How to use a wood sander

wood, sander

How to prepare wood for sanding?

Wood is the material from which most furniture and interior elements are made. Its versatility makes it a raw material that is often handled by enthusiasts. For the restoration of furniture must be properly prepared. Above all, you should not forget about safety. Buy a dust respirator, as sanding generates dust that is harmful to the respiratory tract. Make sure that the room in which you are going to work, is well ventilated. If you are going to use an electric sander, you will also need gloves and goggles.

Before you start sanding, first clean the surface. Make sure that the wood does not become saturated with moisture. If you’re not using a grinder with a dust collection system, then have a vacuum cleaner or brush ready to remove the dust. If using hand sanding, you will need a block or sandpaper holder. Prepare sheets of sandpaper of different grit sizes and a knife for wallpaper, with which cut the paper to size. If you are using an angle grinder, prepare a set of discs.

If you want the wood to look its best after sanding and to last as long as possible in perfect condition, the first thing to do is to get rid of any dust that may have arisen during sanding. You can use a soft cloth lightly dampened with water. This will help to collect as much sticky and dry waste as possible. If you do not use a sander with a vacuum cleaner, it is worth repeating this action from time to time during the sanding. The finished wood should be well impregnated so that it will not be damaged in the future.

What is the best sanding machine for sanding wood?

Choice depends on your skills. Experienced enthusiasts and professionals working with wood with their own hands, are likely to use the eccentric or belt sander. Angle grinder is less recommended, because it is most often used for cutting or metal fabrication. You can work with it on furniture, but then you need to be very careful, because it can easily burn the ground surface (especially when it has no speed control). The undoubted advantage of this power tool is the low price.

Design and principle of operation

Despite the variety of types of grinders in the basis of one principle of operation. Converting the rotary motion of an electric motor into translational or rotational (for the abrasive wheel) motion. Depending on the power of the machines (electric motor) and their construction features, it is possible to determine the wood that is efficiently used on this machine. Therefore, any machine can be regarded as a set of standard elements:

  • an electric motor;
  • control unit;
  • rotary transmission system;
  • control element with applied abrasive;
  • power cable;
  • optional equipment.
wood, sander

The size and weight of the machine are determined by the engine power, the weight of each component and the amount of optional equipment. The more powerful the motor, the wider the capabilities of the belt sander. A dust extractor can be used as an option, in order to remove the wood dust and fine particles from the grinding material. This increases safety and makes it easier to work in close proximity to the machine.

The operating principle depends on the type of grinder. Basically they come in four types:

Belt grinders use a belt with granite grit on it. Its edges are bonded together. It is placed on a motor shaft and a secondary shaft, which enable it to rotate at a given speed. Motor power of such machines varies from 500 watts to 1200 watts. Certain models are equipped with a device for adjusting speed. This allows you to choose the best mode of processing a wooden surface (especially important in case of different density of the wood). Belt width and linear length depend on the size of the installed rollers. The wider the belt, the more possibilities of treatment. Not only the belt length is important, but also the tensioning of the belt. This parameter influences the tightness of the belt and the processing quality. The ability to quickly change the belt to another with a coarser or finer abrasive greatly expands the capabilities of these machines. Many draw frames are equipped with garbage collection devices. Some are equipped with special vacuums.

Such machines are mainly made in a stationary version. As an example of such units, consider the Grinder. It is mainly used for preliminary (roughing) treatment of wood and prepared parts, removal of old paint and varnish coatings.

In vibrating machines the principle of transformation of circular rotation of the motor shaft into circular movements of the grinding surface with small amplitude oscillations is applied. In such machines the abrasive surface has a rectangular shape. Thanks to the low rotational speed and low vibration makes a soft sanding, pre-treated wood surface. A separate type of vibratory machines are delta grinders. They have a triangular sole plate, on which the abrasive material is located. Due to such shape with their help it is possible to carry out processing of different sizes, recesses, pits, corners and internal curves.

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For high-precision surface finishing and polishing of wooden surfaces, eccentric or orbital sanders are used. High quality of processing is achieved due to slow oscillating and rotating movements. The main limitation of the application of such grinders is their inability to process parts of small size and internal angles.

