How to choose a sander for wood
Surface Grinders (Vibratory)
These machines have a mass of 1 to 3 kg, are equipped with a rectangular sole with a clamping mechanism along the edges, which fixes the sanding paper. There are models with the ability to fix the rig to the sole with Velcro.
The sole performs reciprocating movements in an annular orbit, due to this, grinding or polishing is carried out. The power of the electric motor of this tool is from 150 to 600 W. The sole is of two types: standard. 100 X 200 mm, and mini. miniature options with a base of about 100 X 100 mm.
The choice here is simple: mini surface grinders are suitable for narrow spaces, they are lighter and more maneuverable than standard.
Designed for delicate processing of large flat surfaces. They occupy an intermediate place in the cleanliness of processing parts between belt and eccentric ones. Using a surface grinder, they carry out finishing grinding of various surfaces: wood, plastic, stone.
Benefits: Ability to grind and polish inside corners, availability of consumables and reasonable cost of the grinder itself.
Disadvantages: high noise relative to orbital.
Which belt sander to choose?
To choose the right belt sander, you should pay attention to the following parameters:
- Working part speed. the higher the speed, the faster and more precisely the surface is sanded. Depending on the model, the speed can vary from 200 to 420 rpm.
- Belt size. this parameter affects the speed and accuracy of grinding. But be careful! The larger the size, the faster the grinding occurs, but at the same time, its accuracy decreases.
- Power. The higher the power, the better the tool will handle hard and more difficult surfaces such as hard hardwood (oak). Thanks to the high power, the tool can work longer without overheating.
If we need a wood belt sander, how to choose the right power? Belt sanders with motor power up to 1000 W are mainly designed for light jobs, while those with motor power over 1400 W will perform excellently under short-term but heavy loads.
AEG FS 280
The AEG FS 280 sander falls roughly between the amateur and professional segment: by itself, it is reliable enough for constant use, only the platform and the clamps on it require attention, and at the same time, its price is already quite elevated for a home craftsman who needs to work with extensive planes. And this model, equipped with a 440-watt motor and a 114×226 mm platform, is really well suited for such use.
In terms of dimensions and weight, it is close to the Makita, but due to its lower power and operating characteristics, it is more modest: the platform travel is exactly two times less, although the vibration frequency is as much higher. Hence the increased level of vibration in comparison, therefore, unlike the Makita, a soft pad was installed on the rear handle.
The platform does not have Velcro. we will not call this a serious drawback, because Velcro sandpaper, although fastened more conveniently and fits better, is more expensive. The only problem is the inevitable wear of the clamps.
- Good performance
- Anti-vibration pads
- Fastening only to clips that wear out over time.
9.4 / 10 Rating
Reviews: A good sander for the home, as I bought it, and I still use it.
Hammer PSM 300
Excellent Vibration Model Country: China Average Rating (2020): 5.0
The sanding paper is attached to the soleplate with clamps. The size of the working surface is 115×230 mm. The ergonomically shaped rubberized handle makes handling pleasant and comfortable. Of the additional functions, it is possible to note the fixing of the switch so that during the working process the device is not accidentally deactivated. To remove dust, you can use both a construction vacuum cleaner and a dust collector.
- Power: 0.75 kW
- Belt speed: 350 m / min
- Belt parameters (length and width): 533 mm; 75 mm
- Tool weight: 3.5 kg
- Power: 1.01 kW
- Belt speed: 440 m / min
- Belt parameters (length and width): 610 mm; 100 mm
- Tool weight: 4.7 kg
- Power: 1.2 kW
- Belt speed: 400 m / min
- Belt parameters (length and width): 610 mm; 100 mm
- Tool weight: 5.6 kg
Pros and cons
The advantages of grinders include:
- High speed, processing efficiency.
- Creation of a high-quality, smooth surface.
- Versatility, the ability to perform several types of processing.
- Ability to work not only with wood, but also with other materials.
- Simplicity and relative safety of working with the tool.
The disadvantages of machines should be considered:
- The need to connect to the power supply.
