detailed description of glass cutting techniques, we want to remind you of safety. Always wear work gloves and safety goggles when working to avoid cuts and small debris getting into your eyes. Be careful not to apply excessive pressure to the glass.
If you know firsthand what glass cutting is, then we suggest considering another way of cutting glass without a glass cutter. With some experience, one drill with a victorious tip may be sufficient for this operation. The main thing is that the drill is more or less new, with sharp corners on the head.
The process of cutting glass with a drill itself is in many ways similar to a conventional roller glass cutter. Of the differences, a higher pressure force can be distinguished, but otherwise all actions are standard. We lay the glass on a flat surface, mark the cutting line, apply a bar, and lead the line from top to bottom along it. Before cutting, turn the tip so that the sharpest corner touches the glass. Having received a clear line, we break the glass along the mowing line of the cut.
The method of cutting glass with a victorious drill requires skill and practical experience in handling this material. Novice craftsmen have very little chance of making an accurate cut in this way, but with patience and straight hands, you can get the desired result.
Scissors in the water
A simple method for directional splitting of glass. Allows you to easily cut round shapes, but will not work for straight lines. For such cutting, you will need ordinary scissors and a container of water, which will serve as a kind of lubricant. The maximum glass thickness should not exceed 4 mm.
The cutting process with this technique is extremely simple. We take a piece of processed glass, immerse it in water and cut off small pieces from the edges with scissors. Water will prevent the glass from cracking, allowing you to make a controlled chipping. In this way, you can get oval and round shapes.
How to cut glass without a glass cutter
A special cutting tool is required to cut a fragile material such as glass. Of course, glass cutters greatly simplify the cutting process, but you can cope with their work with the help of other improvised items. If you are faced with the need to cut glass, and there is no glass cutter at hand, we will show you how you can replace it.
Another way to cut glass at home without a glass cutter and expensive power tools. To work, you need a file and a little experience in handling glass. Please note that the file must have corners, so a round file will not work.
To cut the glass, it is enough to make several cuts on its surface with the corner of the file. You need to press on the file slightly more than average so that there is enough force to form a clear groove, similar to a glass cutter cut. When the place of the chip is planned, we simply break the glass on the edge of the table or put a match under the place of the cut.
This method requires a certain skill, and if you are dealing with glass cutting for the first time, we strongly recommend that you practice on small, unnecessary fragments before moving on to the main material.
How to cut glass without a glass cutter
Glass cutting tools were not always as widespread as they are today. In the second half of the last century, people came up with their own ways to conquer this capricious material, without using a glass cutter. In fact, for cutting untempered glass with a thickness of up to 8 mm, you can use a lot of improvised objects, you just need to have a little dexterity.
It is better to start listing items suitable for working with glass by identifying the types of exposure to this material. The main methods are thermal, when glass is heated in a certain place, and physical, when it is cut by brute force. The industry uses a water-jet cutting method, when glass is processed on expensive equipment under strong water pressure.
To cut glass by the thermal method, a small piece of twine and a flammable liquid such as alcohol or acetone are enough, a soldering iron and a burning apparatus can also be used as a cutter. For cutting glass by physical impact, you can use a file, a winder drill, a nail, a thin diamond disc, and even ordinary tailor’s scissors. Of course, it is difficult for some of the listed items to get a good chip, but with the proper skill, quite a good result can come out. Now, knowing how you can cut glass without a glass cutter, you can proceed to the process itself.
We soak the thread in a flammable liquid and fix it on the glass along the cutting line of the cut. We set it on fire, wait for it to completely burn out and immediately place it in cold water or pour it into the place of heating. The main thing is for the glass to cool down as quickly as possible and burst from the temperature drop. A characteristic click will signal the success of the work done. If the glass is not cracked, you can try to repeat the operation.
This method cleaves bottles fairly evenly, but does not always work with large glass sizes. It is also very fire hazardous and requires a fire extinguisher or a container of water at hand, which is already mandatory.
How to properly clean a pomegranate
Recommendations for cleaning pomegranates
Immediately I want to say that pomegranate, like any other fruit, must be washed before eating, and preferably done with warm water. Since most manufacturers treat the peel of fruit with a special protective compound, which contains paraffin, cold water simply will not wash it off, and as a result, it will get on your handles, and then on the grains themselves.
