What the end saw is for. Types and equipment. Assignment and how to choose
Trimmer saw. Types and device. Designation and how to choose
Circular saw is a circular saw designed for cutting wooden, plastic or metal products at a specified angle with the utmost precision. The device is widely used for rapid production of the same type of blanks.
Trimming saws are characterized by great accuracy, so they are used for cutting molded products in the manufacture:
Depending on the configuration, the saw can be used for sawing wood, plastic, aluminum profiles and pipes, as well as almost any long steel products.
How a crosscut saw works and is designed
The main components are:
Base plate acts as a power unit, to which other units are attached. It also holds workpieces for sawing. A cutting head with a saw blade is attached to the frame with a hinge. The crosscut saw’s main feature is that it uses a pendulum-type mount for the cutting part. It is a rocker arm. That is the disk with the head lowers on the workpiece to be sawn, before that properly positioned at the desired angle.
The saw blade is fixed directly on the gearbox shaft or connected to the electric motor by a belt drive. The electric motors used in crosscut saws are characterized by a high RPM. Therefore, the device starts up almost immediately just before sawing the positioned workpiece. This in turn results in a higher degree of safety. In addition, the operator’s side of the circular saw blade is covered by a protective guard to minimize the possibility of contact with body parts or clothing.
Features and functions
Circular saws differ from each other as regards design. Budget devices are greatly simplified, so they are designed to perform only the basic functionality. expensive professional crosscut saws make it possible to perform the same actions faster and with higher speed, and have features that simpler models do not have.
A mitre saw can have this functionality:
- Turning table.
- Tilted cut.
- Dust removal.
- Upper table.
- Dust removal.
- Electronic guiding devices.
The table on which the workpieces are placed while sawing has a pivoting mechanism. That’s what makes it possible to position parts at the same angle. Saws are most often used for cutting at 45° and 90°. Any basic model can do this. Professional devices have the ability to adjust in 1° steps.
The tilted-cutting function is very useful for mitre saws. It means that the head with the saw blade can tilt directly to the workpiece to be sawed at an angle. Combined with the table swivel, this produces a two bevel cut. It should be noted that most amateur level saws can only be tilted to one side. In the professional saw it can be adjusted in both directions. Still it is possible to get by even with the inclination to one side by simply turning the workpiece over. But in that case it requires clearance on both sides of the mitre saw. But if it is set up in a corner, it may not be possible to turn a long piece of wood upside down. In that case the ability to tilt the saw to 2 sides completely solves such a problem.
Purpose of the mitre saw
The name “trimmer” itself indicates the function of this saw. the design of the ends of the workpiece, cutting wood across the grain. In this it differs from its closest relative, the circular saw, which is used, as a rule, for longitudinal cutting of wood.
Modern powerful motors and extremely durable saw blades allow you to cut not only wood but also plastics, thin metal profiles and pipes, wood-based composite materials. For these materials the terms “longitudinal” and “lateral” are very provisional: if such terms are used, it is not the material structure, but the shape of the specific workpiece that is in question. Of course, the shape of the workpiece can be very diverse, sometimes without a clearly defined longitudinal axis.
The applicability of a mitre saw in any particular case is determined purely by how convenient it is to feed a specific workpiece. So, the name “trimming saw” cannot be considered as fully reflecting the potential of this tool, just the name historically fixed to the stationary circular saws with a movable cutting unit.
Trimming saws not only cut material at right angles but also at freely selected angles, which is why they are sometimes referred to as electric mitre saws. Furthermore, many modern devices allow angle changes not only in the horizontal plane but also in the vertical, i.e. е. it is also able to saw at an inclination. A crosscut saw can even be used to select grooves if necessary.
As you can see, the possibilities of this tool are much wider than you might initially think. No wonder that crosscutters more and more often can be found at small carpenter’s factories, construction sites, and in home workshops. Their help is used in the manufacture of window frames and door frames, when laying floors (cut parquet, laminate, skirting boards) and other finishing works (sawing linings, various aluminum and plastic profiles), in the manufacture of wooden furniture.
Basic selection criteria
Before you start choosing a crosscut saw, you need to know what design elements and parameters you should pay attention to first. Let’s consider the main criteria for choosing a good “trimmer” in more detail.
Three types of motor can be used in modern pendulum saws. Each design solution has its pros and cons:
- Asynchronous motor. Characterized by reliability, efficiency and low noise level. However, this solution has a serious disadvantage: low power and rotor speed at a considerable mass. This is why most manufacturers do not equip domestic models with asynchronous propulsion systems;
- Collector motor. Has an ideal ratio of power to mass dimensions. Such power plants have a simpler implemented control system and speed stabilization. Collector motor shaft speed can easily exceed 10,000 rpm. rpm. There are some disadvantages: limited life of the brushes, high noise level, overheating of the armature windings at high loads;
- Collectorless motor. Is a kind of symbiosis of the collector and asynchronous technology. In this motor, the weakest link, which is the brushes, has been replaced by an electronic unit. These power units have all the advantages of the classic technologies: high power at low weight, noiselessness, low maintenance, high reliability. The only disadvantage of crosscut saws with a brushless motor is a high price, which is more than compensated by the tool’s long service life.