Types of grinders

At present, quite a number of types of grinders have been developed. All types of grinders are divided into the following categories:

  • belt sander;
  • flat grinders;
  • eccentric;
  • delta grinders;
  • brush grinders;
  • renozzers;
  • Grinders.

All this electric tool can be divided into two categories: manual sanders and stationary. It can be manual or stationary. Each of these types is capable of solving not only basic processing tasks, but also highly specific.

The eccentric machine is a manual machine and is mainly used for final polishing. Such machines are also called orbital. This is due to the nature of rotation of the abrasive sheet and the technique of its use.

A separate type is considered a vibrating sanders. They differ from each other by the way of fixing the sanding sheet. It can be attached by means of a special locking mechanism located on both sides of the sole or by means of the so-called velcro. A sheet of sandpaper is applied to it, and it is securely clamped. To ensure the removal of the resulting dust in the soleplate, holes are made, through which it enters the dust collector. A variety of such machines are angular or delta sanding machines. The difference is the shape of the soleplate, which has a triangular form.

Straight face grinders belong to the class of hand tools. Their distinctive feature is the way of grinding nozzle placement. It is mounted on a spindle located along the longitudinal axis. The nozzle is a wheel with the desired size of abrasive grit. This wheel is rigidly mounted on the motor shaft. Such machines can operate from standard mains electricity or built-in batteries.

Selection tips

Most inexperienced people do not know how to choose the right eccentric sander

Experts recommend that you pay attention to the following features:

  • Power: the higher this figure, the greater the performance and range of the device. The tool will not be able to machine rough surfaces of parts if it lacks power. The value of this characteristic takes values in the range from 165 to 950 watts.
  • Vibration: this figure affects the accuracy of grinding and the difficulty of balancing the device during operation. Occurs as a result of uneven weight distribution over the surface;
  • RPM: this parameter is used to determine the blade speed and the number of vibrations per revolution. The frequency of sanding is adjusted in the basic configuration depending on the fineness of the surface to be sanded.
  • Range of motion: the lower the value, the faster the grinding process. When machining thin workpieces, tools with an amplitude of 2-3 mm should be purchased. When polishing large workpieces, it rises to 4-7 mm. A larger amplitude increases the vibration intensity and reduces the grinding accuracy.
  • Working foot diameter: the performance of the eccentric sander depends directly on this parameter. A larger diameter soleplate requires a powerful electric motor.
  • Weight: affects the ease of sanding. Lightweight devices are more comfortable to hold in the absence of a support surface. But heavy tools are less affected by vibration.
  • Dust extraction: if the treated surface of the orbital grinder is not cleaned from dust and dirt in time, the grinding mechanisms can deform, leaving scratches on the surface of the workpiece.

In stores, you can find eccentric grinders from the following manufacturers:

  • Metabo: tools from this company have a high performance. The disc sander completes up to 11,000 revolutions per minute. Its vibration amplitude is 2.7 mm. The working diameter of Metabo devices is up to 125 mm. The average weight of our grinders is 1.4 kg. The electric motor is powered from the mains. A 2.9 m cord is included with the tool for attaching to the power outlet.
  • Bosch: orbital sanders from this company have an ergonomic rotary handle and a fan that cools the motor design. Tools from Bosch have a speed of 7,000 rpm or more. The average weight of the machine is 2 kg. Diameter of the working disc is 125 mm. Amplitude of movement of the sole plate is 5 mm.
  • DeWALT: eccentric grinders from this corporation have discs with stable stabilization and balancing, which prevents the spread of vibration. The oscillation amplitude of the base plate is 2,4 mm. The maximum disk speed per minute is 12,000. The average weight of a Dewalt sander is 1,5 kg. Power consumption of most models is 280 W.
  • Makita: their machines have rotating handles and a housing with rubber elements. They are equipped with dust and dirt protection mechanisms, but do not have soft start function. Makita grinders have a power output of 300 W. Working diameter of the disc is 125 mm. The average weight of the construction is 1.4 kg.
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When choosing an eccentric sander it is important to pay attention to the price of the tool. The average cost of sanders ranges from 6,800 to 10,000