After the fruit is washed, gently pat dry with a towel. But remember that you are holding a product with a lot of juice inside. That is why the pomegranate must be soaked, trying, in general, not to put pressure on its surface. If you do this very intensely, then with a high probability you will not be able to enjoy whole grains.
Recommendations for cleaning pomegranates:
- Take the sharpest possible knife and carefully cut off the top of the pomegranate. If you do everything correctly, then you will have a fruit in your hands, which practically does not touch the berries, but at the same time the white membranes are clearly visible.
- Make cuts along these veins. Try to cut through the skin of the pomegranate exclusively, without affecting its seed. As a result, you should get a fruit, the upper part of which is divided into separate slices.
- In the next step, take the pomegranate in one hand, and gently press on one of the resulting slices with the other. If you made cuts exactly along the white veins, then it will easily come off along with all the grains.
- Do the same with the remaining slices, and then carefully lay them out on a bowl or some other utensil.
We clean the pomegranate beautifully
We carry out the standard preparation of the pomegranate for cleaning (wash and dry well)
In this case, it is extremely important to wait until it is completely dry. If the moisture has not evaporated yet, and you start to peel it, then you simply will not be able to properly peel it off.
After you realize that the skin of the fruit is completely dry, take a knife and remove its crown. Construct to make a perfectly round hole with your knife without damaging the inside of the grenade. In the next step, you will need to make 5-6 cuts on the peel (preferably at the same distance from each other). You should have lobules that look like petals. After that, you need to take the knife in your hands again and cut through the pomegranate peel again, only this time the line will have to go exactly in the middle of the fruit. Next, carefully prying each petal, we begin to remove it. If you did everything correctly, then it will be removed only up to half of the fruit, while the other part will remain in the peel. At the final stage, you will need to gently press on the middle, thereby freeing the upper part of the fruit from white films. If you see that they cover the grains very much, then just remove them.
Recommendations for the use of pomegranate
In principle, each person has the right to decide for himself whether he has a pomegranate with seeds or whether to try not to do so. As practice shows, most forty-year-old people believe that pomegranate seeds should not be eaten as it can provoke problems with the gastrointestinal tract. In fact, this is not at all the case. In this case, most likely, what works is that in childhood, the people of mothers and grandmothers were forbidden to swallow fruit pits.
Scientists have long proven that pomegranate seeds contain a lot of useful substances, so if you don’t eat too many of them, they will bring you exceptional benefits. However, in this case, there is one but. Pomegranate with seeds should not be consumed by people who already have problems with the digestive system.
Before eating, it must be washed in warm water and cleaned. You need to wash carefully so as not to crush the soft seeds under the skin. It is tough but thin. Therefore, intense exposure can crush delicious grains. After washing, dry the pomegranate with a soft cloth or paper towel. Leave to dry completely.
While the fruit is drying, it is advisable to prepare tools with which you can clean it at home. The secret to proper cleaning is a sharpened knife. It cuts through the tough skin easily and does not harm the seeds. In addition, you will need a cutting board and container where garbage from the pomegranate and a bowl for seeds will be stored. Correctly cleaning the grenades will help following the sequence of actions.
Depending on what you need to achieve from the pomegranate: cut or extract all the seeds, it will depend on how you should clean it. In order to cut the fruit, you need to cut out the top, cut lengthwise exactly along the membranes (about six strips), open the resulting “petals” and put the fruit in a bowl.
Features of the use of a muffle furnace on the example of melting bottle glass
You can melt a glass bottle at home, having on hand a conventional muffle furnace. Glass bottles are easy to find and come in a variety of shapes and colors. You can use containers from beer, juices, water, cosmetics. Before starting the process itself, they need to be carefully prepared. It is necessary to very carefully clean the bottles from the stickers so that nothing remains on the surface. Then they need to be washed and dried so that there are no stains and greasy marks.
The degree of melting of the glass from which the bottles are made is approximately 700-750 o C. The oven must also be checked and cleaned before use. Further, the heating elements and the serviceability of the device must be tested using a pyrometric cone.
