How to cut metal except with an angle grinder. Device power
What to cut metal with?
Metal cutting is one of the technological processes in the processing of metal workpieces for construction and industrial purposes. In this case, the question how and what to cut metal so that the parts meet the design requirements (size, shape, etc.) and comply with the requirements of the European Union.д.) is one of the basic.
In this article we will consider what tools are used for cutting metal products, their advantages, features and disadvantages.
Metal cutting wheels for angle grinder
You can find in the first link an inexpensive cutting disc with a diameter of 125 mm, a thickness of 1.2 mm and a fitting diameter of 22.23 mm.
These disks are suitable for most angle grinders and allow you to quickly make cuts in ferrous and non-ferrous sheet metal, cut profiles and pipes.
The maximum allowable speed of the angle grinder in this case should not exceed 12 thousand. RPM.
If you need something more reusable and robust, then look in the direction of diamond discs. They are made of alloyed steel, but have a diamond coating on the cutting edge, which greatly increases their cutting capacity and service life.
Such discs can handle even the hardest materials and still produce fewer sparks.
Use of inexpensive “non original” blades
Sometimes, to save money, the operator puts the cheapest disc on the device. Often these wheels are curved or their material is very soft. In both cases, the disc when cutting metal (especially thick metal) flies around the room like poplar fluff in May.
To avoid wheel breakage and to be safe use good quality diamond and metal discs. It is best to buy brand-name discs. for example, the universal Bosch Standard for Metal 125×1 is suitable for devices with a 125th disc.6×22.23.
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This does not mean that you should not buy discs Luzhsky abrasive factory. But here are unknown foreign brands, which sellers like to present as “quality” Chinese “better still ignore.
Conclusion: the use of cheap circular saws will lead to unnecessary costs and the likelihood of injury. It is better to use original quality discs.
Classification of mechanical cutting methods is usually based on the answer to the question: what to cut metal with? Cutting with a hacksaw and metal shears
Cutting with scissors: a) cutting sheet into strips; b) cutting with shears.Cutting a round shape: c) wrong; d) right
At home, metal is usually cut with a common metalworker’s hacksaw. The process is quite time consuming. This is made much easier if a mechanical hacksaw is available.
Unlike hacksaws, there are quite a few types of metal shears:
- Hand scissors allow you to cut relatively thin sheet metal. They allow you to do it quickly and accurately, correctly following the cutting line. There are several types of hand scissors: finger scissors, power scissors, chair scissors, lever scissors, curved-cutting scissors.
- Slotted scissors perform both straight and curved cuts. They allow you to cut metal in a confined space while maintaining high quality of cut. Driven by an electric motor.
- Guillotine scissors can cut metal with high precision. The main advantages. no defects, high cutting accuracy, preservation of the external coating of the cut material.
Hand shears can cut relatively thin sheets of metal.
- Hand scissors. Main disadvantage. developing power is not enough for cutting if the metal is very strong.
- Mechanical shears. Operated by an electric motor, they are considerably more powerful than hand guillotines.
- Hydraulic shears. Offer very high precision. In addition, they can be equipped with CNC, which can significantly increase their productivity by storing the typical parameters of cuts.
Amazing device to cut metal with high precision
Sabre and circular saws, angle grinders
Sabre saws are similar to electric jigsaws in principle of operation. Superficially look like an electric drill, but instead of drill. running forward 10 to 35 cm long saw, which performs reciprocating motion. Power saws are usually cordless, but battery-powered versions are also available.
Sabre saws are used for precise and fast cutting of metal.
Different kinds of saw blades are used for different kinds of work. They are easy to change, like drills in an electric drill. The mounting system is reliable and rational. Knowing what you are going to work with, you can choose the right saw blade. for example, the greater the curvature of the cut, the narrower the blade should be.
Sabre saws require skill, a steady hand, and good judgement.
It is easier to work with circular saws. Their cutting blades are usually made of high-alloyed carbide or special high-speed steel. Sabre saws are designed to cut a variety of metal profiles made of a wide range of metals and alloys, provide a narrow kerf, low chip volume.
In order to choose the right saw you should pay special attention to the saw blade, especially its diameter. The bigger it is, the more possibilities the tool has. After making the cut, additional machining is usually required to remove sharp edges. The disadvantages should include a fairly large size and quite high cost.
The circular saw can be used to cut copper, aluminum and other non-ferrous metals.
Most consumers have no idea that an “angle grinder” is an angle grinder. The fact that this miracle of technology comes from Bulgaria, but our people do not like the long names. In most cases, the angle grinder, equipped with a disk for sawing steel, perfectly replaces the circular saw on metal, although, judging by the name, it was originally intended for grinding.
Today, many people use it as a saw, not for grinding, although a modern angle grinder can cut, and scrape, and polish, etc. п. And you can cut and grind almost all materials. The main thing is that there is no need to buy different tools. Only different consumables are purchased for different materials and works, but the machine itself is needed only one.
