How to install a band saw. Useful tips
How to properly sharpen a band saw
When sawing in wood or metal, the band saw’s teeth can lose their initial sharpness. Here’s why you need to sharpen your band saw.
Sharpening a band saw is done as follows:
Special sanders are used to restore the cutting properties of the saw teeth.
Initial sharpening You eliminate any cracks in the tooth cavities, and restore the profile of the teeth to a certain symmetry with respect to the rest.
When cleaning, any metal files remaining after sharpening are removed.
For final sharpening, correct permissible symmetrical bends in the corners and sharpen the working edges of the teeth.
Sharpening saws with their own hands will require certain skills. So if you are not sure of the quality of your work, leave this issue to professionals.
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Assembling the frame
When assembling a band saw frame, it is better to give preference to hard and strong wood species. Otherwise, the final construction will not have the required stiffness and will begin to create vibrations. The individual elements, including the work table, are made of sturdy plywood, and the stiffening ribs are additionally reinforced with slats. The most affordable option is to dismantle old furniture.
The first thing to do at home is to make drawings, on the basis of which the assembly of the frame will be carried out. They are built with the height of the working room and the physiology of the person who will be working at the saw.
On sale it is possible to meet a sufficiently large number of equipment, which can be used to solve the problem of bringing the geometry of the saw to the correct indicators. Examples of this are the imported band saws Silicon Setting machine or Wood Mizer 2-sided rip saw.
The following points should be considered when selecting equipment:
- Country of manufacturer. As a rule, equipment of imported origin is more expensive, but its quality is significantly higher. Domestic representatives include TAIGA sawmill, which has a relatively low price and high quality of manufacturing.
- Width of the saw. Each model Astron or TAIGA, another manufacturer, has a range of possible width of the cutting belt, which is usually specified in millimeters.
- There are also several types of saws. When buying, attention should be paid to the fact that the selected equipment should be designed to work with the band type of saws.
- Wood Mizer double-sided sawblade splitter can work in manual or automatic mode.
- When considering a TAIGA or RWM sawmill you need to pay attention to the principles of operation. The most common and popular design can be called a design that is designed for the separation of 2 teeth at the same time.
- Besides, when choosing a manual or automatic band sawsaw pusher one should pay attention to the motor power of the installed device. It affects not only the performance, but also the electricity costs. Also, the manufacturer indicates the weight of the design, which determines the requirements for the installation. The double-sided band saw blade splitter can weigh around 200 kilograms.
The blade tears very often during operation. This is explained by the fact that it is poorly sharpened. This is due to the concentration of stress in the blade profile if the sharpening has not been carried out properly. The need for this procedure is determined by the condition of the band saws. If the surface roughness of the kerf increases, it causes blunting of the tool.
Tool sharpening is carried out with diamond, electrocorundum, CBN discs. Their choice depends on the features of machining material. Sharpening of blades with tool steel as production material is made by corundum grinding discs. The procedure for bimetallic tools is performed correctly if a diamond or elbor disk is used. The instruction manual will tell you how to do this. The most important thing is not to change the angle in the process.
Grinding wheels of various diameters can be used. The choice of one of these is determined by the fixture parameters. To this end profile, flat, cup and cup wheels are most commonly used. Sharpening is correct if the peripheral speed is between 20 and 25 meters per second.
If the fixture has nicks on the edge of the workpiece, there will be chipping. This is why it is essential that sharpening is carried out correctly. During this process not only the front but also the back of the blade must be sharpened. Sharpening tools can be carried out with different grinding wheels. The blade angle must be considered. If you want to carry out the procedure correctly, you need to learn it from a specialist.
In order for the band saw equipment to work qualitatively, it is necessary not only to select it correctly, but also to timely sharpen it. This is the most common purpose for which the special wheels are used. This procedure is as simple as possible, allowing it to be easily made by a craftsman without the appropriate experience.
Several blades of different widths and thicknesses are needed to use the band saw effectively. When choosing a tool for a particular job it is important to consider the following:
- thin blade can be processed only soft wood, otherwise it will quickly bend, the line for the trimmer saw will get uneven;
- The wider the blade, the more accurate the cut will be;
- Thick saws are not suitable for working with small bars and thin sheet material, they deform due to the heat;
- angled and curved cuts can only be made with a narrow blade.
In addition to the geometric dimensions of the blade, it is important to pay attention to the profile and height of the tooth. The important criterion of a band saw blade is the number of teeth per unit length.
Please note! The more often the teeth are arranged, the flatter the sides of the cut.
Saw with a frequent tooth has a longer service life due to less pressure on each tooth. Saws with a coarse tooth are preferred for hardwood because of the greater pressure on the cutting edge.
Quality of cut is also influenced by tooth height. Large tooth is great for roughing and cutting thick wood. Small boards and thin sheet material can be efficiently cut only with a band with a fine tooth.