For work, you need a shelf and a casting mold. They also need to be prepared and a special glass separator applied. The casting mold must be installed so that it cannot drain beyond its boundaries. Next, you should set the desired temperature regime, which, as we have already said, depends on the type of glass and its chemical composition.
Melting bottle glass
The prepared bottle is placed in the center of the oven so that when melted it flows into the mold. Heating must be done gradually so that the mold does not crack. It is necessary to set low initial values and gradually increase them in small increments. At 500 ° C, the bottle glass begins to melt, with thin walls first flowing down. At this stage, you should try to evenly warm the bottle, increasing the temperature even more slowly. Glass will take on a liquid state already at 700 ° C, but the temperature should be increased by another 70 ° C and the liquid substance should be kept under these conditions for another 10 minutes. After this, it is necessary to perform an annealing operation. For this, the resulting product is kept for a certain time at 500 ° C. This is necessary so that the workpiece does not crack.
We looked at how to melt a glass bottle, preparation for the process and its main stages. To obtain a good quality product, you must use reliable professional equipment. You can buy this at Labor Trade House.
Glass bottles accumulate in any home and any family. They can have a non-standard shape and be completely varied. Don’t rush to throw them in the trash can. Try to make something original from a glass bottle with your own hands.
Ways to cut a bottle
There are many methods for cutting a glass bottle in half at home, most often thermal exposure and improvised means. The most popular are the options for cutting the container using flame, boiling water, thread for yarn, dremel.
Before cutting the glass bottle with a dremel, two strips of adhesive tape are placed on it. In this case, there must certainly be a gap between the strips, which will become the cut line. A glass cutter is inserted into the tool, and the bottle begins to slowly cut along the mowing line that remains between the strips of tape or plaster. It is possible that irregularities will appear on the chip, which are smoothed out with sandpaper.
Wrap the bottle with tape, cut the bottle
Ways to cut a bottle
You can easily divide a glass container into two parts at home. The cut when trimmed is even and smooth, without jagging at the edges. The main thing is to have on hand the necessary items for cutting, and follow the basic rules. Read about how to cut off the neck of a bottle and make gorgeous decorative items with your own hands.
Thread for yarn
It should be noted right away that the thread should be thick and dense enough. Rope or string will also work. The thread needs to be wrapped around the container several times. the more, the better. The resulting cut is soaked in gasoline until completely saturated.
How to Cut Glass. Quick, Easy, & Safe
Then the string is set on fire. It remains only to wait for the complete burnout of gasoline and lower the container into cool water. After that, it should split into 2 parts, and the process can be considered complete.
Thread for yarn will easily cut the bottle.
Application of nichrome wire
For this method, you need to acquire a nichrome wire, a 12 V battery and cold water.
Determine the cut points (wrap the bottle with a sheet of paper, connect the edges so that the edges are even, and circle with a marker or felt-tip pen, remove the sheet). Take a piece of nichrome wire 0.5 mm thick, attach the first tip to a heavy object, then attach the battery wire here.
Wire the bottle over the drawn mowing line. Take the wire with pliers to avoid burns, pull it slightly, apply voltage to the other end of the wire, holding it for about 30 seconds. Dip in cold water.
In addition to glass items for decoration and decoration, another material, available in all respects, is used. plastic.
There are certainly plastic bottles in every home, then why get rid of them if you can decorate your home with them.
Figure 3. Marking and cutting with a moving ruler or rail.
|Minimum width of a glass strip that can be broken off for different glass thicknesses|
How to cut a circle out of glass
To cut a circle out of glass, you will have to use a suction cup, I adapted a suction cup for myself from an old soap dish.
Attach a suction cup in the middle of the desired area of the glass. Now you need to prepare the rail. for this, drive a small nail into the rail so that its pointed end protrudes 3 millimeters from it, and attach a glass cutter to the other side of the rail. Secure the sharp end of the nail in the suction cup so that it does not fall out when the rail moves on the glass. Now, rotating the staff, outline the circular cut you want. From it, make radial cuts with a glass cutter to the border (edge) of the glass as shown in Figure 6.
Now, by tapping on the bottom of the glass, these “slices” can be easily beaten off and you get a circle of glass.