Types of scissors for metal
The most popular type, which resembles a regular hand scissor in principle. The bottom, supporting horseshoe-shaped sole plate has a fixed blade. The upper blade is fixed at a certain angle to the lower blade, and it is movable. A motor starts the upper blade and reciprocates to cut the metal.
The position of the base plate can be changed depending on the gap required. Thanks to this it is possible to adjust the device to a certain thickness of the sheet. The shears can cut steel, aluminum and copper. Cutting is smooth thanks to the side stop (when sawing it rests on the end of the table or workbench).
The main advantage of electric sheet metal shears is that there is no waste during cutting. no shavings remain afterwards. Can cut sheet metal up to 6mm thick. Easily cuts through wire and folds when necessary. Note that they use square-shaped knives with a sharpened edge on each side. This keeps the knife sharp for long periods of time: if one edge gets blunt, simply turn the knife over and keep cutting.
However, it is quite difficult to perform curved cuts and cut out shaped drawings with such a device. Also, you should always start at the edge of the cut. you cannot make a hole in the middle. If you plan to cut only sheet metal, and cut it into long strips, this device is ideal.
Like the sheet model, the slotted model has two cutting blades. Only here the upper U-shaped blade is fixed and the lower blade reciprocates. Rising up, the lower blade cuts against itself and the edges of the upper blade.
These scissors have a rather high feed rate and a precise straight cut. They can be used to cut “windows” inside the sheet, but pre-drill a hole for the knives to fit. However, they do leave a thin strip of shavings in the process (the width of the device‘s blades). Good professional devices derive shavings upwards, not covering the cutting trimmer line. One such device is a Makita JS1000.
Of all the shears, the slotted ones are the weakest and the maximum thickness of metal for them is 2 mm. They also have a large turning radius, so it is not very convenient to use them for shape cutting. Such a device is worth buying only if you need to cut a relatively thin metal, and the cuts will be mostly in straight lines.
Punching scissors. it is essentially a mobile mini-press, which cuts small holes in the metal. Die cutting is performed with the help of a matrix and a punch. Die is fixed in a special holder, and the punch serves as the punch. The shape of the punch and the shape of the die are identical, so if you change one element, you have to change the other. The size of the cut holes will correspond to the punch diameter.
In the process the punch cuts small holes in the metal, building up a track from them. There are round and square cutters. The round bits are for metal up to 3 mm thick, and the square bits up to 4 mm thick. Note that both matrix and punch have the ability to continuously rotate 360 °, so it is easy to perform curved cuts and cut through the “windows” in the metal. Of the domestic good models can advise Diold HER-0,65-0,28 with a metal punching to a thickness of 2.5 mm.
Not only is it easy to cut flat sheet metal, but also corrugated strips, for example for roofing or fences. No deformation of the workpiece is observed during operation, and the cut is very clean and accurate. True, in the process a lot of debris is formed in the form of fine-cut iron rounds, which abundantly sprinkle the operator’s shoes.
Even their name makes it clear that they are the only scissors that are designed exclusively for rebar cutting. They can cut studs, rebar, flat or fluted wire, rod with thickness up to 20 mm.
There are very few such devices on sale and they cost a lot of money. Most often they are purchased for large construction projects, where you need to cut a lot of reinforcement for the foundation wireframe or piles. In domestic conditions it is easier to make do with a common angle grinder. However, if you still need such a device, then we advise to take a Makita DSC191Z with the ability to cut rebar up to 19 mm thick.
Scissors is a device with a small rotating disk (knife). You can say. it’s such a miniblender for small amounts of work. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that it can cut not only metal, but also plastic, cardboard, leather, linoleum and composite materials. But metal. only thin sheet metal up to 1 mm thick.
It is worth buying such a grinder in the case when you need to cut many different materials of small thickness. For example, you can take a Bosch 0.601.9B2.A 904 that has a self-sharpening blade and a 2 Ah battery.
Recommendations of specialists for some types of work
Here’s how to work with an angle grinder on different metal products.
Chain sharpening for chain saws
Picture 2: sharpening chainsaw chain with an angle grinder
The chain is sharpened on the chain saw arm. For work, use a sharpening disc with a thickness of 2.5 mm. It is necessary to mark the first tooth that you will work. With the right tools, you can sharpen the chain 4-7 times before it breaks down completely.
It is better to start cutting thick metal with the angle grinder from the edges. If you start with the middle part, the disk can jam and bend. Apply force to the bottom part of the cutting tool during machining, which ensures the efficiency of the cut.
Picture 4: cutting corners with a angle grinder
To cut metal corners, you can use worn-out discs or small-diameter tools. It is important to remember that the work is staged: first one part of the molding is cut, then the other part.
Sharpening the circular saw’s wheel
Picture 5: sharpening the circular saw blade with an angle grinder
Start by securing the angle grinder with clamps, leaving the rotating part of the tool accessible. Then bring the saw blade to the sharpening wheel, making sure you do not apply too much force. The circular saw blade must run tangentially along the workpiece. Make sure to keep the sharpening plane while working.
