What Are The Saws For Woodworking

Types and characteristics of hacksaws for wood
Types of hacksaws for wood, their technical characteristics and selection rules. Hand saw for ripping and cross cutting, blade length and tooth pitch. Manufacturers of the best sawing tools.

Main parameters

The effectiveness of using a hacksaw for wood largely depends on its technical characteristics. The main ones are:

  • The material from which the saw blade is made;
  • Blade length and shape;
  • The size and shape of the tooth;
  • Type of handle.

When choosing a tool, you need to pay attention to each element of the characteristic. Only in this case you will not have to regret the purchase.

By the type of cut and purpose

Hacksaws can be designed for cross-cutting, longitudinal (swinging) or be universal. Between themselves, these types differ in the shape of the teeth.

The teeth of the saws intended for longitudinal cutting of wood have the form of an oblique triangle. The angle between them is from 45 to 60 °, which allows you to cut wood in only one direction, while ensuring a precise and even cutting line. Most often they are used in the manufacture of furniture.

Hacksaws with teeth resembling an isosceles triangle are used to cross-cut wood. Sharpening at an angle of 45-55 ° makes it possible to cut workpieces both in the forward and in the opposite direction. This saw works most effectively on dry wood.

The universal hacksaw has two types of teeth. Triangular and semicircular (while semicircular more than triangular). When the saw moves forward, the long teeth set the direction, and the wider, triangular teeth widen the cut, which allows sawdust and shavings to exit freely. The smaller the angle between these teeth, the more accurate the cut is.

Depending on the purpose, hacksaws for wood are classic, circular and spike. Classic saws are used for longitudinal or cross-cutting of wood. Circular saws for wood are designed for cutting holes. With the help of tenon saws, elements are formed for connecting individual parts.

Tooth size and shape

The size of the teeth (pitch) of the hacksaw blade directly affects the performance and accuracy of the tool. The larger the teeth, the higher the working speed, but the accuracy and quality of the cut deteriorates. On the other hand, using a fine-toothed saw guarantees a clean and even cut, but the speed is reduced.

Cutting accuracy is determined by the number of teeth per inch of blade length (TPI), that is, their density. Its value is marked on the side surface of the web (eg 7×1 ″ or 7TPI). The higher the TPI, the smaller the step. So, 2TPI = 12 mm and 12TPI = 2 mm.

When choosing a hacksaw for wood, it must be borne in mind that the minimum thickness of the workpiece must be greater than the pitch of three teeth.

When working with a hacksaw on wood, the appearance of sharpened teeth is essential. In this case, teeth are considered standard, sharpened on both sides and having the form of an acute-angled or isosceles triangle.

What types of knives are used

One of the primary cutting tools used for artistic wood carving are knives for wood carving of various designs and purposes. The following types of knives stand out:

    Cutter knife. It is considered the main tool of the carver and is used for any work. It can have different blade lengths, handle and even have different shapes. The most important difference is that the cutting angle is 35º.

Dimensions and angle of inclination of the cutter knife

  • Jamb knife. It is used in flat-relief carving and openwork for creating extended straight lines, forming an oval contour and processing side recesses. Main dimensions: cutting bevel angle. 20º, blade bevel angle. 35-60º, blade length. 35-80 mm, blade width. 6-45 mm, handle length. 90-160 mm.
  • Bogorodsky knife. Designed for sculptural carving. The length of its blade is in the range of 25-90 mm, and the width is 10-25 mm.
  • Auxiliary knives are needed for certain jobs. There are knives that allow you to make a curvilinear lapping of a volumetric relief, others are designed for dressing a slotted thread.
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    What chisels are needed when working

    Of course, the main handcrafted tools are woodcarving chisels. The most common types of chisels include the following tools:

    1. Straight type: used as an auxiliary tool.
    2. Semicircular type: the main type of chisel, which is necessary for all types of work. There are sloping, medium and round options.
    3. Cluckars. They have a curved working part, there are flat, corner and semicircular varieties.

    Glucarez carving process

  • Ceraziki. They look like a semicircular type, but are designed for cutting thin grooves. For this, the width of the blade is 2-3 mm.
  • Surface gages or corner chisels. They are used for cutting V-groove and contour cutting. Such cutters for wood carving have an angle between the working cutting knives of 55-75º.
  • The grader has a mushroom handle and a 15 ° bend angle. The tool is designed for making various grooves.
  • This is how graders of various sizes look for wood carving

  • Rivets: the working edge is sharpened in the form of a sword or leaf, and is used to process the main background in areas where other chisels do not pass.
  • Marigold is a kind of chisel-rivet with a sharpening in the form of a nail; it is used for processing in hard-to-reach places, as well as for staple threads.
  • How to use the tool

    When performing wood carving, the following work is carried out: drilling, sawing, cutting and gouging. To create a quality product, it is impossible to do without measuring tools.