The basics of sanding

The sanding fineness depends on the grit size. According to this parameter, there are 7 types of work:

  • Rough woodworking. abrasives P40, P46 and P60.
  • The first processing and smoothing of the surface. P80, P90 and P100.
  • Small unevenness can be removed with P120.
  • Start with hardwoods or finish with softwoods at P150 and P180.
  • Hardwood finish sanding. P240.
  • Intermediate sanding for a decorative finish. P280 and P320.
  • Finishing polishing. P400 and higher.

The wood to be sanded must be dry. Excessive humidity makes the wood fibers too loose, which affects the sanding quality.

Routing of coarse cutter marks, such as chips and cracks, with a fine abrasive at P60 or P80. Then the surface is smoothed with grit P120 or P150.

Rough sanding with coarse grit is only suitable for wood with a thickness of 16 mm or more. For thin materials, such as linings, a fine grit is suitable. from 120 to 150.

When sanding soft wood, it is important to take care. Press the machine a little harder than necessary, the surface of the wood will be dented.

Stock up on several discs or belts before starting work. During grinding, the abrasive wears down, which impairs the quality of processing.

angle grinder or grinder. what’s the difference

Both devices are varieties of the same electric tool. angle grinder. They differ in power and actual capabilities. So, if some models are used primarily for cutting, others are more suitable for grinding.

angle grinder in the form in which it is presented by most consumers, has a relatively low power, simple functionality. The 1.5 kW motor overheats and has to be switched off if it is operated continuously for an extended period of time. It can be successfully used only for household needs, with a large amount of work such a tool will not cope.

Professional sanders are equipped with a much more powerful motor from 1.8 to 2.5 kW, which ensures continuous operation. You can control the speed of these tools and they are more productive.

Grinders have a smooth start function, in contrast to household grinders, which gain speed immediately after turning on. At low RPM they “fade out”, while professional machines continue to work at a set frequency due to the load balancer.

Wood grinders for sanding and polishing lumber

Wood sanding machines are used for perfect smoothness of wooden surfaces. They can be used to polish both products made of new lumber and old, worn-out interior parts, parquet, furniture, floor boards, walls, stairs and other structural elements.

General recommendations for selection

The market is flooded with offers from little-known companies, outwardly such models may not differ much from the quality devices, but the difference will be noticeable only after some time. The price of such mechanisms may look attractive, but the savings will cost a lot in the future. So, you should know what to pay attention to when choosing such machines.

Recommendations on the choice of a particular model is more convenient to give depending on its type, but you can also give some general advice.

  • the weight of the grinder. It is good if you don’t have to hold it upright for a long time, in which case the weight can even be considered an advantage. But if you have to hold it in your hands, then preference should be given to a higher speed of movement of the working surface;
  • its behavior when switched on. It is clear that the wood sander is not a quiet tool, but some models simply set a record, deafening the owners. Also at idle speed it is worth evaluating the vibration, if the machine strongly “beats”, then there is a high probability of its rapid failure;
  • cost. it is possible to find the best price/performance ratio without great expense. The same Interskol produces a fairly reliable tool;
  • the possibility of fast repair also plays a significant role, so exotics from this point of view. not the best choice, spare parts for not very common brands of mechanisms are difficult to find;
  • plate size, mini plates (about 100 mm 2 ) are only suitable for processing small wooden products.

Some craftsmen make a semblance of a grinder by themselves. But a homemade machine can not compete with the professional ones in quality of surface treatment. The maximum that such a hand-made machine is good for is machining small wooden parts.

Wood grinder. Types and peculiarities of work

Wood grinder. just the perfect tool for finishing work in the country house. It greatly speeds up the process of bringing to perfection any wooden surfaces. With its help you can clean up the old flooring, the wall panelling made of wood and any interior elements damaged over time, including furniture.