Polishing is a complex operation of finishing workpiece. It helps to remove minor defects in the form of scuffs, chips and scratches. The surface takes on a noble shine and the product has a marketable appearance.
Cutters with indexable inserts. it is a compound metal cutting tool, containing removable operating components, fixed on the body. The products are used to form grooves, inclined surfaces and ledges. They are used to prepare holes and create complex technological cutouts.
Slot and shoulder milling involves the simultaneous machining of several surfaces in a complex operation. The operations are carried out with the use of profile milling cutters, provide preparation of technological ledges and openings for the subsequent connection of parts.
Cutter wear is a complex phenomenon that results from tool use. Wear affects cutter edge sharpness, weight, geometry and mechanical stability.
Calculation of cutting modes is carried out for mechanized and manual metal processing. According to results of calculations selects equipment, determines optimal method of work and the amount of production costs.
Professional and industrial metal cutting tools
Professional metal cutting tools are used for industrial processing of blanks.
Tools and machines for mechanical cutting
Mechanical cutting has the following advantages:
The main disadvantage is that only straight cuts can be made with the mechanical method.
- angle grinder most often used for cutting bars of small and medium diameter. Fittings, angles, and tubes of square and round cross-section are made with bolt-grinders. The method is notable for its low productivity, but the amount of waste is minimal.
Consumable material for metal processing by angle grinder. abrasive and diamond wheels.
- Circular saws. They can be used to make angled cuts. The advantages of the method are high precision and quality. Disadvantages. limited depth of cut, large amount of waste.
Photo : metal cutting with a circular saw
- Guillotines. Blanks are cut into parts using the chopping method. This method of processing is considered the most productive and cheapest, but is not intended for the manufacture of parts of complex configuration.
Photo : guillotine metal cutting
- Band saws are designed for cutting all metals and alloys. The method is distinguished by a low amount of waste. The cut edges are as flat as possible. There are restrictions on the size of blanks.
Picture : metal cutting on band saws
Abrasive waterjet cutting
Metal is cut on a special machine with a solution (water, abrasive sand), which is fed with high pressure through a narrow nozzle. Innovative technology for cutting metal up to 30 cm thick. The parts produced do not require any further processing. The metal is not deformed in this way. к. there is no thermal effect.
Photo : abrasive waterjet cutting of metal
This process is very expensive and not suitable for metals that are prone to corrosion.
Hot Cutting Technologies
- Laser. Workpieces are machined on special machines. The laser beam causes part of the metal to vaporize. The remains of the molten material are blown out by the gas mixture.
Laser cutting produces high-precision parts of any shape and configuration that require no additional processing. However, the method has disadvantages:
- Metal thickness limitation. workpieces up to 20 mm thick can be processed at laser machines;
- Expensive. the of machines and their operation are kept at a high level;
- limitation in types of metals. laser processing is not suitable for stainless steel, aluminum, and other alloys with high reflectivity.
- Gas. Workpieces are machined on special machines. Cutting technology is based on intense melting of the metal. It is produced by the directional flux of the gas-oxygen mixture.
The method is suitable for rough cutting of metals and alloys with low thermal conductivity. High temperatures cause dross and scale to build up at the work area. The resulting parts require additional machining.
- Plasma. Metal is cut with a gas mixture fed under high pressure. The material melts and burns out, and residues and dross are completely blown away.
Photo : metal plasma cutting
Plasma cutting has the following advantages:
- cost-effective. waste is kept to a minimum and the parts produced require no further processing;
- productivity. plasma cutting is 4, 8, and 10 times faster than laser, waterjet, and mechanical cutting, respectively;
- universality. the technology is suitable for any electrically conductive metal from 1 mm up to 15 cm thick.
Plasma cutting is used for both batch and individual production.
Mechanical methods of metal cutting
Despite the emergence of new technologies, mechanical methods of cutting metal with guillotines, band saws, cutting discs, hacksaws, special shears are still relevant today. Their use is justified when working with thin workpieces or limited production volumes. Most of the tools listed can be used at home, with safety precautions. Professional skill is of course required.
Oxygen cutting of thick metal
Oxygen cutting of thick metal is often mechanized by means of portable equipment, gas cutting machines. It should be understood that during such processing, acetylene is used, as well as a number of other flammable gases: natural, petroleum, hydrogen, in addition, such fuel as kerosene, gasoline is used.
The quality, efficiency and productivity of this cutting technology exceed most others, which is why it is often used in industries.
Recommended articles on metal working
- Steel grades: classification and deciphering
- Aluminium grades and applications
- Defects in metal products: causes and solutions
It is important to mention the method of processing thick materials with oxygen lance. It is necessary for cutting thick metal in metallurgical furnaces, creating holes in concrete products, etc. For this purpose, a tube made of steel with a small amount of carbon is pressed to the place of cutting by directing the gas along the tube. Let us mention that the treated area and the end of the tube are preheated with a soldering iron, and only after that the gas supply is opened. As soon as the end of the tube lights up, it comes into contact with the metal. the cutting itself proceeds by means of combustion of the tube and workpiece materials.