- Dependence on the availability and quality of sandpaper (tape, circles, etc.).
- Large amount of dust emitted during operation.
- The need for maintenance, cleaning and proper care.
Expert opinion Kulikov Vladimir Sergeevich Despite some shortcomings, users highly appreciate all types of grinding tools. The high demand for it clearly shows the demand and need for machines for specialists and home craftsmen.
The most common type of grinder. The name comes from the fact that the working rotating surface is located at an angle of 90 ° with respect to the tool axis. The “angle grinder” has gained great popularity due to the fact that it can be used to cut many building and locksmith materials. For this, special cutting discs are used.
How to Choose a Sander | The Home Depot
Since the angle grinder can have great power, it is successfully used for roughing work on metal, concrete, etc. There are many different attachments that are designed to handle a particular material. Wood surfaces are usually sanded with flap discs.
The angle grinder is equipped with a reversible protective cover, which is not recommended to be removed. At high rotations of the disc, any damage is fraught with the scattering of sharp pieces and injury to soft tissues. Always use glasses and gloves to work with an angle grinder, in compliance with all safety standards. It is forbidden to use non-standard discs, the size of which does not correspond to the technical specifications of the tool.
DShM are indispensable for restoration work, as well as for grinding narrow and hard-to-reach places. For example, when sanding parquet flooring, it is impossible to process the corners of the floor with anything else. The deltoid (triangular) shape of the work surface allows sanding wooden window frames, furniture corners, etc.
Hard-to-reach places are processed with the DSHM
The principle of operation is similar to a vibration sander. the platform vibrates at a high frequency at a distance of about 2 mm. A variety of sanding and polishing sheets are attached with Velcro. Since the size of the working platform is small, it is possible to process curved surfaces with it. Like all modern instruments, the DShM is equipped with dust extraction channels and vibration frequency control. Some models have a swivel mechanism with which the work platform can be rotated 120 °.
What kind of sander is best for finishing
As the name implies, the design feature of the orbital machine is the rotation of the grinding plane around the axis, which in turn also rotates. Thanks to this, the grinding becomes very fine, while the productivity remains quite high. Since the diameter of the rotating platform is small, it is possible to grind concave or convex surfaces. Such devices are often used when processing putty in cars and cleaning wooden rounded elements. balusters, railings, columns, etc. An additional attachment made of flexible elastic material can be attached to the rotating platform. This expands the capabilities of the tool for machining curved surfaces. The grinding wheel is attached to the sole of the tool with Velcro. Just like in the vibration machine, the function of utilizing dust (which is emitted in large quantities) is incorporated in the design of the OSHM. It can be collected either in a dust collector or removed with a vacuum cleaner.
Car body polishing with eccentric sander
The power consumption of orbital sanders can range from 150 to 750 watts. On select models, the kit includes an additional handle, electronic soft start circuit and a braking system for the rotating shaft.
The use of eccentric machines is very wide. from rough rust removal to fine matting of lacquer surfaces. Various polishing sponges, wool caps and sanding cloths are available for them. With their help, you can bring the surface to any desired state, from glossy to matte.
Types of grinders: how to choose the right one among the variety
Grinding machines are a group of power tools designed for surface treatment of materials. roughing, grinding and polishing. They are used in various industries, construction and for household needs. The main materials for the processing of which grinders are used are wood, metal, plastic, stone, glass, etc.
There are several types of grinding machines, which differ in their design features, as well as in the field of application.
LShM are used for continuous grinding of large surfaces. Due to its high performance and power, with the help of a draw frame, rough surfaces can be peeled off. not planed boards, rusty metal products, dense plastic. Practically not used for polishing.
Since this type of grinder has a fairly large mass and a heavy lower platform along which the sandpaper moves, it is not necessary to exert great physical effort in the process. The operator’s task is to move the tool evenly over the work surface. A delay in one spot can cause unwanted deepening. Belt sander specifications vary by model. The power ranges from 500 to 1300 watts. Belt speed from 70 to 600 m / min.