In turn, in order to cut a hole in the glass in the shape of a circle, you need to do the same procedure, only the cuts will be located inside the circle (Figure 7), so that uniform sectors are obtained, they can be knocked out just like those that were in the previous case, or you can put a sheet of glass on any round object with a smaller circle diameter and knock out all the glass to the bottom, so that it “opens up” downward, as it were.
If you need a curved glass shape (for example, for a complex arch or stained-glass window), then you will have to resort to a template made of plywood or thick cardboard (taking into account the allowance for the width of the glass cutter).
Next, attach the template to the glass and press firmly, then make an incision from one edge to the other edge of the template in an even motion.
In the next step, slide every 70-140 millimeters along perpendiculars to the cut radii from the curve of the mowing line to the edge of the workpiece, tap all the mowing lines of the cut from below and then break off the protrusions with the grooves of the glass cutter.
Preparing glass for cutting.
The glass you just bought can only be lightly wiped with a rag and then wiped dry. For the latter, I recommend taking an old newspaper. before using it, crumple it well (sorry for such details, but you need to wrinkle it, since you do this when there is no toilet paper at hand) so that it adheres more tightly to the density of the glass. The best means for cleaning and drying glass, in my opinion, humanity has not yet found.
Old glass is more difficult than new. It must be washed, moreover, very thoroughly (old glasses during their service are covered with soot, grease, again dust, etc. all this will interfere with normal glass cutting). After which it will need to be degreased, even turpentine is quite suitable for this. lightly wet a cloth and wipe the glass surface, then let it dry, it is better to let it dry in the room, again because of the danger of dust getting on its surface.
Take my word for it. the importance of the condition and degree of cleanliness of the glass is actually important, and not just senile grumbling.
Since glass is now “in price”, then, of course, a prudent owner will not throw them around. Hence the conclusion. cutting glass should be such that the waste remains as little as possible. This is perhaps the main rule when cutting. Since you cannot completely avoid waste, try to cut the glass sheet so that this waste can be used somewhere. I quite recently, for example, changed the shelf in the bathroom (I broke it with a can of shaving foam, and the neighbor cut the glass for the glass door in the stove in the bath), for which he used the old section left after cutting, which he made several years ago.
For the most successful cutting and cutting of glass, the glass should be positioned so that the longest side of the sheet is parallel to the long side of the workpiece. This requirement is optional, of course it all depends on the size of the glass you want to cut, but in most cases it assumes the most rational cutting based on the amount of residues.
By the way, when starting to work, be sure to check the corners of the glass sheet, they often do not have the prescribed 90 degrees.
Standard 600 × 1200 glass sheet:
Option 1: Wanting to get 4 glasses of 300×500 with economical and rational cutting, the remainder will be 200×600.Such glasses can then be easily used, for example, for windows in a bathhouse, outdoor shower, vents, etc.
Option 2: With irrational cutting, wanting to get the same number of glasses as in the previous example, the remainder will be 1200 per 100. These scraps will not fit anywhere, except for very rare and exotic cases.
Glass cutting with glass cutter.
In addition to the glass cutter itself, for this work you will need a ruler, template or square.
They must be flat and fit snugly against the edge of the glass for accurate labeling. Try to choose the least sliding tool for these purposes (for the same reason. when working with glass, the saying beginning with the words “measure seven times.” is as accurate as anywhere else.)
For cutting glass in this way, a diamond glass cutter is used more often, less often a roller glass cutter.
Let’s start with the diamond.
Take the glass cutter so that your index finger and thumb are close to the hammer.
Press the glass cutter and move it evenly, without sharp jerks and efforts. as a result of the movement of the glass cutter, you should get a thin, almost colorless and inconspicuous line on the glass, and the glass cutter itself should emit a slight crackle.
When you reach the end of the sheet, loosen the pressure, otherwise you can ruin the diamond on the edge of the glass.
If glass dust appears on the glass, or the cut is too wide, it means that you press too hard or the glass cutter is set at the wrong angle (the diamond has 2 angles: sharp and dull, when cutting in the forward direction, the diamond at an acute angle is easy slides, and does not catch on possible factory defects of the glass or any irregularities, at an obtuse angle, the diamond can only be moved “back”, otherwise the cut will be incorrect and the grain will simply fall out).