Asynchronous motor Collector motor Collectorless motor
Type of gearbox
When selecting the right end saw, it is necessary to pay attention to the design of the gearbox. the second most important element of the cutting assembly of any “trimmer”. This element is a connecting link between the power plant and the circular saw blade. There are two types of cutting gears used in this machine:
Toothed gear crosscutting saw Gear gear crosscutting saw belt drive crosscutting saw
The bevel gears are durable and reliable. They transmit the torque from the engine rotor to the saw blade spindle without slipping. However, in case of pinion failure (tooth breakage due to excessive load) the whole gearbox has to be replaced or the unit has to be repaired at a high cost.
Belt transmission also has a lot of disadvantages: belt slipping on the shafts is possible, rather fast wear because of high friction coefficient. Nevertheless, belt drives are commonly used in pendulum saws. Due to this design, the manufacturers have managed to reduce bearing wear caused by vibration, which is partially absorbed by the belt drive. A worn belt is easy to reinstall and can be easily replaced if it becomes critically worn. over, if the disc jams, the belt slips on the shafts, saving the motor windings from overheating and expensive components from destruction.
Answering yourself the question of what model of trimmer saw is better to buy, you should decide on its purpose and conditions of use. In other words, any blade is suitable for working with wood. If you intend to use a crosscut saw for processing different materials, it is very important to choose the right tooling, which differs:
- Outer diameter. Depending on the model, the crosscut saws are available with 210, 250 and 305 mm saw blades. Smaller and larger diameter discs are quite rare because they are designed for specialized equipment, which rarely appears on the market;
- The arbor hole is available with a diameter of 25 or 30 mm;
- The material. Saw blades can be monolithic or carbide. The first are made of high-carbon steel, which tends to “sit down” quickly. It is possible to sharpen such a disk independently without the use of specialized equipment. The carbide cutting tool is equipped with pobedite tips that hold sharpening perfectly;
Monolithic (left) and carbide disc (right)
Power and RPM
Motor power of trimmers varies from 0,8 to 2,5 kW depending on the model. Low-power models are often used for short intermittent work with small-diameter accessories. Maximum power is characteristic of professional tools that can cut almost any material with the appropriate accessories. A power of 1.5-1.8 kW is considered optimal for home crosscut saws.
The rpm of the saw blade affects the cutting quality and performance of the device. Most modern drives have a speed range of 3,200 to 6,000 rpm, depending on the power requirement. rpm.
Important! The best models of crosscut saws are equipped with speed control.
How to choose the optimal weight and dimensions of a wood mitre saw? You should know that there is a correlation between the power of equipment and its mass-size indicators. The higher the power of the model and the larger the tool diameter, the greater the dimensions and weight of the tool. That’s why you should not chase after extra-powerful models if you don’t intend to use the tool for professional purposes.
How to choose a crosscut saw?
In order not to make a mistake with the choice of a crosscut saw, you need to compare not only the technical parameters, but also understand how this tool works.
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Gearbox design The gearbox is responsible for transmitting the rotary motion of the motor. There are three options:
Toothed gear: eliminates the possibility of slipping. Disadvantages: noise, appreciable vibrations of the tool, repairs only in the service center. Belt drive Plus: less noise and vibration during operation. Cons: Belt rupture is not covered by the warranty, you have to find and replace the consumable yourself. Saws without a gearbox Pros: long working hours. Drawbacks: Low torque.
Engine The installed motor has a lot to do with it: the speed, maintainability and overload level of the tool.
Asynchronous motor Pros: less noise, high operating time. Disadvantages: low power, high weight.
Collector motor Pros: high torque and performance at work. Disadvantages: regular maintenance.
Reciprocating motor Pros: high torque, quiet operation, long service life, no reaction to moisture, dust and other external factors. Disadvantages: high price.
Power Power. is one of the key technical parameters. There are models from 800W to 2500W on the market. The most popular. mitre saws 1600W and 1800W. Their power is enough for both home and production work.
- thicker and harder workpieces can be taken to work;
- the risk of overload or overheating is reduced;
- The more power, the larger the diameter of the saw blade;
- weight of the tool itself increases, reducing mobility.
- Trimmers with a disc up to 250 mm are designed for home works and private use.
- Blades of 250 mm and more. For professional applications in production or on construction sites.
Choosing accessories for mitre saws
Accessories expand and improve the saw’s functionality. Often manufacturers themselves complete the tool with various accessories, increasing its cost. You can choose your own accessories for specific applications in your home or professional environment.
Circular saw table
For a stationary installation a stable construction should be chosen. The stand must be able to support the weight of the saw. There is a wide range of workbenches on the market. Some owners prefer to make a crosscut saw table with their own hands. This enables a design that meets certain requirements.