Professional models are equipped with a speed controller, and of two types: stepped or smooth. Additional handles are often included in the kit, making it possible to work in different conditions. Disposal of dust generated during grinding is solved in two ways. Or it accumulates in a dust collector located on the tool body. Or a construction vacuum cleaner is connected to the machine, which sucks small chips directly as they are formed.
In addition to the standard manual mode of using LShM, it is also used in conjunction with a special frame that protects the workpiece being processed from damage. In addition, a special stand that fixes the machine in a stationary position is widely used. This is a kind of vise that fixes the LShM upside down. with sandpaper up or vertically. This position allows the use of a fast rotating sanding belt for sharpening and finishing cutting tools or, for example, ice skates and hockey sticks.
Two types of belt sander have a narrower specialization and allow you to solve non-standard tasks. The first is a file-type LSM, made in the form of a file, with a thin elongated working surface that can penetrate into hard-to-reach places, narrow cracks, etc.
The second type is the so-called brush sander, which differs in that, instead of emery cloth, it processes the surfaces with a brush. The bristles can range from soft wool to hard metallic. It is used for removing rust, applying structure to wooden blanks, etc. Despite the fact that in appearance the brushing machine differs from the belt machine, their principle of operation is the same.
The electronic part of professional models often includes functions such as a soft start system, speed control. The high quality angle grinder incorporates an automatic disc balancing system that significantly reduces wear. Often additional handles are included in the kit, there are several holes on the body for installing the handles.
How eccentric (orbital) grinders work and what are their strengths
These machines are somewhat similar in design to the PSHM. the abrasive cloth is attached down to the platform, the engine is located in the housing in a vertical position and there is an eccentric. The movement occurs not only with a certain vibration frequency, but also with additional rotation of the sole around its axis. over, both movements occur simultaneously, which makes sanding amazingly clean and smooth. no scratches, no waves, no roughness.
This type of technique is used in furniture industries, performing finishing work before opening the surface with varnish, paint, polishing wood and is very popular among craftsmen who are engaged in the restoration of old wooden products.
To choose the right orbital machine, we carefully look at the following indicators:
- Motor power. electric motors in this technique also do not require high power, as in PSHM. Average power range. from 150 to 350 watts. But there are models where the power reaches 750 W;
- Amplitude of vibration of the sole. The range of motion and vibration is also similar to the PSHM. from 1 to 5.5 mm;
- Oscillation frequency / Number of revolutions. In terms of the number of oscillations, the parameters are also similar to the PSHM, but the number of revolutions may be different. from 4000 to 12000;
- The size and shape of the working platform. It happens only in a round shape, and there are only two standard, most popular sizes. 125 and 150 mm;
- Fastening emery. The fastening of the soles of these sanders is almost 100%. Velcro. This option is extremely convenient for a quick change of grinding materials;
- Forced dust removal. This system, like the previous types, independently removes up to 70% of dust, so I recommend using construction vacuum cleaners.
Vibrating or flat grinder, its features and benefits
The choice of sander for wood in its final processing always fluctuates between two types. vibration and orbital (eccentric) model. They both rub the surface well to perfect smoothness and cleanliness. But in a surface grinding (aka vibration) sole, as a rule, it is larger. Therefore, for serious volumes of work, it is better to choose it.
The structure of the PSHM is as follows: the engine is located vertically, the rotation mechanism is an eccentric, and at the output we get a clockwise vibration movement. The range of motion depends on the size of the sole and the rotation mechanism itself. The outsole is perpendicular to the engine, and the sandpaper attachment is very comfortable. on the sides of the sole there are “dogs”, which firmly and reliably fix the tape. The big plus is that you don’t have to be tied to the standard size of the skins. You can just buy sandpaper in rolls, cut off the required size and work.
Also, these machines are very popular for sanding plaster, walls and plasterboard joints. But this is not their profile direction, but rather. misuse of the tool. In such operating modes, they can fail faster, since the dust protection system is designed only for working with wood dust.