With a belt sander can easily remove old paint

  • delta grinder is considered a kind of vibratory counterparts. It has a triangular base plate and is quite convenient for grinding small indentations, corners, recesses;
  • another variety. the eccentric sander allows you to process the surface so well that it becomes almost polished. This is made possible by the oscillatory-rotational movements that the plate performs. For processing small areas and inner corners such a device is not suitable.
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Deltashlifmashina convenient for grinding small indentations, corners, recesses

The sanding element in this equipment is represented by a belt, which is attached around two rollers. Their movement allows the belt, which is mounted on the soleplate, to rotate at the required speed.

Quite an important characteristic of a wood sander is the speed. It depends entirely on the power of the tool. This can range from 500 to 1200 watts.

There are models that are additionally equipped with a speed regulator, which allows you to select the optimal level depending on the surface to be processed.

Grinding element of the belt sander is represented by a belt, which is attached around two rollers

Belt size can also be different, depending on the model of the wood sander. The greater the value, the more functional the tool. However, this significantly increases the weight of the construction and its dimensions. When choosing a sanding machine, special attention should be paid to the grit size of the belt used. To make the work qualitative and enjoyable, it is worth buying different types of belts with different grits.

Wood sanding machine

Wood grinder is an important and versatile tool. It can be used for repair, construction or restoration of all types of woodwork.

The sander makes it possible to speed up by several times the process of sanding or polishing surfaces in wood, be it walls or floors, furniture or other decorative elements.

Before choosing a tool, you need to understand its main characteristics.

Grinders come in different designs and operating principles. These factors depend on their purpose.

Belt sander for wood

LSM is used for the initial processing of materials made of wood, for example, for quickly removing the first layer when sanding or removing old paint. It is also suitable for fine-tuning furniture components.

LShM works on the principle of a planer: the band, which has the shape of a circle, rotates on rollers and when pressed on it grinds the wooden surface. The layer that is removed from the surface depends on the grit size of the belt. The higher the grit number, the gentler and thinner the layer to be removed.

Recommendations for selection

In order to choose an Lshm should be first of all decided for what purposes it will be used in the future. The main distinguishing factor LSM is the classification of abrasive belts that are suitable for the grinder.

The minimum versions of LSSM can work with a belt width of only 6, 3 cm. They have the advantage of being very lightweight and can be used with one hand.

The next parameter in the choice of LSSM is the duration of its use. If you need it for lightweight jobs, such as finishing small elements or hobbies, then a simple inexpensive machine may be suitable for that.

For construction it is better to take a more serious option. Naturally it is more expensive, but as a rule they do not succumb to rapid wear and tear, and the saying “a miser pays twice” is particularly appropriate.

Orbital Sander Basics | Beginner Tool

    When choosing an LSSM, you should also pay attention to its additional parameters:

Brush sanding machine for wood

The main difference between brush sanders is that the working part is not represented by a sanding sandpaper, and the brush is mainly made of metal. Therefore, such a tool is not suitable for grinding or polishing.

It is used for removing coatings. Brush wood sander is designed to work on large areas, such as removing varnish from parquet, refinishing furniture or other large objects.

This type of sander is also used for “aging” wood. With the help of a stiff brush gives the wood an antique look, and such an element looks like an antique.

Eccentric wood grinders

The second name is the orbital sander. This tool on the principle of operation is similar to a vibratory sander (VSM). The difference is that the eccentric machines are more productive, the grinding is gentler and finer, and the principle of work is due to the complex trajectory of the moving element.

This type of grinding tools has a significant disadvantage: the formation of large amounts of dust. The manufacturers are aware of this and are working to improve the tools.

Some models have dust collectors. This model can easily be used in confined spaces. So if you plan to work indoors, it is better to take this into account when choosing and look for models with dust collectors.

Vibratory sander

Vibratory sander is often used for fine grinding or polishing wooden surfaces. This tool is also suitable for removing coating material, varnish or paint. Grinding is performed by oscillating circular movements with small amplitude.

In some models the speed and amplitude are adjustable. Grinding is carried out by sheets or circles of sandpaper (what will be the abrasive material sheet or circle depends on the model), which are attached to the Velcro or clip.