    The nature of the work determines the choice of the required tool. Historically, the best examples are made with hand tools, but the current trend towards mechanization and automation of labor has not been applied to this area of ​​activity either.

    A set of all kinds of cutters for wood carving

    There are a number of machines, mini-drills (drills), hand-held thread mills, jigsaws, grinders, etc. On sale. Certain products can be made in general in automatic mode using copy-milling devices (pantograph).

    Tool specifications

    The saw is rightfully considered the ancestor of a large family of hand tools. Since the creation of the first type of tool from iron, the saw has undergone many changes, having managed to acquire numerous “sisters” capable of performing dozens of jobs.

    In the household, it is impossible to do without “toothy helpers”: they are irreplaceable when pruning a garden, small carpentry and joinery

    Hand saws for wood differ in many ways: blade size, steel grade, tooth shape, handle design. Let’s dwell on each parameter in more detail.

    Option # 1. Narrow

    The small, narrow saw is a structure that consists of a straight flat blade and a handle. She performs delicate work: through cuts, cut out curved parts.

    This type of tool is designed for sawing wood blanks, the thickness of which does not exceed 8-10 cm, sawing small branches and small works in the garden

    In the manufacture of narrow models, manufacturers install blades with triangular double-sided teeth, or with parallel sharpening. The disadvantage of the tool is that when pressed during operation, the blade is able to deviate from a given direction.

    Parameters of teeth on the blade

    The determining indicator of the productivity of the tool and the accuracy of cutting wood is the size of the teeth.

    The teeth of a hacksaw for woodworking have a double function: they cut the wood and at the same time remove the sawdust

    Cutting accuracy is determined by the TPI, the number of teeth per inch.

    There is an inverse relationship between these technical parameters:

    • Blades with large teeth set a high speed of work, but the saw cut is rough and sloppy;
    • Fine-toothed hacksaws guarantee a clean and precise cut, but at a relatively low speed.

    When determining the required size of the teeth, one should be guided by the type of material being processed. For example, for work with chipboards, where high cutting accuracy is required, choose a tool with a high TPI 7-9, and for sawing logs and work in the garden, where the cleanliness of the cut is not so important. Tpi 3-6.

    When choosing the optimal hacksaw option, be guided by the rule that the minimum log thickness should in any case be greater than the pitch of three teeth

    If we compare a hardened and an ordinary tooth, then the difference is that in the first version, subject to domestic use, the product does not dull for a long time. But a hacksaw with a hardened tooth cannot be re-sharpened. When it starts to cut badly, you just have to throw it away.

    A regular tooth lends itself to sharpening. It can be periodically performed using a special file marked with an accident (for sharpening saws). To sharpen the blade, it is enough to perform several movements on each tooth.

    Depending on the type of teeth used, there are three types of hacksaws:

    1. For rip sawing. The products are equipped with teeth in the form of an oblique triangle and look like hooks. The tool allows you to cut wood along the grain. Such saws are sharpened on both sides of the tooth, due to which they are able to cut both when going forward and in the opposite direction.
    2. For cross cutting. The tool teeth are made in the form of isosceles triangles. This design makes it easy to cut the material both when the cutting edge is carried forward and backward. But this type of tooth is only suitable for working with dry pieces, not fresh wood.
    3. For mixed sawing. The products have a combined composition, in which triangular edges are combined with slightly elongated semicircular notches. This solution allows, when the hand moves forward, the semicircular teeth make a guiding cut, and when returning, it expands the channel in triangular shape, removing chips and sawdust from it.

    Some types of modern tools are equipped with teeth that are trapezoidal. This solution allows you to make the blade more durable and wear-resistant.

    But it should be borne in mind that sharpening such a blade is very problematic, since it is difficult for trapezoidal teeth to give the desired shape. This significantly reduces the service life of the product, after which it is necessary to change the blade or purchase a new tool.

    For cutting fresh branches, it is more convenient to use blades equipped with triangular teeth, processed with parallel sharpening, in which each element is sharpened only on one side and in a staggered manner

    Often on the market you can find a modernized type of hacksaws.

    Upgraded hacksaws can be easily distinguished by groups of teeth located on the blade, between which the gaps are clearly visible

    Upgraded hand saws are effective for cutting raw wood. Wet chips through the gaps between the teeth in the process of cutting easily come out of the cut without hindering the movement of the tool.