- Low cost;
- Quick change of grinding skins;
- The shape of the sole allows you to work in corners, sand the edges without leaving so-called “dead” zones;
- The device is lightweight, compact and convenient.
When choosing a device, pay attention to:
In this type of equipment, it makes no sense to install a super-powerful engine, so the motor power of the largest machine does not exceed 400 W and it is enough, since installing a more powerful engine significantly increases the weight of the machine, and this will greatly limit the speed of operation.
It can range from 1 to 5 mm. The higher the amplitude, the less effective the quality of surface grinding, but at the same time productive.
Also an important parameter. The higher the vibration frequency. the cleaner the grinding is. But not equally good for all materials.
- The size and shape of the working platform
The soles are rectangular, square and deltoid. Rectangular. for flat large surfaces, deltoid and square. convenient for radii and hard-to-reach places.
- rectangular. 185 and 229 mm;
- square. 114 mm;
- deltoid. 100 mm.
The material of the sole also matters. Most machines have a plastic outsole with glued rubber for better cushioning. But, as practice shows, in inexpensive machines, these soles have a slight factory curvature, which is not suitable for prof. work, but for everyday tasks it is enough. The professional is the opposite. instead of plastic, durable, composite materials are used, and in its large mass, the sole is made of light alloy, so the accuracy and quality of work is guaranteed. A special porous material is attached to the outsole.
Rigid and stable fastening of the skin is provided by spring-loaded clips (“crocodiles”). The replacement is quick and convenient. However, there is an even faster way to attach and replace. with Velcro. But such a sole has very high wear.
As with belt sanders, the dust extraction system works effectively only with the connection of a vacuum cleaner.
Grinding is used both for large, flat surfaces and for round blanks, grooves, finishing of decorative elements, for sealing joints and joints. The range of grinding work is quite wide, so there is no universal machine that would grind everything in the world with the same efficiency. Modern manufacturers present such a variety of tools for grinding that it is not so easy for a beginner, but even for a professional, to determine on the fly which grinder is best for wood.
First, you need to clearly know what task you will set for your instrument, for what, in fact, it is intended. This is important, since grinders differ from each other not only in power, but also in design, in the principle of operation. Each class of machines is designed for specific tasks. Therefore, I will introduce you to the main types that it is advisable to know for making the right choice.
- Tape machines. remove a rough layer of paint, varnish, black from wooden surfaces. They do it quickly enough, roughly, but very effectively. Grinding thanks to the rotating belt;
- Flat sanding. sanding is carried out thanks to a vibrating sole on which sandpaper is put on. Also well suited for removing paint, varnishes and, depending on the size of the sole, they successfully carry out finishing work;
- Eccentric ones have the most complex grinding mechanism, but thanks to this they make it possible to perform any grinding work delicately, ideally bring the surface to be painted or hidden with varnish and give the best quality result.
Ideally, for a good craftsman, furniture shop, carpentry workshop, all three types are needed. Since their purpose is different. As you can see, they are necessary for different stages of sanding wood or other materials. plastic, metal (not profile materials for processing). But if finances do not allow, then choose the one that you most need. You can try to finish everything else manually. Although difficult and inconvenient, it can also be time consuming.
Now I will tell you in detail about each type of grinder, which will undoubtedly help you in your further choice.
How to choose a wood sander
Wood, despite its hardness. the material is surprisingly pliable. It can take any, even the most bizarre forms, depending on what product the master wants to surprise the audience with.
Wood processing is a multifaceted process. What is not done with a wooden blank to achieve the final result. It is sawn, planed, trimmed, hammered, milled.
One of the final stages of processing is grinding. It seems that there is nothing complicated in it. walk a tool with an emery cloth over the surface. However, everything is not so simple.
Grinding is laborious work, requires patience and skill, besides, it is always accompanied by the worst enemy of a working person. the smallest wood dust.
Which sander to choose for wood, in order to make sanding simple and affordable, more comfortable and dust-free, I will tell you in this article.