We repeat once again, do not try to cut the “dirty”, wet and “greasy” glass. you will kill a lot of work, and you will not get any effect other than disappointment and fatigue. Also, do not try to cut the same line twice.
It is held perpendicular to the surface of the glass, most often it is held between the ring, thumb and middle fingers, lightly pressing down from above with the index.
The pressure on the roller glass cutter is stronger than when working with a diamond one. When cutting glass with it, it should leave behind a white, distinct cutting line.
After you have cut the glass with a glass cutter (even with a roller or diamond), the glass must be broken off correctly. As a rule, beginners are afraid of this particular stage.
The main rule is to break the glass down, that is, in the opposite direction from the mowing line of the cut.
To do this, press the glass tightly to the workbench or table on which you cut it (it is better not to carry it with a cut, but to break it (Figure 2) in the same place), so that the cutting line coincides with the edge of the table, workbench and the glass, as it were, “ hanging “with its unnecessary part from him. Then just break off this edge with a light pressure movement. If the glass does not break off, then you should not cut it again, but just tap the notch from the bottom with a hammer on the mowing line.
If you cut off a narrow piece of glass, you can also break it off by hand, or you can resort to a special tool. a comb. Also, for these purposes, they often use special grooves made in a glass cutter. Experienced craftsmen can break off a narrow and “difficult” piece even with pliers wrapped in electrical tape.
Figure 1. How to work with a glass cutter (diamond on the left, roller on the right)
Picture 2. Glass breaking (1. Manual 2. Glass cutter edge or groove. 3. Comb. 4. Tongs).
How to learn to cut glass correctly.
Cutting and cutting glass is a very difficult process. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be able to do it correctly. There are many reasons for this. The grandson dropped the glass at the dacha with a ball. well, do not call the master from the city, which, moreover, may be hundreds of kilometers from the dacha village. I’m not even talking about the construction of a greenhouse. there is a dime a dozen of glass works, and any home craftsman has a glass cutter always at hand, well, if not everyone, then most of them for sure. In addition, now the sets of tools that our Women love to give us on February 23 and birthdays, in the hope that with its help a lot of all kinds of shelves and various handicrafts made with their own hands, are often already completed with them.
With your own hands. How to do it yourself
Glass cutting: methods and choice of glass cutter. Curly cutting-circles and ovals.
How to cut various shapes out of glass. curly cutting.
Glass cutter for the DIYer
The main tool of the glazier is, of course, the glass cutter. The most famous models of glass cutters are diamond and roller. They differ in the cutting element. As the name suggests, the first is set with a grain of artificial diamond. It is mainly used to cut thin glass in a straight line. We will dwell in more detail on models with carbide rollers. after all, at home you will rarely find a solid diamond glass cutter.
The main part in this type of glass cutter is the cutter wheel. The rollers differ in sharpening angle, outer diameter, landing diameter, thickness, as well as the materials from which they are made. If you do not delve into the jungle of “roller science” and do not go into details, then the basic rule is: to cut thicker glass, you need a roller with a more obtuse sharpening angle. In this case, the angle can vary from 77 to 165 degrees.
How to cut, drill and break glass with your own hands
With your own hands. How to do it yourself
Drilling glass with your own hands
Sometimes it becomes necessary to drill holes in glass or mirror. There are special drills for these works.
A prerequisite for drilling glass is to install the drill on a drill stand. If it is necessary to drill a hole of small diameter (up to 2.5 mm), then a tool that has gained great popularity recently. a drill, also installed on a drill stand, will come in handy.
It is necessary to drill glass with a cooling lubricant (coolant) to cool the drill, or at least with water. The drilling order is as follows. First, the glass is drilled on one side, about 2/3 of the thickness. Then it is turned over, the drill is aligned with the center of the hole and drilled to the end. This avoids chipping around the hole.
Cutting breaking and drilling glass with your own hands at home
Most work with glass requires special skills and tools, but some of them are quite accessible to novice craftsmen, and they can be done at home.
These include glass cutting and drilling. Let’s talk about these works in more detail.
Glass is an amazing material. The amorphous structure allows it to be processed in a variety of ways.
