How to cut concrete at home

How and what to cut concrete?

Cutting concrete is an operation that is widely used at all stages of construction and repair work. Various equipment for cutting concrete is used depending on the features of the structures, the age of the material and the working conditions. The variety of tools allows you to quickly solve any task of cutting concrete, including when you need precise, neat curly cutouts and you need to minimize the amount of dust and debris.

Wall saws

The wall saw performs precise cutting of concrete walls, blocks in all planes, both in the air and under water. It has a low noise level and high performance. Such a cutter makes a cut up to 0.9 m deep. Its design is based on a robust frame, on which a transmission and a segmented cutting disc are mounted. The equipment runs along a guide rail (mounted on a wall) and has a stepless speed controller. Waste material and excess heat are removed from the disc by running water supplied at a rate of 10 l / min. A device can also be installed that sucks in and removes used water from the cutting area. Electric models operate on a three-phase network, in powerful equipment they use oil stations connected to hydraulics.

Seam cutters

A seam cutter is usually used to make horizontal cuts in concrete (roads, runways, etc.). The cutting depth can be up to 60 cm. The structure consists of a supporting frame and a drive unit connected via a belt drive to the cutting tool, which has the function of adjusting the cutting depth. The wet cutting technology is implemented by supplying water from a reservoir to the place of work, however, there are modifications without it. The electric cutter can be manual or self-propelled. The latter (it uses a gasoline drive) is much more powerful, it is used in conditions of high humidity and in the absence of electric lines. Self-propelled diesel equipment is the largest and is designed for long-term continuous use. The power of the devices and the rotation speed of the diamond discs allow cutting both unreinforced and reinforced material.

Hand tools

There is equipment that allows you to cut concrete with your own hands. Angle grinders help in dry and wet cutting, which implies the use of appropriate types and modifications of discs (turbo diamond, endless, segmented) with a diameter of 0.2. 0.8 m. Such a tool requires water (air) cooling. For cutting to a depth of over 0.1 and up to 0.16 meters, an electric, pneumatic or hydraulic cutter is already needed. a circular saw. The cutter can be petrol driven, which makes it more powerful but generates exhaust fumes. The greatest productivity and durability is possessed by hydraulic equipment. With a weight of about 8 kg, it makes cuts up to 26 cm deep. Instrumental preparation of holes is carried out with perforators using a diamond core bit. With similar powerful tools, they drill holes with their own hands up to 45 cm in diameter (with a carbide crown). You can also cut off fragments of walls with a chainsaw on concrete. It will provide a filigree cut of the desired shape. The hand saw has a water-cooled cutter that is formed by a metal chain (diamond). This saw is effectively used when working with unreinforced or weakly reinforced material. The drive, providing a cutting depth of up to 50 cm, can be with a gasoline engine or powered from the mains.

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Laser equipment

Laser cutting of concrete has recently become available. Such a tool for cutting concrete allows you to cut, cut, cut an array of partitions and walls up to 70 mm thick. Powerful gas-discharge CO2 lasers in mobile (portable) design are already in use, the deployment time is tens of minutes. The power of the devices is from 0.1 to 45 kW. The seams are 0.05. 1 mm wide at a laser head speed of up to 1 meter per minute. Laser technology is beneficial for the ability to economically form complex cuts of absolutely any shape with minimal errors, including in hard-to-reach places. The seams have an ideal surface, the laser does not deform wall structures (local high-temperature action), does not create noise, has several operating modes.

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Tool types and characteristics

The required efficiency is achieved by using diamond cutting technology. High-quality cutting is also carried out by lasers that have become available. Rail, mobile, portable and stationary tools belong to the types of equipment in which diamond is cut. This equipment has electric, gasoline, diesel, pneumatic and hydraulic drives. Its working parts have various designs, diameters and types, however, the coating of various durability includes diamonds. The depth of cut, the strength of the concrete and the presence of reinforcement in a particular structure will determine whether a manual technique will be used or a more powerful machine is needed. The resistance of the material heats up the cutting (drilling) parts, so they need to be cooled with water and air. A crumb of diamonds is attached to the cutting surface of the discs by soldering (for wet cutting) and laser welding it to the surface (for dry cutting).

Wire cutting

Cutting of large-sized walls and structures is also done with the help of equipment, the active element of which is a rope with evenly distributed segments of diamond grains. Such a tool can cover up to 10 m2 of the area of ​​the future cut. The product includes a power unit, a cutting metal cable, a pulley (creates movement) and deflection rollers (forms a cut). The unit’s drive is powered by a three-phase network or is hydraulic. Before starting work, a hole of the required diameter is drilled in the structure, a rope is pulled into it. A closed loop of cable joins the pulley. The supplied water removes waste material from the work area and cools the tool.