Tooth pitch is another important parameter. A distinction is made between a rhythmic step and a variable step. The saw with the rhythmic pitch is suitable for thin works, it is convenient to cut a lath of small thickness, to saw out details from plywood. Choose a blade with variable pitch for soft and coarse wood. The asymmetric arrangement of the teeth means that the blade will not block and will cut through thick boards easily.
Setting up the band saw for wood
Band saw is a cutting tool of closed type, used in sawmill equipment.
The unquestionable advantages of these elements are high productivity and minimum production waste.
This may not play a significant role when sawing simple boards, but when it comes to cutting valuable types of wood the kerf and cut quality have a direct influence on the profitability of the saw.
Properly sharpened band saws guarantee efficient woodworking and a long tool life.
Usually such services are provided by specialized companies, but if you know the procedure and subtleties, you can sharpen a blunt saw yourself.
Three differential features are characteristic of band saws.
they are made only from special grades of tool steel, which ensures high strength and durability of the teeth.
Russian manufacturers usually use steel of 9XF and B2F categories, foreign companies give preference to C75 series. In any case, the hardness of material must be at least 45 HRS.
The band saw blade’s cutting width is much narrower than its circular counterparts. As mentioned above, this is a fundamental factor when working with precious wood and industrial wood.
Saws can handle jobs of all lengths and diameters with no problem. In this case, properly sharpened band saw provides a high production output.
It should be clarified that the reliability of closed saws is due to the heterogeneity of the material used to manufacture the blade.
In particular, the body of the saw is usually made of spring steel, which has an incredible resistance to tensile and dynamic loads.
High tungsten and cobalt grades of steel are used for the cutting edge. The individual parts of the blade are welded together by high-frequency currents.
Tools made with this technology can be used for cutting metal.
What you need to know about tooth angles
Tooth geometry of band saws can be modified depending on the characteristics of the material to be sawed. This is expressed in the shape of the tooth and the distance between the individual elements of the cutting edge.
The profile of a band saw blade is defined by a marking that is applied by the manufacturer. It looks like this:
- WM is a universal version designed for cutting soft and hard wood;
- AV. used for longitudinal cutting and sawing of hard materials, such as frozen wood;
- NV. characterized by a narrow blade width, so it is ideal for shape cutting;
- NU. cutting edge with a wide tooth pitch, which provides high performance when sawing soft wood;
- PV. almost the full analogue of the previous blade, but has a flattened shape of the teeth;
- KV. the profile is used for wide band saws designed for soft wood;
- PU. wide saw blade for cutting hardwood.
Tooth pitch is chosen individually, depending on the material.
For example, to saw hard wood and metal only fine-toothed blades are used to avoid cutting edge damage.
What you really should be looking for in a band saw for woodworking
Soft materials and thick-wall materials are processed with saw blades with big spacing between teeth, what allows to speed up production process.
How to properly sharpen a band saw
It’s necessary to mention at once that if you don’t have experience and skills of such works, it is better to entrust sharpening of saws to professionals.
Broken tooth geometry, scale on the metal or improperly set teeth greatly reduce blade life.
Deciding to sharpen the band saw with your own hands, it is worthwhile to first familiarize yourself with the key definitions, knowledge of which may be required in the process. So, the correct formation of the cutting edge will require:
- setting. deflection of teeth from the plane of the main blade of the saw;
- the height of the teeth. the distance between the top point and the base;
- pitch. distance between teeth, usually varies from 19 to 25 mm.
- sharpening angle. depends on the instrument purpose; for example, the recommended sharpening angle for carpenter saws is 35°, for circular saws. 18-22, for sawing timber. not more than 15°.
Angle of sharpening is determined by the manufacturer, so when dressing the saw yourself it is recommended to adhere to these parameters.
Here is a detailed instruction that will help to correctly sharpen the closed circular saw without resorting to the services of specialists.
Deburring band saws in wood is the first step in restoring the profile of the cutting edge.
the position of the teeth may change during the operation, therefore it makes no sense to sharpen the saw blade until the geometry is right.
- Classic. teeth are alternately deflected to the right and left side;
- Stripping. 1st and 2nd tooth are deflected to different directions, the third one stays straight. This profile is created for sawing hard materials;
- wavy. the most complex variant, shaped like a wave. Here, each tooth is given an individual shape, and this type of reaming is usually done only in specialized workshops.
It should be noted that when setting, not the whole tooth is bent, but about 2/3 of the top part. The procedure is performed on a special machine for setting band saws.
It can be the basis of a sharpening business.
Of course, it may not be possible to do everything right the first time, even on the adjustable machine, so at least the geometry of the profile should remain the same as it was before the start of the work.
This is the main stage of the cutting edge dressing, which can be done in two ways.
Full profile band saw sharpening is made with a CBN wheel set in a special sharpening machine.
It is a fully automated operation that is used by professionals.