Glass can be bent like plastic, drilled and grinded like wood, poured into molds like lead, rolled out like dough, molded out of it like plasticine, blown bubbles, pull threads like polymer, grind and polish. Of course, the overwhelming majority of these operations require special equipment (high-temperature furnaces, glass-blowing machines, oxygen burners, grinding and drilling machines, engraving machines, sandblasting chambers) and highly qualified craftsmen.
Still, you can (and should) do something with glass at home, with minimal skills and using very simple tools. For example, seemingly the simplest operation is cutting glass.
For glass, the term “cut” means a smooth break along the intended mowing line. Almost every home craftsman cut or at least tried to cut glass of the required size for a greenhouse in the country or for a window in a city apartment. But few people did it right at once. so that it turned out not on the fifth attempt, but on the first, and so that the line of the cut was even, and so as not to cut yourself.
How to do something yourself, with your own hands. home master’s site
Basic conditions for successful glass cutting
The presence of an even and stable base. In glass workshops, the surface of the workbench (table) is sheathed with felt or felt so that the glass sheet does not slide over the surface and is not scratched by fragments that are certainly formed during cutting. At home, it is enough to put newspapers on the surface of the table in several layers.
Having a good lineup. In industrial conditions, special rulers with suction cups are used, but at home you can simply stick a strip of thin rubber or insulating tape on a regular steel ruler so that the ruler does not slide on the glass while the glass cutter moves along it.
How to Cut Glass Bottles | 3 ways to do it
The glass must be clean (at least at the location of the cutting line).
The cutter roller must be wetted. Professionals use special formulations for this. At home, you can get by with refined kerosene. In modern glass cutters, the liquid is poured into the tool reservoir, and when cutting, it automatically wets the cutting roller. For other models, the roller is simply wetted before cutting. The use of kerosene or special formulations prolongs the life of the cutting roller, reduces the formation of glass dust and contributes to a smoother cut.
It is impossible to press too hard with the glass cutter: the glass cutter should “sing” when moving on the glass, as the glaziers say, and not gnash.
the cutting line must be continuous. Under no circumstances should the roller run the same mowing line several times! From this, the cutting roller of the glass cutter deteriorates almost immediately.
Glass cutting methods.
To speed up cutting glass to size, you need to draw the size of the figure on a sheet of thick paper or cardboard. You can also chalk the dimensions onto the canvas, which will eliminate the need to mark out dimensions on each sheet of glass. When applying a glass sheet to cardboard or canvas, the two sides of the sheet must exactly correspond to the figure printed on the cardboard.
The ruler is placed on a sheet of glass in such a way that the cutting element of the glass cutter exactly coincides with the cutting line of the figure. It is even easier, with a large number of glass products with the same dimensions, to make an exact template and cut the glass according to this template.
It is also possible to cut glass with a specially made cutting ruler. There are several types of the moving ruler. One of them consists of:
- rulers one meter or more in length;
- an engine equipped with a screw and a finger;
- slider stop;
Cutting glass with such a ruler is much faster.
Glass cutting methods
No building can do without glass elements. Glass cutting depends on three conditions: the quality of the glass itself, the skill of the glazier and the quality of the glass cutter. The most important condition is the skill of the glazier, his experience and knowledge of how to cut glass. Glass workshop “Arbat Glass” provides a full range of services for the production and processing, cutting of glass, details on the website.
Types of glass cutters.
Cutting glass qualitatively without a good glass cutter is almost impossible. Every glazier tries, first of all, to get a good glass cutter.
Basically, the following types of glass cutters are used:
- roller glass cutter. In this type of glass cutter, the cutting element is the rollers, which are made of tungsten or cobalt alloy, which are extremely hard. Different models of these glass cutters are equipped with different numbers and different materials of cutting rollers. The larger the number of rollers, the better the glass cutter cuts glass and, accordingly, the more expensive it costs;
- diamond glass cutters. The cutting element of this glass cutter is a small piece of artificial diamond fixed in the glass cutter structure with silver solder. The diamond glass cutter is capable of cutting 10 mm glass. This type of glass cutter has a much longer operating period than a roller glass cutter. And it is much easier to cut glass with it;
- oil glass cutter. This type of glass cutter appeared on the domestic market relatively recently. It is a roller glass cutter equipped with a lubricant supply function while cutting glass.
By supplying lubricant to the cutting element, the service life of the glass cutter is significantly increased.