Laser crosscut saws are essential for precise sawing. It is possible to buy a laser pointer for mitre saws separately. It should be taken into account that you need to make or buy a suitable mount for the device and be equipped with a dust protection. In this regard, it is better to buy the tool in a set with a laser guide.
Stop for mitre saw
For the convenience of work, you can additionally install a stop. When choosing one should take into account its size and material for manufacturing. It is better to choose from a durable and lightweight alloy. This will ensure the ease of use of the accessory and a long life.
Wood cut-off saw with their own hands
If the owner for home use needs a high-performance tool for dissolving and facing boards and need to save money, you can consider making it with your own hands. It is worth thinking about this first of all for those masters who have considerable experience in this business and good training. First of all, it is necessary to prepare the necessary tool for work:
- a set of files;
- welding machine;
- steel sheet;
- motor from the angle grinder with a power of at least 2.2 kW, working at a speed of 2800 revolutions per minute.
To create a cutting machine you need to perform a number of steps:
- The work process begins with making the frame. There is no way to do without it, because the facing machine is a very bulky tool.
- As the base for the frame you can use a metal corner and the legs of an iron bed.
- From a steel sheet to make a working base. Use a file to trim its edges.
- For the future saw you’ll need a pendulum frame, which is made with a channel.
- The finished stand must be installed on the steel plate. And it is important to choose the correct height, which must be 800 mm.
- The electric motor is installed on a special stand, which will move by means of hinges.
- In the end, the only thing left is to attach a box to the homemade cut-off saw, which will protect the craftsman from shavings.
The saw blade acts as the main working unit of the cut-off machine, which must have a diameter of 42 cm. As noted by users of home-made cut-off saws, it’s a great opportunity to save on the purchase of branded tools, which often cost more than self-made device.
Pendulum saws: varieties
The crosscutting tool lends itself to a much easier classification than, for example, the jigsaw, which can be either electric or mechanical. The mechanisms under consideration can be divided by criteria:
Examples include such products as:
- Bosch GKM 18 saw (cordless modification, cost about 15000 p.);
- Kolner KMS 210 saw ;
- Domestic face saw “Kalibr PTE-900” with a power of 900 W at a cost of 4,500.
Trimming machine is a piece of equipment not for household purposes, used only at the factories that produce rolled metal products, and every day engaged in their cutting or processing. Such units are sold for tens and sometimes hundreds of thousands, their power exceeds 1000 watts, and weighs several centners.
- machine tools of domestic manufacturer;
- DH 10-4 (power 3 kW, weight 360 kg, the price 105 thousand. );
- DKB-40K (power 3 kW, 360 kg, price 105 ths. 5.5 kW, weight approx. 700 kg, cost 340k. ).
Professional metal end saws for profiles, sheets and pipes according to the parameters marked occupy an intermediate state. For example:
Makita LF 1000 (1650 watt, price from 60 ths. ), DeWALT d27111 (power 1500 W, price from 50 ths. ).
The broaching function gives the user a particular advantage when working with long plates or pipes.
The models have two parallel slats on which a cutting disk is mounted and moves freely along them.
Fixture with the broaching distinguishes favourably by the fundamental width of penetration of a detail and in addition present very fine teeth on a disk. In addition, the tool has a laser pointer in some cases to control the process and make marking easier.
A metal facing saw equipped with a broach has a higher weight than usual, and the presence of the option increases the cost by 25-30%.
The size of the cutting disc is the central criterion for classification
The tooth size defines the width and depth of cut, and the material defines the ability to use the unit on a particular metal.
Laser and electronic equipment
In some rare cases the sliding compound mitre saw has electronic elements. However, there are models that are characterized by electronic speed control. It gives a great opportunity to control the working process.
In today’s world, many manufacturers strive for perfection and innovation, so they increasingly implement the most daring and expensive ideas. The laser guide on the saw, for example, is an optional, but very useful and expensive option.
The laser is used to draw a clear line for the trimmer cut. This function is particularly necessary for inexperienced craftsmen.
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High-speed, electrically powered cutting tools are source of increased danger. To avoid injury to life and limb and to protect material assets, the safety regulations must be strictly observed.
Personal protective equipment for the cut-off saw
- Before starting work, carefully inspect the unit for mechanical damage and make sure that all saw parts are firmly connected to each other and to the frame.
- Do not work on an unsecured tool.
- Do not obstruct the work area. There must be sufficient clearance to the machine and sufficient space for setting and removing workpieces as well as for operations.
- Strictly adhere to the materials and workpiece sizes permitted for the model.
- It is obligatory to use personal protection means: safety glasses or transparent shield, respirator, protective gloves, strong and not torn working clothes.
- It is not permissible to wear rings and chains when working on machines.
- Comply with other requirements specified in the user’s manual.
It’s important to understand that a minute saved on safety can cost you your health or even your life.