You will learn what types of wood sanders exist on the market today, how to choose the right one for your job, how to use it to achieve a flat and smooth surface, without roughness and burrs.
How does a belt sander work and why?
Note, wood belt sander. the most productive and most powerful in the class of the equipment presented. It copes well with a large amount of work, especially where you need to grind a lot and quickly. If you compare it with agricultural machinery, then this is a tractor for virgin lands. However, this tool can also be adapted for processing smaller parts, because some manufacturers complete the machines with additional equipment that allows them to be turned into small grinding machines. The only thing that you limit yourself to. this is the grain of the tape, because the most popular sizes. 60, 80 and 120, and the smallest. 230 mm. Smaller sizes, unfortunately, are either extremely rare or made homemade, which is not always good for the instrument itself.
The design of the tape machine is simple and reliable. The main drive of this machine. belt. The abrasive belt is connected in a ring, the movement of which is provided by two rollers, like a caterpillar on a tractor. This design allows for impressive rotational speeds. For some models, it may exceed 500 m / min. Depending on the performance and its class, the rollers can be made of different materials. In the household class, both rollers are made of plastic, covered with rubber. In the hobby class of cars, the rear drive roller is made of metal, and in professional equipment, both rollers are metal (although there are machines for complex work equipped with two plastic rollers). But this performance also has its drawbacks. due to the high speed of rotation of the belt, some components are exposed to overheating, especially for household machines. Manufacturers of professional tools install special cork (graphite) gaskets, which reduce the temperature and make it possible to work with the machine for a long time.
How To Pick the Right Sander with Makita
- Peel off paint, varnish, darkening;
- Remove irregularities from a wooden board;
- Sanding large areas.
As you understand, this device works quite roughly and after such grinding, the question immediately arises about the more delicate processing of the workpiece with which you are working. Then they will need to be smoothed out either with the notorious sandpaper in hand, or with vibration or eccentric machines, which are more delicate in grinding.
When choosing LSHM, we take into account the following characteristics:
The spectrum ranges from 0.5 to 1.2 kW. The more powerful the engine, the heavier the machine, has a high belt speed and does not need excessive pressure, that is, it works well under its own weight, which is convenient for horizontal grinding.
Possible in the range from 150 to 550 meters per minute. The higher this indicator, the more area you will be able to process in a short time. For most models, a speed regulator is installed for convenience, since the work may not always be of the same type and the material can be not only wood, but also plastic and metal, then you obviously cannot do without it. With high frictional force, the wood starts to burn.
Abrasive belts come in two basic sizes. 75×533 mm and 76×457 mm. These sizes are suitable for almost 80% of belt sanders from different manufacturers. There are other sizes, but they are less common and are only suitable for narrow specific work.
Protection of the motor against overheating and overload only if it has a speed controller installed (only in a professional power tool). Reducing the heating of some elements of the case is also mainly used in professional and hobby-class tools.
Each machine is equipped with a garbage bag or a special filter. But, as practice shows, they collect no more than 70% of dust, so connecting a construction vacuum cleaner will ideally solve this issue.
- clamps for securely attaching the machine to the table (turns the machine into a machine and makes it possible to work with small parts);
- an additional frame prevents distortions during grinding;
- rip fence and crosscut fence. increase work accuracy.
General recommendations to help the master make the perfect choice
- For household chores, choose a machine that is lightweight and comfortable. After all, you need to hold it in your hands, sometimes for a very long time. I recommend considering the following brands: Hyundai, Einhell, Stark. The hobby class is represented by TM Sparky, and in the professional segment the leaders are Metabo, Makita, DeWALT;
- Always carefully inspect the structure and test it for convenience. For example, the handle may be a staple handle, but you may prefer the “mushroom” handle. If possible, take a model with an additional handle;
- Explore all the parameters we talked about above. speed, frequency, amplitude, tape and sole size, etc. And then measure them according to your tasks. what exactly suits you best. The best sander for wood. individual choice of each user;
- If money allows, then choose a grinder with a speed controller. They are comfortable and reliable, designed for safety and comfort.