Vertical band saw for wood
Machines for sawing wood of the vertical type are distinguished by the fact that the blade, which comes into contact with the cut surface, is positioned vertically. Table band wood saw of this type can be used in small woodworking shops, as well as in home workshops for household needs. Such a tool can easily handle materials of varying widths and can work in any trajectory. The size of band saws for wood of this type can vary. When choosing a vertical band saw, you need to remember the following characteristics:
- The moving speed of the blade;
- the length of the blade;
- number of speeds;
- the possibility of adjusting the angle of the table;
- the depth of cut;
- machine weight.
Description of band saws
Two rotating wheels supporting the belt are placed on the base frame. They are driven by an electric motor. Cutting band is fixed by two rollers and a stop next to the work table, it can be adjusted. Teeth size on the saw blade depend on the size of the machine and the type of operation, same as in manual saws. Teeth are sharpened according to the shape of the universal profile.
To close the strip of cutting blade in a ring, brazing with copper solder is used, so the ends are attached to each other and connect the place of the break in repairs. In the factory they solder with an electric welding, small workshops use a torch or special tongs.
Toothed saw blades differ from hacksaw blades in size in length and are made in the form of a ring, but they do not differ in appearance in the open state. Toothed blades are used in metal or wood band saws, they are used in meat and fish production for cutting carcasses, in industry foam concrete, mineral insulating material, foam plastic and other construction materials are cut with their help.
The toothless band saw principle is applied in the same way as the circular saws of friction. There are also teeth on the working blade, but their shape promotes not cutting, but heating of the processed layer. The heat generated in this case increases the performance of the machine. Cutting blades in friction saws are made of 0.6 to 1.7 mm thick, with widths from 6 to 26 mm.
Electrospark action saws are used when cutting workpieces with thicknesses of 150-400 mm, which cannot be processed with circular saws because of their pitch and diameter, which causes a strong run-out.
Material types for blades
For cutting wood, bands of high-carbon steels, carbide-tipped blades, and bimetal strips are most commonly used. The bimetallic version has a flexible blade and hard teeth, using two types of metal. The base of the blade is made of spring material, to which an instrumental high-cutting wire is welded by means of electron-beam welding, from which a toothed profile is subsequently milled.
Blades that are universal in application and special saws used for specific steels are available. The area of use is selected in accordance with the tooth parameters:
For cutting large workpieces bands with larger teeth are used, in particular, to process sheet metal of large dimensions bands with oversized elements are used. To avoid blade run-out and resonance phenomena, teeth of different sizes are mounted on one strip (variable pitch).
The hardness of the cutting elements depends on the steel. The most often used metal with M42 designation in tooth production (it means the hardness of the edge according to Vickers category. 950 units). Hardness M71 (100 Vickers) is not sufficient for tool steel, while medium demanding applications require a hardness of M51.
The geometry is determined by the sharpening angle and the profile of the cutting element. Cutting profiles (channels, angles, T-bars, I-beams, pipes) to size requires teeth with reinforced backs. This is dictated by the special shape of the profile, which causes shock and vibration when cutting, leading to chipping and cracking. To cut tough stainless steel or other similar materials, the teeth are made sharp, with a considerable space between them.
The setting of the cutting elements is made according to the size and massiveness of the material to be machined. For example, to prevent crushing when cutting solid, solid material, bands on the saw are used with an alternation of narrow and wide.
Types of saws depending on how the material is handled
The next categorization is based on the material to be machined:
Work with hard materials (metal, stone) is performed with the tool, the working saw blade of which is reinforced with high-strength teeth of corresponding alloys. Improper choice of saw blade leads to its rupture and damage of edges on the workpiece to be processed. Before buying a saw, determine the front of the next job.
Specifics of work when sawing
When operating such equipment the sawing is performed by the taut part of the blade on the section of the way between the working table and the rollers of the guiding device when moving downwards. Before starting work, the saw must be run dry for 30 minutes. Run through the whole circle, this will give time to work with the guide discs and monitor the heating of the band.
Before buying equipment, be sure to calculate the amount of future work, the required productivity and reliability. The success of your business depends on the right equipment.
This way, it is possible to anticipate load changes quickly to prevent overheating and the resulting breakage of the web. Equally important is controlling the cleanliness of the disk, i.e. к. contamination will cause the belt to run off the guide wheel and break. In addition, the moving parts on draw frames are lubricated and the bearings must be monitored for temperature.
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Straight-line sawing of the workpiece is possible with a guide rail or with a mobile cross support. The production of rectilinear parts in large quantities makes it possible to mechanize the feeding of the timber to the machines, and even to automate the process. This can be accomplished by using a removable infeeder (automatic feeder).
Based on a swivel arm with mounted drive rollers that have a grooved surface. When turning this fixture, the latter presses the wooden workpiece against the vertical ruler, then makes a feed to the saw blade.
Band saws are used to cut curved workpieces, they are popular in model making, carpentry, and also with furniture makers.
This is explained by the fact that small companies can not buy expensive modern technology for a variety of reasons, so carpenter’s bandsaw machines for them “mighty lifesaver”.
And consequently the use of small band saws of this type is in steady demand. Woodworkers know that in the production of shaped workpieces automatic feeders are rarely used.