Hand tools

In household processing, hand tools are most often used to cut concrete. As a rule, craftsmen adapt a conventional angle grinder (angle grinder) to solve the problem. In order for the tool to give the expected effect, it is necessary to use attachments capable of disrupting the structure of a solid stone:

  • Diamond cutting discs;
  • Rough diamond discs;
  • Grinding and Polishing Wheels.

The best and most effective option is to use diamond blades for cutting concrete. Their hardness is higher than that of stone, so they give good results with minimal wear compared to grinding and roughing wheels. Coarse and fine spraying of artificial diamond is applied to the discs, the fraction is selected taking into account the hardness of the stone, and the diameter of the disc is according to the size of the casing of the electric tool.

The basic rule for choosing discs for cutting concrete with an angle grinder is that the denser the concrete, the finer the diamond fraction. When cutting reinforced concrete by hand, it is necessary to use discs without holes. they can cling to the frame reinforcement and injure the master.

Some craftsmen use chainsaws, hydraulic tools. This method is more suitable for young concrete in thin structures, since the metal wears out rather quickly during the cutting process.

  • Maneuverability of work;
  • The tool is usually in the arsenal of craftsmen;
  • Diamond discs are inexpensive.
  • Labor intensity. The employee gets tired quickly;
  • Accuracy of cutting in large areas is extremely difficult to maintain;
  • It takes a lot of time to cut.

Machine method

For cutting openings in concrete under conditions of renovation of a residential building or reconstruction of a production facility, where the wall thickness is significant, it is advisable to use a more efficient technique than an angle grinder. For these purposes, there are several types of equipment that are used in different situations.

Concrete cutting

It happens that reinforced concrete structures need to be cut:

  • To create and expand window and door openings;
  • For changing the layout, dismantling;
  • For the installation of sockets and built-in switches;
  • For laying wires and cables;
  • In construction during the repair of bridges, overpasses and other complex structures.

How and with what to cut reinforced concrete? Today, there are different techniques and tools for processing durable stone with a built-in metal frame, which we will talk about further.

Wall saw

Its main application lies in the name. it is designed for cutting thick walls when creating and expanding openings for windows and doors, for separating volumetric structures, for deep grooving.

A wall saw is similar to an angle grinder, only oversized. Its body is equipped with a holder that attaches to the wall rails. Thus, during operation, the equipment moves along one axis, making deeper and deeper cuts. Sawing is carried out with large discs with diamond chips, the diameter of the circles is more than 25 cm.

  • Dust-free concrete cutting. When the disc rotates, water enters the working area, which prevents dust from scattering and the disc to overheat;
  • High power and speed of work;
  • Relatively low noise level;
  • Low vibration;
  • Reliable fastening of the mechanism to the guide rail ensures high precision and geometry of work.
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The disadvantage is the high cost of the equipment. For single use, it is advisable to rent a car.

Wire rope cutting

To cut a piece from a small reinforced concrete structure, such as a beam, slab, or column, wire rope cutting is ideal. The essence of the method lies in the use of a rubberized cable with cutting “beads”, fixed by the ends in a twisting device. The cable itself is pulled over the stone being processed and pulled well. The wire saw must be fixed to a structure or rigid base. The stone product, accordingly, must also be completely motionless.

concrete, home

When the cable is running, water is supplied to the cut, which eliminates overheating of the cutter and the formation of a dust cloud.

The principle of operation of the mechanism is clearly presented in

  • The quietest instrument;
  • High cutting speed;
  • Surface contour accuracy.

Disadvantage. a technologically complex process of installing and fixing equipment and structure.

Seam cutter

The seam saw is designed for cutting road surfaces:

  • For the organization of expansion joints in concrete screeds;
  • When building roads and sidewalks;
  • For sawing holes in slabs between floors.

It is based on diamond cutting of concrete with abrasive discs. They are fixed in the lower part of the machine body, equipped with handles and control levers. Operation requires the participation of the operator. the mechanism must be moved manually.

  • The equipment is capable of cutting through the thickest layers of reinforced concrete with reinforcement.
  • Minimal vibration does not harm the surface of the remaining floor area or roadbed.

Minus. the high cost of equipment, the need for the skill of the master.

Tool selection factors

You cannot do without the use of a special sawing tool. When choosing it, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors:

  • The location of the structure and its dimensions. For thick walls and concrete floor screed, different tools will be used even with the same properties and composition of the stone.
  • The composition matters: the harder the filler, the more difficult the cutting. As a coarse aggregate, granite crushed stone can be used. one of the hardest, or crumbs of softer stones. The quality and size of the sand should be assessed. the finer it is, the denser the concrete. Large unwashed creates a looser stone structure.
  • Age and condition of structures. A feature of concrete is its strength gain over the years. The cement, which makes up the bulk of the composition, only adds strength when absorbing moisture. In combination with fine sands, this stone becomes very hard. However, dilapidated structures, which are exposed to chemical environments, lose their former strength and hardness.

Based on the assessment of the state and composition of the structure, you can start choosing equipment for cutting concrete.

How to cut concrete?

An angle grinder will act as a tool for cutting concrete.

Before starting work, you need to take care of your own safety. Be sure to use a respirator that will prevent dust from entering your lungs, do not forget about special glasses and clothing with protective inserts. The most commonly used cutting of concrete without dust, in which a stream of water is directed to the blade, which ensures a continuous process, significantly reduces the amount of dust, improves work efficiency, and maintains the sharpness of the blade for a long time. But in some cases, wet cutting is contraindicated, for example, when a large amount of water can damage the tool or there is no running water nearby.

Dry cutting technology is significantly different from wet cutting. During operation, the blade should not heat up, for this reason it is necessary to give the tool a rest: the disc is removed from the cut, allowed to rotate at free speed for 1-2 minutes or turn off the saw. If it is necessary to make a deep cut, then the work is carried out in several stages. The first step is to mark the cutting line with chalk on the floor, along which wooden guides are installed. This will ensure a straight cut and smooth movement of the tool.

First, a shallow cut of 0.5-1 cm is made, the tool is allowed to rest, then the surface is cut again, etc.

Use a wall saw to make vertical cuts in concrete.

Cutting Concrete with a Circular Saw

The operation is repeated until the desired result is achieved.

If it is required to cut a vertical concrete surface, then a special wall saw with a diamond disc is used for this purpose, which has a low noise level and high productivity. A special hydraulic conduit is connected to the tool, which provides an inflow of water to the blade, as well as a vacuum cleaner with a nozzle, which provides dust extraction. If it is necessary to make an opening in the wall, then the work is performed as follows: first, the marking is done with chalk, after which several control holes are drilled in the concrete (in the corners), from which the cut is made first horizontally, then vertically.

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Concrete cutting and drilling technology

Cutting of concrete is carried out during various construction works, depending on this, the appropriate tool is selected.

When carrying out repairs, it is often necessary to cut concrete, for example, for communications.

Cutting can be performed for laying a cable, in order to remove a window opening (for combining with a loggia), if you need to dismantle any part of the concrete structure when redeveloping a room. The cutting technology itself is not very difficult, but it requires certain knowledge and skills, as well as physical strength.

How to cut concrete?

At home, an angle grinder (angle grinder) with diamond discs is most often used for cutting concrete. But, before starting work, it is necessary to determine the quality of the concrete coating, since the choice of tools will depend on this. Old concrete is much harder than recently laid, therefore, diamond discs “Turbo”, which have a wave body, are used for cutting it, which do an excellent job not only with this task, but also without any problems cutting metal reinforcement, which is often present in a cement screed.

It is customary to use diamond discs for cutting concrete.

The composition of concrete contains various fillers that give the surface a certain type of strength. So, river sand is considered harder than sand extracted from rocks; when cutting quartz and basalt, diamond nozzles can become dull, so you need to stock up on replaceable ones. If a coarse filler is present in the concrete screed, for example, gravel, then diamond wheels with a soft bond of segments are used for cutting, and the speed of the angle grinder is also reduced. The power of the selected tool is important: the higher it is, the better and stronger the nozzle should be. For powerful angle grinders, a disc with a larger m of diamonds and a higher bond of segments is selected, otherwise the blade can quickly become dull.

Diamond blades made by laser welding of segments are considered to be the strongest and most productive, they are mainly used for dry cutting. Dust-free (wet) cutting of concrete involves the use of discs with brazed segments containing silver solder. When choosing a nozzle for a certain type of work, you need to pay attention to its diameter and the size of the hole for fastening, they must correspond to the technical characteristics of the tool that will be used to cut the concrete pavement.

How to drill concrete?

To drill holes in concrete, a perforator with a special drill is often used. This tool has its advantages and disadvantages. With its help, you can drill only small holes from 3 to 5 cm in diameter, which is clearly not enough if you need to pave a path to release ventilation pipes.

concrete, home

If it is necessary to drill a deep hole, and there is reinforcement in the concrete surface, then, bumping into such an obstacle, the tool may burn out.

For drilling holes from 5 to 45 cm, a powerful perforator with a carbide crown is used. On a low-power instrument, crowns with a diameter of up to 25 cm can be used. Experts do not recommend using adapters in order to install a crown from a powerful perforator to a low-power one, as this will disable the instrument. In addition, it is not safe to work with such a tool.

A victorious crown can only cope with thin reinforcement, if during drilling it stumbles upon a thick metal lattice, then its teeth will certainly break off. If you need to drill a through or deep hole, then first use a victorious crown, then use a lance, then take a crown again, etc. If necessary, install a special extension cord on the tool.

The diamond drill is the best tool for drilling in concrete, with its help you can get holes of any diameter and different depths. Due to the presence of water cooling, practically no dust is generated during operation. A diamond core bit easily handles reinforcement, which is important. This drill has a tubular design that allows you to drill very deep holes. Using the recommendations of experts, you can easily perform cutting and drilling of concrete with your own hands.